on agricultural production systems in Mgeta, Mvomero district

Report
Agricultural production systems in
Mgeta, Mvomero District of Tanzania
Nziku, Z.C.; Asheim, L.J.; Mwaseba, D. ;
EIK, L.O. and Kifaro, G.
SUA/Noragric/NILF
Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
SYNOPSIS
Intro: Mgeta and study justification
Challenges and questions
Objective
Methods
Mapping production systems in Mgeta
Conclusion and further work
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Introduction: About Mgeta
Located on the western side of the Uluguru
mountains, 60km from Morogoro town
High altitude 1100-1900m with relatively
cool weather
Rain: Sept.-May-270d, dry:Jun.-Aug.95d
About 84% of work force depend on small
farming
Agriculture is largely market driven
A wide range of horticultural crops and
fruits
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Introduction: Mgeta agric..
Manual field work in very steep slopes
Vegetables - livestock integration (25yrs for
DGTs)
Adapted to rain and dry season cycles
NDGTs & crosses-predominant breed
Local goats are mainly for upgrading
>1500 NDGTs and crosses in 2003
(Tchenzema and Nyandira)
Some pigs and poultry also common
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Intro. Study justification
No possibility for land expansion due to:
Water catchment area for Morogoro and
other lowland areas
Important forest reserve area
Steep slopes require investments
Risk of erosion in steep slopes
Need for more permanent vegetation
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Challenges
o
o
o
o
o
Climate change awareness,
increased population,
intensive production systems,
competition for water with other areas,
poverty and malnutrition.
All these might work together in Mgeta!
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Questions and objective
How to cope with the present situation in
the best possible way?
Can integrated dairy goat systems become
viable economically and environmentally?
This study aimed at developing a model of
such integrated systems
We start by a questionnary to farmers
regarding economic and environmental
constraints
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NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
Methods: Study area map
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Methods
Purposive sampling technique used
A structured questionnaire developed and used
GPS was used to find plot size
Amount and cost of crop input and output
according to plot and season quantified
Revenue from harvest by plot season investigated
Mineral fertilizer, manure and spray use counted
Working h for each crop estimated
Working h livestock management estimated
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Methods
Multipurpose trees, crop residue use
enumerated
Animal feeding design, inputs, h required,
outputs (milk, live animals and meat)
quantified
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Results: Plot characteristics
Common with > two plots, 0.5 acres
Walking time is 0.20, 0.23 and 1.16 h to
the 1st, 2nd and 3rd plots
Hand hoe used in field work
The MPPT are mainly found around home
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Mapping Crop production
In addition to mixed cropping, farmers keep
NDGTs, pigs and poultry
Some traditional irrigation is taking place
Intercropping common e.g. beans & maize
Only 32% of the respondent use crop residues for
livestock
Use of inputs per plot (0.5acre) per season
370kg manure
20kg mineral fertilizers
1.12kg spray
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Mapping Crop input, cost & harvest
Amount of crop seeds (kg) per 0.5 acre
Maize
Rain
Dry
7
4
Beans
13
9
G.peas
Cabbage
Tomatoes
9
9
0.04
0.03
0.07
0.05
Potatoes
223
185
Others
83
43
Cost of inputs (TSH) per 0.5 acre
Maize Beans G. peas Cabbage Tomatoes Potatoes Others Manure Fertilizer Spray
Labour
Irrigation Terracing
Rain
9726 23871 36133 38633
36040
73750
9500 21667 27118 23575
26228
500
500
Dry
3875 18503 24378 45000
24883
20275 24833 21667 36516 21673
31819
1000
500
Crop yields (kg) per 0.5 acre
Maize
Beans
G. peas
Cabbage
Tomatoes
Potatoes
Others
Rain
209
166
422
2148
1759
1939
56
Dry
335
196
213
960
2096
3625
36
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Mapping Livestock production:
Av. head size: 5, 4 & 3 for DGTs, MGTs and Pigs
Tethering (DGT, MGT), indoor (DGT, MGT &Pigs)
and scavenging (Poultry)
On av. 1 L milk/milking per day from one
DGT(300days LL)
NDGTs and by-products market price
Raw milk sold at 1000/L
Yoghurt at 2000/L
Live F kid at 150,000TZS three months age
Live M kid at < 150,000TZS three months age
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Mapping Livestock production
Opportunities for increased milk from DGT
Improved marketing for milk and milk products
More milk added values
More MPPTs and improved fodders
More concentrates
Good policy in favour of DGTs
Capacity building to extension agents & farmers
Farmers involvement in DGTs breeding programs
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
MPPTs and Grass
Common fruit trees around home field:
Plums (Prunus spp)
Peaches (Prunus persica)
Pears (Pyrus spp)
Apples (Malus spp)
Banana (Musa spp)
Trees and grasses at borders and communal land
Mulberry (morus spp) (goats feeding)
Leucaena spp – (goats feeding)
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Pennisetum spp –(Grass
for feeding)
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Livestock inputs and revenue
Amount of inputs kg per Year
Animal specie
Concentrates
Drugs
Dairy goats
693
27
Meat goats
297
12
2252
11
Pigs
Animal specie
Cost of inputs TZS Per Year
Concentrates
Drugs
Others
Total
Dairy goats
172413
14423
8991
195827
Meat goats
73891
6181
3853
83925
600939
7792
7663
616394
Pigs
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Labour requirement
Hours required for cropping per season per 0.5 acre
Land Prep. Planting Weeding Fertilizer Pesticides Irrigate Harvest Transport Total
Rain
75
21
32
11
13
18
25
7
Dry
72
37
33
13
13
34
23
6
202
231
Hours required for livestock per animal/year
Feed prep. Feeding
Herding
Tethering Milking
Cleaning
Dairy goats
73
48
276
31
188
40
Meat goats
31
21
118
13
0
17
100
67
0
0
0
39
Pigs
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Total
656
200
206
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Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Conclusion and further work
Crop-livestock is a potential system for improving
the livelihood of people in Mgeta
Intensification of DGTs and more MPPT/grass can
be an option for economically and environmentally
friendly farming in the water catchment area
Further tasks:
 Parameter estimation for the model
 Running the model
 Findings may be used to examine the economic and
environmental impacts of the production systems and
develop policy measures for more C sequestration
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THE END
NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF LIFE SCIENCES
Norwegian Agr. Econ. Research Institute (NILF)
Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA)
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
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