Presentation 11.9.2013 - 2013 International Metropolis Conference

Report
2015 ON THE HORIZON: MIGRATION AND
REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE ASEAN
COMMUNITY
INTERNATIONAL METROPOLIS CONFERENCE
9-13 September 2013 - Tampere, Finland
Maruja M.B. Asis
Scalabrini Migration Center
OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATION
 Brief background of Southeast Asia and ASEAN
 International migration and regional integration
 Steps towards governing migration & related issues in
the envisaged ASEAN Community in 2015
 Future prospects
SOUTHEAST ASIA & ASEAN: A BACKGROUND
 Southeast Asia
 A region of 606 million people
 Cultural diversity and in 3Ds: demographics, development,
democracy
 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
 Founded in 1967, with Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines,
Singapore &Thailand as founding members (ASEAN-5)
 Expanded membership, esp. in the 1990s: Brunei Darussalam,
Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar & Vietnam
 Observer status: East Timor & Papua New Guinea
 Goal: to establish the ASEAN Community by 2015
REGION/
COUNTRY
Total
Pop
2012
(000)
Annual Old age Pop,
Grwth ratio
2030
Rate
support
(%)
SEA
606672 1.1
7
HDI
2011
705987 --
GDP per
capita,
2010
(US$)
3106
Singapore
5312
1.3
10
5987
0.866 43929
Brunei Dar
413
1.7
4
522
0.838 29915
Malaysia
29322
1.6
5
37266
0.761
8262
Thailand
69892
0.5
9
73321
0.682
4735
Philippines
96471
1.7
4
126321
0.644
2014
Indonesia
244769 1.0
6
279659 0.617
3023
Vietnam
89730
1.0
6
101483
0.593
1236
Cambodia
14478
1.2
4
17363
0.523
731
Lao PDR
6374
1.3
5
7754
0.524
1045
Myanmar
48724
0.8
5
54331
0.483
715
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
 Mixed flows
 Temporary labor migration is dominant, mostly less skilled
 From SEA to the Gulf Cooperation Council countries
 From SEA to East Asia
 Migration within SEA (est. 5 million workers)
 The demand for domestic workers, a key driver of female migration
 Irregular migration is significant
 Permanent migration to countries of settlement
 Marriage migration, mostly within Asia
 Student migration, mostly from Asia to Western countries; also
within Asia
 Forced migration
 Environment-related migration in the future?
MIGRATION SYSTEMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA
 From a national framework, the governance of
migration has developed into a multi-level approach
 From a state-centered framework, other non-state
actors lend their voices to the governance of migration
 From a “migration only” policy thrust to a migrationintegrated policy approach
MIGRATION & RELATED ISSUES IN THE ASEAN
COMMUNITY IN 2015
 Various regional consultative processes since the
1990s
 2004 ASEAN Declaration against Trafficking in
Persons, Particularly Women and Children
 2007 ASEAN Declaration for the Protection and
Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers
TOWARDS THE ASEAN COMMUNITY IN 2015
ASEAN Economic Community
(AEC)
•“The AEC shall be the goal of
regional economic integration
by 2015.” Key characteristics:
a single, market and
production base; a highly
economically competitive
region; a region of equitable
economic development; and a
region fully integrated in the
global economy.”
• The AEC will transform
ASEAN into a region with
free movement of goods,
services, investment, skilled
labour, and freer flow of
capital
• Mobility via visa-free
arrangements had been in
place for many years
ASEAN Socio-Cultural
Community (ASCC)
ASEAN Political-Security
Community (APSC)
•The primary goal of the ASCC is
to contribute to realising an
ASEAN Community that is
people-centred and socially
responsible with a view to
achieving enduring solidarity and
unity among the nations and
peoples of ASEAN by forging a
common identity and building a
caring and sharing society which
is inclusive and harmonious
where the well-being,
livelihood, and welfare of the
peoples are enhanced.
•“ . . . the aim is to ensure that all
countries in the region live at
peace with one another and with
the rest of the world in a just,
democratic and harmonious
environment”
•“. . . focused on nurturing the
human, cultural and natural
resources for sustained
development in a harmonious
and people-oriented ASEAN”
• The ASEAN Charter came into
force in December 2008
• The ASEAN Intergovernmental
Commission on Human Rights
was formed in 2009
•ASEAN Human Rights
Declaration was adopted in 2012
FUTURE PROSPECTS
 Migration is becoming integrated in economic, social
and political-security issues in the region
 … But discussions about migration continue to be
qualified
 restrictions to less skilled migration; openness to
skilled/professional migration
 continuing reticence to deal with irregular migration
 An integrated ASEAN economy will need human
resources of varying skills; growing interdependence
 Post-ASEAN 2015
 Firmer commitments to key actions, leaner
committees/bodies, broader participation of civil society &
people’s organizations
THANK YOU

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