Systematic Implications of DNA variation in subfamily Opuntioideae

Report
The ANITA grade and the
Magnoliid Complex
Spring 2013
Major Angiosperm Clades
Amborellaceae
Nymphaeales
ANITA
GRADE
Austrobaileyales
MAGNOLIID
COMPLEX
MONOCOTS
Soltis et al. 2000,
APG II 2002,
Judd et al. 2002
EUDICOTS
[TRICOLPATES]
Angiosperm Evolution:
Pollen
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Basic division in distinguishing angiosperms is NOT
monocot versus dicot!!
Basic distinction is the number of pores or sulcae
(grooves) in the pollen grains.
Trends in pollen evolution clearly show a shift from
uni-aperturate pollen found in gymnosperms and the
“basal” angiosperms and monocots to tri-aperturate
pollen found in the eudicots.
Plesiomorphic condition in angiosperms is uniaperturate.
Fossil record is quite good to document this
transformation in pollen type.
Fig. 7.1
monoaperturate pollen
(one pore or groove)
Pollen Types
Fig. 7.1
“Basal” Angiosperms:
Amborellaceae (Amborella Family)
Amborella trichopoda
Fig. 7.1
“Basal” Angiosperms:
Nymphaeaceae
(Water Lily Family)
• Widespread, tropics to temperate regions
• Aquatic rhizomatous herbs, sap milky
• Ca. 70 species; 5-6 genera
• Flowers: many parts; laminar stamens;
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floating; colorful perianth; beetle pollination
syndrome
Special uses: ornamentals
Required family
“Basal” Angiosperms:
Nymphaeaceae
(Water Lily Family)
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Widespread, tropics to temperate regions
Aquatic herbs with floating leaves, often with milky
sap (latex)
Number of species: ca. 70 species; 5-6 genera
Flowers: floating; many parts; colorful perianth
laminar stamens; gynoecium syncarpous with 3many carpels
Significant features: beetle pollination syndrome
Special uses: ornamentals, edible rhizomes and
seeds
Required family
“Basal” Angiosperms:
Nymphaeaceae (Water-lily Family)
•numerous petals, stamens, carpels
•laminar stamens
•pollen monosulcate
•stigma discoid, radiating
•berry-like fruit, dehiscent
•perisperm (from the sporophyte)
•usually lack vessels (or have tracheidlike vessels)
Nymphaea odorata – Water Lily
Beetle pollination syndrome
• Flowers often green or white
• Flowers with various but strong
scents
• Can open during the day or night
• Flowers open or enclosed
• Nectar and/or pollen reward
• See Ch. 13 in Simpson
Beetle pollination in water lilies:
http://vimeo.com/41976231
Double flowering to avoid selfing:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2S5c1s5mPA
Nymphaea tuberosa
Water Lily
Nuphar
Water Lily
Victoria amazonica – Giant Water Lily
Major Angiosperm Clades
Amborellaceae
Nymphaeales
ANITA
GRADE
Austrobaileyales
MAGNOLIID
COMPLEX
MONOCOTS
Soltis et al. 2000,
APG II 2002,
Judd et al. 2002
EUDICOTS
[TRICOLPATES]
Fig. 7.1
Magnoliid characters
“Magnocots”
•2-ranked leaves, paracytic stomates
•Perianth generally 3-merous
•Stamens and carpels: distinct,
numerous, spirally arranged
•Boat-shaped, monosulcate pollen
•Superior ovary
•Seeds with fleshy seed coat/aril in many;
minute embryo, copious endosperm
•Many anatomical characters (esp. wood)
Magnoliids—Magnoliales:
Magnoliaceae
(The Magnolia Family)
• Temperate to tropical regions of eastern
North America; east Asia, South America
• Trees or shrubs with simple leaves
• Number of species: 2 or 7 genera, 200
species
• Flowers: apocarpous; anthers laminar,
many; receptacle elongated
• Significant features: Aromatic; fruit an
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aggregate of follicles in Magnolia or winged
samaras in Liriodendron
Special uses: ornamentals; timber
Required family
Magnoliaceae
•woody
plant
•solitary
flower
•simple
leaves
•stipules
•many
spirally
arranged
parts
Magnolia virginiana
sweetbay
•elongate
receptacle
•separate
carpels
•laminar
stamens
•aggregate
of follicles
Magnolia X soulangeana
Magnolia
Dispersal mechanism?
Liriodendron tulipifera
Tulip Poplar Tree
Other Magnoliid families of
interest (but not required)
• Lauraceae (the laurel or bay family)
• Piperaceae (the pepper family)
• Aristolochiaceae (the birthwort family)
Magnoliids—Laurales:
Lauraceae
(Laurel or Bay Family)
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Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions; SE
Asia & northern South America
Trees, shrubs, vines.
Diversity: 2,200 species, 45 genera
Flowers: concave receptacle that often enlarges in
fruit; anthers dehiscing via pores with flaps; sticky
pollen; pollen without apertures; carpel 1; embryo
large, endosperm lacking.
Significant features: ethereal oils
Special uses: cinnamon (Cinnamomum) and bay
(Laurus nobilis) used as spices; avocado (Persea)
Family not required
Lauraceae Sassafras albidum
-original source of root beer flavor
-ground leaves→ filé powder
Lauraceae
Economic plants and products:
Cinnamomum zeylandicum
True cinnamon
Bird dispersal and
ecological role of
Lauraceae
Magnoliids—Piperales:
Piperaceae
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Widely distributed in tropical and subtropical
regions.
Primarily herbs; sometimes epiphytic; small trees
Diversity: 3,600 species, 5 genera
Flowers: minute, densely packed in a thick spike or
spadix; no perianth (!); carpels 1-4, connate, with 1
ovule per gynoecium, basal placentation; fruit
usually a drupe.
Significant features: stem with bundles in >1 ring or
+ scattered
Special uses: Piper nigrum (black pepper); Piper
betle (betel pepper), ornamentals (Peperomia)
Family not required
Piperaceae - Peperomia
Peperomia leaves
Piper nigrum – Black pepper
Magnoliids—Piperales:
Aristolochiaceae
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(Dutchman’s Pipe or Birthwort Family)
Widespread in tropical and subtropical regions;
absent in Australia.
Lianas or herbs, occasionally shrubs
Diversity: ca. 460 species, 7 genera
Flowers: Highly modified, showy, fused sepals,
radial or bilateral, tubular, and S-shaped or pipe
shaped calyx tube; corolla usually lacking or
vestigial; ovary inferior or half-inferior, of 3-6
connate carpels; ovules numerous; filaments more
or less adnate to style.
Significant features: “dead meat” carrion coloration
attracts insects, usually flies. Trap-flowers.
Special uses: ornamentals; some medicinal uses.
Family not required
Asarum (wild ginger)
-perennial with aromatic rhizomes
-flowers actinomorphic
-ovary inferior
-fruit a fleshy capsule, seeds large
& with elaiosomes, ant-dispersed
Aristolochia (Dutchman’s pipe)
Trap flowers
On to the
monocots…
...clearly monophyletic…superbly apomorphic! ! !

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