Bilingualism, a new stage in the construction of the European identity

Report
Bilingualism, a new stage in the
construction of the
European identity:
Makedon-Armân bilingualism – an
exemplar model in the Balkan States
Nicolas Caracota
Association des Francais Armâns
(AFA)
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Europe – National States –
National Minorities
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National States in Europe
National States with National Minorities
National States with National Languages and
Minority or Regional Languages
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Charter of FCNM
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Minorities and National
Minorities
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What is a „national minority“ ?
Is a purely ethnic, religious or linguistic minority
a „national minority“ ?
FCNM contains no definition of „national
minorities“
What minorities may receive protection under
FCNM ?
FCNM and ECRML – only a passiv minority
protection ?
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Minorities and National
Minorities
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„National minority“:
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The term "national minority " refers to a group of people in a state that:
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a. resident in the territory of that State and are citizens;
b. maintain longstanding, firm and lasting ties with that State;
c. display distinctive ethnic, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics;
d. are sufficiently representative, although smaller in number than the rest of the
population of this state or a region of that State;
e. are motivated by a concern to preserve together that which constitutes
their common identity, including their culture, traditions, religion or language.
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Minorities or Regional Peoples ?
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Acceptance of the term „minority“ in southeast
european countries
Could the term „regional people“ substitute the
term „minority“ ?
For many minorities the term „minority“ leads
often to confusion, exclusion or even discrimination
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
European Charter for Regional or
Minority Languages
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Regional or Minority Languages
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Regional Peoples: indigenous groups who speak a
language different to that of the majority of the
population of the state
Regional Languages: languages traditionally used by
part of the population of a state that are not dialects
of official languages of the state
Article 22 of the European Charter of Fundamental
Rights
Many as 40 million citizens of the EU regularly use a
regional or minority language
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Charter of Autochthone Peoples and
Ethnic Minorities of Europe
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Languages of Enlarged European
Union
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Conclusions
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Europe: Culturally Diversified Communities,
multilingually communities, also multiculturally
All mentioned autochthonous peoples and national
minorities who speak a regional language are bilingual
peoples
Bilingualism is more than speaking two languages:
bilingualism opens the door to other cultures
European multilingualism and multiculturalism can not
get an unity without bilingualism
Bilingualism: the first step to the new european identity
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
An Example of Bilingualism in
Europe
Makedon-Armân Bilingualism –
an exemplar model in the Balkan
states
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Armân / Makedon-Armân people
short history
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roots originate from Ancient Macedonia
origins in the two cultures that make up the cultural foundation
of the whole of Europe – the Hellenic and the Latin
live nowadays : Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, FYROM (R. of
Macedonia), Serbia and Romania(diaspora)
1913, Macedonia was divided up among Greece, Serbia,
Bulgaria, Albania
Armân/Makedon-Armân people is a special „European“
problem in the field of minority issues in the Balkan
The only autochthon people in Balkan which never established
their own national state
The only people in Balkan without a “kin-state” (a stateless
nation)
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Ethnonyms
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Armân / Makedon-Armân – own name
Known also as : Vlahi, Vlasi, Koutso-Vlahi,
Elino-Vlahi, Macedo-Vlahi, Macedoneni
(Macedoromãni, Mazedo-Romanen),
Makedoni, Aromãni (Aromanians, Aromunen,
Aroumains), Tsintsari, Cioban, Rrmeni, etc.
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Status of Makedon-Armâns in
Balkan States
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Greece: vlachophone greeks
Albania: linguistic and ethno-cultural minority
R. of Macedonia: part of regional people
Bulgaria: linguistic and ethno-cultural minority
Romania: romanians speaking a dialect of
romanian language
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Documents on historical &
educational bilingualism
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Cultural movement of Moschopolis (18th C.) :
Th.A.Kavallioti - Protopiria, Vienna, 1770 –
Dictionary of three Balkan languages (Greek-VlachAlbanian)
Daniil Moscopoleanu - Lexicon Tetraylosson, 1794,
Venice – Dictionary of four Balkan languages
(Greek/Romaiika-Vlach-Albanian-Bulgarian)
Mihail G.Boiagi - Yramatiki Makedonovlahiki, Vienna
1813, the first academic grammar of Armân language
(Armân-Greek-German)
Rich classical & modern literature – 1850 until
nowadays
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Armân / Makedon-Armân :
Bilingualism / Multilingualism
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bilingualism Macedonian/Tracian/Greek-Latin –
“Provincia Macedonia” (168 BC – 600 AC)
bilingualism Greek-Latin (Byzantium)
biligualism Armân-Neogreek / Armân-Albanian
biligualism Armân-Slavic (beginning with 6th C.)
modern multilingualism : 1. Armân – 2. official
language (Albanian, Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian,
Serbian, Slavic-macedonian) – 3. modern language
(English, French, German, etc.)
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
European Personalities with
Makedon-Armân Roots
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Mihail G. Boiagi, philologist, grammarian, author of first MakedonArmân (Aromanian) grammar
Emanoil Gojdu, lawyer and politician in the Austrian Empire
Dumba family, famous philanthropists and Austrian Imperial bankers
Athenagoras, Patriarch of Constantinople
Nikola Dumba, great benefactor of Vienna, sponsor of all the great
composers of his times who lived in Vienna
Manakis brothers (Yanaki and Milton Manakia), photographers and
filmmakers, pioneers of film and photography in the Balkans
Sotirios Bulgaris, founder of the BULGARI JEWELRY house
Georg Simon Sina (Baron Sina), famous philanthropist and Austrian
Imperial banker
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Karl-Markus Gauss about
Makedon-Armâns
"Is there already a new European ? (...)
Are there already people, receptive to everything that exists in the world, not
based roughly on their national possessions, not evil, but love to
think and speak two languages or more which do not attach a shabby way their
actions and aspirations for a single state, but still many for whom the
boundaries are not an obsession but a means to excel daily, which has always
engaged in trade and circulation between the east and west, north and south,
which enrich their identity in contact with different cultures ?
Yes, they exist and they are called Armâns. Pioneers of a free Europe, where
borders are permeable not only for goods but also for men, Armâns seem to
be better equipped for a new Europe.
What we need to learn, they already know!„
Karl- Markus Gauß, Jahrgang 1954, lebt als Autor und Literaturkritiker in Salzburg. Seit 1991 Herausgeber der Zeitschrift " Literatur und
Kritik ". 1995 Österreichischer Staatspreis für Kulturpublizistik, 1997 Europäischer Essaypreis "Charles Veillon".
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
Karl-Markus Gauss about
Makedon-Armâns
«Existe-t-il déjà le nouveau Européen? (...) Existent déjà ces gens, réceptifs à tout
ce qui existe dans le monde, ne reposent pas rudement sur leurs possessions
nationales, qui n’ont pas du mal, mais l'amour de penser et de parler deux
langues ou plus , qui n’attachent pas dans une façon minable leurs actions et
leurs aspirations à un seul Etat, mais toujours à plusieurs, pour lesquels les
frontières ne sont pas l'obsession, mais un moyen quotidien de se surpasser, qui
depuis toujours pratiquent le commerce et la circulation entre l'est et l'ouest, au
nord et au sud, qui enrichissent leur identité au contact avec des
cultures différentes ?
Oui, ils existent et ils s’appellent les Armâns. Pionniers d'une Europe libre, dont
les frontières sont perméables non seulement pour les marchandises mais
aussi pour les hommes, les Armâns semblent être les mieux armés pour une
nouvelle Europe.
Ce que nous devons apprendre, ils le savent déjà! »
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR ATTENTION!
Nicolas Caracota, Int. Conference: Leeuwarden, Netherlans, 7-8 April 2011

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