Educated but Underpaid

Report
Educated but Underpaid
Uwe Beltz, J.D., M.S.L.S.
Elizabeth Caulfield, J.D., M.L.I.S.
SWALL Annual Meeting, San Antonio
March 30th, 2012
1
I can interview you, but...
2
“...fewer than 20% of the law
librarian positions being filled
require both degrees.”
AALL, Education Requirements, http://www.aallnet.org/mainmenu/Careers/lawlibrarycareers/Education-Requirements
3
But a study of law-lib job
advertisements shows that about
69% of the academic law library ads
from 1991 – Jan. 2011 either prefer
or require both the MLS and JD
Study by Chuck Marcus, Faculty Services Librarian, UC Hastings College of the
Law Library, on file with presenter
4
2011
5
2009
6
How did the expectation that the
law librarian would have a J.D.
develop?
7
Are law librarians bonded
to the legal profession or
serving in bondage?
See Christine Brock, Law Libraries and Librarians: A
Revisionist History; or More Than You Ever Wanted to Know,
67 Law Libr. J. 325 (1974).
8
Our history
1906 - New York State Library School – lectures on law books/organization
of law libraries
1910-1926 - New York State Library School – formal program for those
who had studied law
1935 – AALL Executive Board: legal education = “essential”; library
education = “desirable”
1937-1961 – Columbia School of Library Service – legal bibliography (no
formal legal training necessary) (for six weeks during alternate summers)
1937 – AALS recommended that by 1940, member schools have “qualified
librarian” devoted to library service (rather than rotating clerks/students)
1939 – University of Washington – masters in law librarianship – must have
J.D.) (program initially led to Bachelor’s)
9
Our history
1952 – AALS: the law librarian should “have a sound knowledge of the
practical problems of a law school library, or a legal education, and
preferably both.” AALS also recommends faculty status.
1953 AALL meeting – suggestion of 1 yr. library sch., 1 yr. law sch., and 1
yr. of electives from both – rejected!
1958-1962 – several universities instituted library programs or courses
with emphasis on law librarianship (UNC, Case Western, U of Ill, Drexel)
1964 – AALL rotating institutes for librarians with little formal training
1965 – AALL certification program, ended in 1983 b/c of potential conflict
with AALL’s tax-exempt status
1971 – AALS required that member schools’ librarian be dual-degreed
10
Head academic law librarians
Historical Picture
Survey and Report of
the Committee on
Education for Law
Librarianship, 29 Law
Libr. J. 198 (1936).
Miles O. Price, The
Law School
Librarian’s
Educational
Qualifications: A
Statistical Study, 10 J.
Legal Ed. 222 (19571958).
Dual degreed
70%
60%
50%
40%
Dual degreed
30%
20%
10%
0%
1936
All law
libraries
of 10K+
5%
1957
25%
1962
29%
1974
59%
Connie E. Bolden,
Educational and
Experience
Backgrounds of
College and
University Law
Librarians, 57 Law
Libr. J. 58 (1964).
James F. Bailey and
Mathew F. Dee, Law
School Librarians:
Survey Relating to
Autonomy and Faculty
Status, 67 Law Libr. J.
3 (1974).
11
Academic law librarians
AALL, The AALL
Biennial Salary Survey,
1999.
Dual Degreed
60%
AALL, The AALL
Biennial Salary Survey
& Organizational
Characteristics, 2011.
50%
40%
30%
Academic Libraries
20%
10%
0%
1999
30.3%
406 of 1338 academic
law librarians responding
to the survey were
dual-degreed
2011
55.1%
552 of ____ academic law
librarians responding to
the survey were
dual-degreed
12
Historical attitudes about legal
subject specialization and the
J.D.
13
Current state of law librarianship
14
“Current” attitudes about legal
subject specialization and the
J.D.
15
1988 – AALL drafted Guidelines for Graduate Programs in Law Librarianship
16
1988 – AALL drafted Guidelines for Graduate Programs in Law Librarianship
17
Current Educational Requirements for law librarianship per AALL
18
These Educational Requirements correspond to the 1988 Guidelines
19
These Educational Requirements correspond to the 1988 Guidelines
“So, to qualify for almost any professional position in
a law library, you must have an MLS or its equivalent.
You may want to consider also earning a law degree.
Armed with both JD and MLS degrees, you will be
qualified for additional professional positions in law
librarianship.”
http://www.aallnet.org/main-menu/Careers/lawlibrarycareers/Education-Requirements
20
AALL Core Competencies (revised April 2010)
21
What are these guidelines,
requirements, and competencies
missing?
Formal educational requirements
22
Can legal subject knowledge come
from library education?
23
ALA list of 58 schools with ALA-Accredited programs
24
5 programs offer three or more classes in law l’ship
7 programs offer two classes in law l’ship
27 programs offer one class in law l’ship
So 39/58 or 67% offer at least
one class
But 33% offer no classes and
about 1/2 offer only one class
25
Alternatives to the J.D.
26
Alternatives to the J.D. - Library Master’s programs
University of Denver: MLIS with Law Librarianship Specialization
27
Alternatives to the J.D. - Library Master’s programs
University North Texas: Law Librarian and Legal Informatics Specialist
28
Alternatives to the J.D. – Certificate of Advanced
Study in Law Librarianship at University of Denver
29
Alternatives to the J.D. – Master of Legal Studies
University of Nebraska College of Law
Legal R & W
and either:
Contracts,
Property, or
Torts
33 credit hrs
+ oral exam
30
Alternatives to the J.D. – Master of Legal Studies
Arizona State University Sandra Day O’Connor College of Law
U.S. Law and
Legal Analysis;
and
Professional
Legal Writing
and at least
two:
Con Law
Contracts,
Criminal Law
Property, or
Torts
30 credit hrs
31
Alternatives to the J.D. – Master of Legal Studies
West Virginia University Division of Public Administration
• Law & the
Legal System
• Researching
the Law
• Law & Society
• Administrative
Legal
Process
• The Legislative
Process
• ADR
• Research
Capstone
36 credit hrs
32
Why should law librarians care about establishing
educational requirements for their profession?
Money – it’s a matter of equity
Establish law librarianship as a real profession
R. Tawney, in The Acquisitive Society
(quoted by Christine Brock in
1974’s Law Libraries and Librarians: A Revisionist History; or More Than You
Ever Wanted to Know):
“The essence of a profession is that it assumes certain
responsibilities for the competence of its members.”
Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes,
(quoted by Julius Marke in 1957’s The
Education of a Law Librarian – A Panel):
“Every calling is great when greatly pursued.”
33
Changes in Society/Changes in Profession
•
•
•
•
•
•
More people attending college
Increasing level of educational requirements
More technology (and its impact)
Fewer questions – more in-depth questions
More inter/multi-disciplinarian
Change in the nature of (law) librarianship
Tenure Related Concerns
• Tensions
– JD vs Not
– Tenure vs Not
– Performance vs Scholarship
– Standards
– Teaching or not
From: Carol Parker, The Need for Faculty Status and Uniform Tenure
Requirements for Law Librarians 103:1 Law Libr. J. 7 (2011)
From: Carol Parker, The Need for Faculty Status and Uniform Tenure
Requirements for Law Librarians 103:1 Law Libr. J. 7 (2011)
From: Carol Parker, The Need for Faculty Status and Uniform Tenure
Requirements for Law Librarians 103:1 Law Libr. J. 7 (2011)
Impact of Tenure on Salary: Does it
impact Salary?
$70,000
$65,000
$60,000
Yes - Tenure
$55,000
No - Tenure
$50,000
$45,000
$40,000
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
Impact of Teaching on Salary
$70,000
$65,000
$60,000
Yes - Teaching
$55,000
No - Teaching
$50,000
$45,000
$40,000
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
Other Professionals
Number of postings where
JD required is increasing
80.0%
70.0%
60.0%
50.0%
Each Year's %age
40.0%
Cummulative %age
30.0%
20.0%
10.0%
0.0%
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Totals (all Dual Degree – vs – All Others)
$64,000
$62,000
$60,000
$58,000
$56,000
$54,000
Total -Both
$52,000
Total -Other
$50,000
$48,000
$46,000
$44,000
$42,000
$40,000
1999
2001
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
Totals (less than 2 years experience
Dual Degree – vs – All Others)
$60,000
$50,000
$40,000
Ref-Both <2
$30,000
Ref-Other <2
$20,000
$10,000
$0
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
Embracing Today, Innovating for Tomorrow!
•
•
•
•
•
•
Continuing education
Look for service opportunities
Keep doing well what you do well already
Avoid becoming obsolete
Become an advocate for law librarianship
Work within regional/national professional
organizations….
• Organize/Unionize?
• Keep a balance
Questions? / Discussion! / Suggestions
• Uwe Beltz, J.D., M.S.L.S.
– [email protected] or 806-742-3990 – ext. 286
• Elizabeth Caulfield, J.D., M.L.I.S.
– [email protected] or 806-742-3990 – ext. 311

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