AP US History - Ch. 8 The New Nation 1786-1800

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THE NEW NATION 1786-1800
Chapter 8
The New Nation: Key Topics
 The tensions & conflicts between local & national
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authorities in the decades after the Revolution.
The struggle to draft the Constitution & to achieve
its ratification.
Establishment of the first national government
under the Constitution.
The beginning of American political parties.
The first stirrings of an authentic American
national culture.
The New Nation
 Chapter Outline:
 The Crisis of the 1780s
 The New Constitution
 The First Administration
 Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans
 “The Rising Glory of America”
The Crisis of the 1780s
 Economic Crisis:
 Economic Crisis had its
 What factors
origins in the
Revolution:
 Shortage of goods due
to British blockade,
demand for supplies by
armies, flood of paper
currency caused
inflation.
contributed to the
economic crisis of the
1780s?
 How did economic
problems contribute to
the creation of the
national government?
Shay’s Rebellion
 Massachusetts farmers,
led by Daniel Shays,
led a rebellion against
the state’s high taxes.
During the economic
crisis, farmers were
hurt the hardest. The
rebellion turned into
an uprising that the
national government
could NOT put down.
Shay’s
Rebellion
Many saw the
conflict as a
class struggle:
rich v. poor,
debtor v.
creditor.
Finally, a state
militia put
down the
uprising.
Shay’s Rebellion
 Consequences:
 Showed the need for a strong central government.
 Supported the view of Nationalists, a group of
colonial leaders like George Washington, who
urged the Articles of Confederation were too weak
because they gave too much power to the states
and not enough power to the federal government.
Their goal was to create a system of government
with a strong central government.
 Annapolis Convention
Annapolis, MD Convention
 Conference of 12
delegates (5 states)
that issues a call for a
convention to meet in
Philadelphia to
consider major changes
to the government.
The Constitutional Convention
The Virginia Plan
The Virginia Plan
 Presented by James
 Council of Revision-
Madison.
 Scrapping the AOC
 Bicameral legislature;
H of Reps based on
population & Senate
based on state
legislatures
consists of an
appointed chief
executive and national
judiciary.
 Strong central gov’t
 Favored larger states
The Constitutional Convention
 The New Jersey Plan-
Favored the smaller
states.
 Strong central gov’t
 Unicameral legislatureall states had equal
representation
 Smaller states getting
overpowered by the
larger states. They were
opposed and fought
the Virginia Plan.
The Constitutional Convention
 The Great Compromise- The plan proposed at the 1787
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Constitutional Convention for creating a national
bicameral legislature in which all states would be
equally represented in the Senate and proportionally
represented in the House.
It provided for a strong national gov’t but still provided
for an important role for the states.
Expanded the powers of Congress
Establishment of a strong single person executive
Established the Supreme Court & national judiciary
Constitutional Convention: 3/5’s Compromise
 There was also a debate
between northerners &
southerners over slaves
and representation in
Congress. Southerners
wanted slaves counted
for representation, but
excluded in
apportioning taxes.
Constitutional Convention: 3/5s Compromise
 Issue of slavery
persisted: Compromise
stated that for every 5
slaves in the South, 3
would be counted as a
person for
representation. Also,
the slave trade would
end in 1808.
Ratifying the Constitution
Federalists
 Favored the ratification
of the Constitution.
May of the Federalists
had been the
Nationalists.
Antifederalists
 Were opposed of the
ratification of the
Constitution. The
issue…they wanted a
bill of rights
guaranteeing civil
liberties.
The Federalists
Papers
Written by James Madison,
Alexander Hamilton and
John Jay, the Federalists
Papers were a series of
essays published
throughout the states.
The original intent was to
persuade New Yorkers to
support ratification of the
Constitution.
Amendments: Additions/ Changes to the
Constitution
 Ideas taken from state constitutions.
 First 8 amendments concerned with individual
rights.
 Guarantees freedom of religion & expression as
well as protection against arbitrary or wrongful
legal proceedings.
 Powers not granted to the national government
retained by the people or the states.
THE FIRST ADMINISTRATION
Section 2
Washington’s Presidency
 Congress passed two important pieces of
legislation.
 1. Judiciary Act of 1789 – It established the
Supreme Court and the federal court system.
 2. Judicial Review- A power that gives the federal
courts the right to review and determine the
constitutionality of acts passed by Congress and
state legislatures.
Washington’s Presidency- The Courts
 John Jay- the first Chief
Justice of the Supreme
Court.
 During the first
decade, the Supreme
Court heard very few
cases. The ones they
did hear, dealt with
the power struggle
between the states and
federal gov’t.
 Chisholm v. Georgia- (
1793)
Washington’s Presidency- The Economy
 Virtually bankrupt
after the Revolution,
Congress passed the
tariff of 1789, the first
tariff of the U.S. It’s
goal was to raise money
and not protect
American businesses
from foreign
competitors.
Alexander Hamilton- Secretary of Treasury
 1790 Report on the Public Credit
 Plan to reduce Revolutionary War debt
a. Issue new interest bearing bonds
b. Pay off foreign debt but not state debt
c. Encourage foreign investment
Charter a national bank
a. The bank system would be run by the gov’t
Government promotion of industry
a. Report on Manufactures- provide funds for new
industries and implement high tariffs.
Washington’s
PresidencySectional
Differences
State debts
Placement of
capital
Foreign policy
in Europe
 The French Revolution led to two
camps regarding American foreign
policy:
 1. Hamilton and Nationalists believed

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