SEABEE COMBAT WARFARE NMCB SPECIFIC 107 CONTINGENCY OPERATIONS FUNDAMENTALS Contingency Operations • References: [a] COMSECONDNCB/COMTHIRDNCBINST 3300.1 Rapid Runway Repair [b] ABFC View Program, https://ncf.navy.mil/abfcview/abfcviewabout.cfm [c] UT Basic Vol. 2, p 2-1 [d] CE Basic p 3-21 [e] FM 5-277, Bailey Bridge Contingency Operations [f] TM-08676A-23/2 Medium Girder Bridge, Marine Corps [g] AFMAN 10-219, Vol. 4 Rapid Runway Repair Operations [h] NAVEDTRA 14081, Equipment Operators Basic [i] UFC 3-270-07 Unified Facilities Criteria O&M Airfield Damage Repair Contingency Operations [j] CIN-710-1023, Airfield Damage Repair Crew Training Guide [k] Mabey Johnson User Manual [l] Training Guide for Command Post Bunker S710-1017 [m] Training Guide for Observation Tower S-7101016 [n] Training Guide Heavy Construction 1 A-7100044 OVERVIEW • • • • • • Airfield Damage Repair (ADR) Methods of (ADR) Battalion Tent Camp Layout Camp Maintenance Transportable Bridges Heavy Timber Construction Level I • A Level I schedule lists all of the projects assigned and contains a broad schedule for each project. The schedule also includes a planned rate of accomplishment for the entire deployment. Level I • After the operations officer has balanced the estimated workload against the battalion’s manpower skills and equipment the Level I is submitted through the chain of command up to the Commanding Officer. • The level I is updated by the Operations Officer . NCF LEVEL II • • • • • • • • Used by company CDRs, Ops Project specific By master activity Bi-weekly bar chart Quick view of project progress Planned progress verses actual progress curve Sitrep input to S3 biweekly Sitrep input to brigade monthly NCF LEVEL II Project #_____________ TITLE Admin Building ACT# Master Activity MDS WT% 10 Sitework 19 4 20 U/S Utilities 30 7 30 Foundation/Slab 35 8 40 Walls/Canopy 115 27 50 Roof 41 9 60 Rough Utilities 29 7 70 Exterior Finish 48 11 80 Interior Finish 105 24 90 Finish Utilities 12 3 Total 434 100 MD's Scheduled this Period Cumulative Man-days Scheduled % Complete Scheduled (Plot) MD's Expended This Period % Man-days Expended % Work-in-Place (Plot) 4 MAY 11 18 10 8 TOTAL MAN-DAY ESTIMATE 434 TASKED MAN-DAYS 434 JUNE JULY AUG 25 1 8 15 22 29 6 13 20 27 3 10 17 9 8 13 5 10 4 5 3 14 15 16 25 29 9 10 2 23 4 18 10 4 4 6 46 46 11 66 112 26 24 31 62 174 40 48 222 51 62 284 65 20 13 3 3 10 16 1 7 14 20 63 347 80 61 408 94 13 34 4 3 9 26 434 100 Level III • The following information is found on a Level III barchart. – Construction Activities – Start, finish and duration of each construction activity – Critical activities – Free Float NCF Level III Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.1 Describe the duties of the following Rapid Runway Repair (RRR)/ Airfield Damage Repair teams and state what type of equipment is necessary to perform their mission under Battle Damage repair (BDR)/RRR. [ref.a, ch. III] a. MOS [Annex C] b. DAT [Annex] c. Crater/Spall [Annex E,F] Airfield Damage Repair • The most important mission of the NCF after an airfield has been attacked. • Mission of an NMCB (as tasked by MEF) – Repair airfield pavement and facilities. Enables mission essential aircraft to launch and recover. Airfield Damage Repair Airfield Damage Repair Priorities • Damage Assessment – Rough Initial – Detailed • Establish an MOS (Minimum Operating Strip) • Temporary repair of taxiways and parking aprons • Establish secondary or back-up operating strips • Permanently repair all airstrips and taxiways ADR Phases Airfield Damage Repair Planning Mobilization: – NMCB personnel and equipment ready for ADR on-site and other deployment sites Pre-attack: – Staging and stockpiling operations Post-attack: – Temporary repairs to runways and facilities Airfield restoration: – Permanent repairs and expansion Airfield Damage Repair • Training Requirements • 46 personnel – E-6 & below ADR Level I – Crew leaders, DATs • 20 personnel – E-5 & above ADR Level II – Command center personnel, crew chiefs, OIC/AOIC • 6 personnel – E-6 & below Crete mobile – (All FOD cover crew leaders) • 72 personnel total trained in battalion ADR OPERATIONS • • • • • • • Establish Station Command Center Establish Battalion Command Center Establish Damage assessment teams Establish communications network Survey Area (DAT) Recommend Repairs to Air Ops Make Repairs Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.1 Describe the duties of the following Rapid Runway Repair (RRR)/ Airfield Damage Repair teams and state what type of equipment is necessary to perform their mission under Battle Damage repair (BDR)/RRR. [ref.a, ch. III] a. MOS [Annex C] b. DAT [Annex] c. Crater/Spall [Annex E,F] (MOS) Minimum Operating Strip MOS- The launch and recovery surface selected for repair is called the minimum operating strip (MOS). The MOS is the area from which aircraft actually takeoff and land. When a MOS is combined with access taxiways from aircraft staging areas such as shelters and parking ramps, the entire area becomes the minimum airfield operating surface (MAOS). MOS Team Battalion Liaison Officer • OIC • AOIC MOS Selection Team (Primary & Alternate) • Team Chief • Selector • Plotter • Communicator MOS Selection Team 1 – Receives information from damage assessment teams 2 – Plot ALL damage on runway map 3 – Maintain Status Boards 4 – Select new runway location 5 – Determine size of new runway 6 – Determine quality of repair for craters in new MOS MOS Kit • • • • Transparent templates for marking MOS Plotting board Critical resource charts Transparent circle templates that match the airfield map scale • Markers, Pens, Pencils • Base map 1:4800 scale (1”=400’) • Air Field Map 1:1200 scale (1”=100’) Damage Assessment Team • Responsible for ALL members on the Damage Assessment Team • Organizes & directs the team down the runway. • Receives all information from Damage Assessment Team members • Ensures ALL information is accurately transmitted to the MOS selection team. • 5 members (1 EOD, 2 Public Works, 2 Seabees) Damage Assessment Kit • Marking tape – Non-metallic tape measures – EOR forms – Maps (scale 1” = 100’) • Station • Airfield Explosive Ordnance Reconnaissance Report Type & Location Grid Coordinates Radiological Results Descriptive information Detailed Drawing of UXO • ELEVATION VIEW • CLOCK METHOD ADR Factors Aircraft Type and Load. Each aircraft has distinct characteristics (e.g., wing span, tire pressure, load capacity, braking mechanism.) Available Material. The type and quantity of material (e.g., backfill, crushed stone, fiberglass mat) available for a repair. Available Equipment. The type and quantity of CESE available for a repair. Time Constraints. The time allotted to accomplish the repairs before the first aircraft arrival or departure. Repair Crew Capability/Equipment/Manpower. The repair crew’s capacity for the task (e.g., experience, number of repair people, resource availability). Type of Damage Sustained Airfield Damage Crater: is damage that penetrates through the pavement surface into the underlying base and subgrade soil uplifting the surrounding pavement and ejecting soil, rock, and pavement debris around the impact area. Craters represent much more severe damage than spalls. Large craters: diameter equal to or greater than 4.57 m (15 ft). Small craters: diameter less than 4.57 m (15 ft). ABFC P-36 RRR – Ref. Manual Spall: is damage that does not penetrate through the pavement surface to the underlying layers. Spalls may be up to 1.52 m (5 ft) in diameter. Crater Diagram Crater Crew Chief • • • • • Responsible for crater crew Responsible for the FOD cover crew Each crew responsible for two craters Ensures proper repair criterion is met Receives and relays input to & from crew leaders and ADR OIC Crater Repairs • Crush Stone Repairs – – – – Crush stone without a FOD cover – quickest (taxiways & parking aprons) Crush stone with FOD cover – higher cost from FOD cover use Cheap crushed stone repair – least expensive Choked ballast repair – when water is present • Sand Grid – Requires FOD cover – Height of sub-base critical • Regulated Set Portland Cement – Batched from ‘Crete Mobile’ – 6” – 12” thick (set in 20 – 30 minutes, 2500 psi in 2 hours)(traffic ready) • Precast Slabs – Cold weather climates (European theater) – Need specialty tools Crater Crew Equipment CESE Equipment • 8 - Loaders • 4 - Dozers • 4 - Graders • 4 - Rollers • 8 – Light Plants • 4 – Air Compressors • 1 – Concrete Saw • 8 – Mud Pumps Spall Diagram Spall Repair Silikal • Set in 8 to 30 minutes • Highly flammable above 32 degrees with additive • Traffic ready within 1 to 2 hours Cold mix asphalt • Life of repair ~ 100 sorties Magnesium phosphate • Can extend mix by adding 50% gravel by volume Regulated set Portland Cement • Initial set is 25 minutes @ 75 degrees 106 Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.2 Describe the following methods of RRR/ADR: a. Folded Fiberglass Matting b. AM-2 aluminum matting c. Crete mobile Folded Fiberglass Matting This procedure is currently the primary MOS repair method. It involves the installation of an anchored FFM over a crater which was prepared with a layer of well-compacted crushed stone. Crater preparation is essentially identical to that used with the AM-2 matting system. Again, this is the principle method of ADR employed for MOS repairs. The FFM is air-transportable, can be moved easily by vehicles, can be positioned at greater distances from airfield pavement surfaces, and must be stored indoors out of the elements. Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic FOD Covers Folded Fiberglass Matting • • • • • • • • Two patches per kit ¼” thick 6’ wide, 30’ long 30’ x 54’ patch – bolted together 60’ x 54’ patch Tow into position Anchor Leading and Trailing edge only Do not store in direct sunlight Can be used as flush finish Used primarily on runway and taxiway Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic FOD Covers Bolted Fiberglass Matting (FRP) • • • • • • • • • • • Air shippable 8’x 8’x 20’ ISO container 1/4” – 3/8” thick 4 small patches or 1 large patch per container Tow into position All tools contained in each kit Do not store in direct sunlight Can be used as flush finish Used primarily on runway and taxiway Average weight 2,144 lbs One small patch is 32’ x 32’ 9” One large patch is 62’ x 69’ 4” AM-2 Aluminum Matting Hand-assembled and anchored over the crater which was prepared with a layer of crushed stone. This repair surface is the most manpower intensive of the two primary ADR techniques AM2 Aluminum Matting AM-2 Aluminum Matting Primarily used on taxiway and parking apron Package contains matting, tools and accessories to assemble 54’ x 72’ FOD cover 5 boxes contains 9 bundles of AM Matting Can be towed from side to side Must be centered on the taxiway AM2 patch is 54’ x 77’ Must be towed by two pieces of like equipment AM2 Matting cannot be a flush repair Crushed Stone Repair • Clear debris from the crater perimeter. • Determine the actual crater diameter versus the apparent crater diameter, i.e., the extent of crater pavement damage/upheaval. • Remove the up-heaved pavement. • Remove large objects 36” or larger and water from inside the crater, as required. • Backfill the crater with ejecta, ballast rock, or clean fill. • Backfilling the crater with crushed stone. • Compaction of the crushed stone. Crushed Stone Repair • Install a 12” layer of crushed stone over the backfill material. • Compact the crushed stone material in lifts approx 6” thick. • Compact each lift of crushed stone using a minimum of four initial passes of a single-drum vibratory roller • Final compaction with 28 passes • Roll done parallel to runway • For every inch above runway surface 3’ taper required Crushed Stone Repair Diagram Crete mobile The trailer-mounted crete mobile carries the cement, sand, and coarse aggregates in divided bins on the unit. Sand and aggregates are proportioned accurately by weight or volume with cement mixture and water and mixed. The mixing process will proceed until the aggregate bins are empty. Material feed to project can be stopped and started at any point to allow finishing crews to continue at a steady pace. Pavement Asphalt Pavements. Anchoring in asphalt pavement requires a 9.5-inch bolt and polymer. A hole 10 inches deep and 1.5 inches in diameter is drilled at the center of each predrilled mat hole. A two-part resin polymer is mixed and poured into each hole to about 0.5 inch below the surface of the pavement. An anchor bushing and bolt are immediately placed into each hole and pressed firmly (standing on the bolt and bushing) against the mat. The polymer will harden in about three minutes. Unless extra people are available, there may not be time to drill all the holes before beginning to pour the polymer 106Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.3 Explain the fundamentals of a typical Battalion tent camp layout. Tent Camp Layout • Tactical – Sufficient space for command dispersion – Concealment from ground and air observation – Protection from bombing and strafing attacks – Protection from mechanized attack Tent Camp Layout • Sanitary – Water supply – Drainage – Shade – Access – Site not occupied by other units in last two months Tent Camp Layout Camp Maintenance • Inspections – Controlled inspections – Operator inspections – PM inspections Camp Maintenance Control Inspections - A control inspection reviews all camp facilities to determine the maintenance required during a deployment to preserve or improve the condition of the camp structures and property. It is the foundation for the camp maintenance program and workload. A control inspection is conducted within the first 30 days of a deployment. Camp Maintenance • Annual Inspection Summary – The AIS report documents deficiencies in camp facilities. • AIS reports are produced annually. • Validating deficiencies and costs is important to justify the money to support the proper maintenance and repair of camp facilities. Camp Maintenance • Operator Inspections –consist of examining and making minor adjustments. • Are performed by the operator assigned to the equipment. • Are part of the operator's day-to-day responsibilities. Camp Maintenance • These inspections occur before, during, and after operation of the equipment. • Operator inspection of constantly used equipment is another form of PM. Camp Maintenance • Trouble Desk attendant receives all customer trouble calls, enters this information into the trouble desk log and fills out emergency/service authorization forms. • Trouble desk attendant makes sure that ESA forms are properly routed and that outstanding ESA’s are completed within the required deadlines. 106 Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.4 Explain the purpose of maintaining operators logs for generators and boilers [ref. c] Camp Maintenance • Operators Log • Daily operating logs are kept on some Equipment. The main purpose for using operating logs is to continuously record data on equipment performance Ground Rods • Ground Rods – Grounding protects human life, the generator, and the distribution system – Provides a path for electrical current to earth Generator Sheltering • Generator sheltering protects and prolongs the life of advance-base portable generators – Protects the equipment from rain, wind, and other adverse conditions – Good for noise discipline during contingency operations 106 Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.5 Discuss the following transportable bridges: a. Bailey Bridge b. Medium Girder Bridge c. Mabey Johnson Bridge Top Panel ROLLER BEAM FITTING INTO CROSS GIRDER ROLLER BEAM CROSS GIRDER AND ADJUSTABLE SUPPORTS ATTACHING JUNCTION PANEL EOB ON FRONT AND REAR ROLLER BEAM ATTACHING BOTTOM PANEL LAUNCHING NOSE COMPONENTS LIGHT LAUNCHING NOSE LAUNCHING NOSE ROLLER ON BANK SEAT BEAM LAUNCHING NOSE ROLLER ON BANK SEAT BEAM LAUNCHING NOSE LAUNCHING NOSE CROSS GIRDER ROLLER LAUNCHING NOSE CROSS GIRDER POSTS Bailey Bridge Bailey Bridge • Through-type metal truss bridge with heavy timber decking, roadway carried between two main girders. • Highly mobile and versatile bridge, can span a variety of gaps – Transported in 5-ton dump & 40 ton trailer – Quickly assembled by manpower, 30-40 personnel – 12’-6” wide, can span up to 210’ Bailey Bridge • Configurations: – Single / Single bridge, 100’ – Double / Single bridge 140’ – Double / Double bridge 180’ Bailey Bridge • Launched and de-launched via roller system – Additional bays are added to counter balance during launching and de-launching • Components: – Truss panel - form girder, 5’ x 10’ panel – Transom - main support, 10” x 20’ flange beam – Stringer - 10’ steel beams Bailey Bridge – Chess - 2” x 8” x 14’ wood decking – Rollers - launching & de-launching – Bearing & base plates – Ramps – Various pins, clamps, braces, tie plates, bolts, jacks, and carrying bars and tongs Medium Girder Bridge Medium Girder Bridges • MGB is a two girder deck bridge • Launched and de-launched via roller system and 5 ton dump. • Three types of MGB’s – Single story MGB – Double story MGB – Linked reinforced MGB Medium Girder Bridges • Transported to site via 5 ton dump & 40 ton trailer • Crew size 24 to 32 personnel • Bridge is formed with 2 main girders from a number of panels pinned together. Medium Girder Bridges • Roadway is formed by hanging deck units between girders and connecting ramps at each end • 13’-2” wide bridge • Used for light vehicle loads Single Story MGB • Bridge is formed with 2 main girders from a number of panels pinned together. • Roadway is formed by hanging deck units between girders and connecting ramps at each end • 13’-2” wide bridge • Used for light vehicle loads • Military Load Class (MLC) 70 (tracked) over a length of 32 ft decreasing to MLC 16 at 74 ft Double Story MGB • Uses same parts as single story MGB, with the addition of triangular bottom panels, junction panels, and end taper panels, which make the bridge stronger. • Military Load Class (MLC) 70 (tracked) over a length of 102 ft decreasing to MLC 16 at 162 ft Link Reinforced MGB • Reinforced Links are added under each girder for additional support • Permits longer Military Load Class (MLC) 70 bridges • Military Load Class (MLC) 70 (T) up to 150 ft and MLC 60 (T) up to 162 ft Mabey Johnson Bridge Mabey Johnson Bridge This bridge is widely used throughout Iraq by US Army Engineers and US Navy Seabee Engineers in fixed and floating configurations. (a.k.a. Logistics Support Bridge) The MJB has replaced aging stocks of Bailey Bridge and Heavy Girder Bridge. Mabey Johnson Bridge Carrying Load Capacity: MLC80 Tracked and MLC110 Wheeled Designed to be left in site as a semi-permanent bridge. The modular design of the equipment means it can be constructed in a large number of different configurations, to match various sized gaps throughout the support area. Mabey Johnson Bridge vs. Bailey Bridge Mabey Johnson Bridge • • • • Panel chords and Transoms made of 55C Steel. All Structural components are hot dip galvanized Single span up to 60m Multi span using intermediate piers or floating pontoons as supports • Easily returned to stock after use • Can be assembled by hand if necessary • Largest component weights 700lbs. Mabey Johnson Mabey Johnson 106 Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.6 Discuss heavy timber construction: [ ref. b] a. Bunker [ Assembly 14003] b. Bridge [ Assembly 13202] c. Tower [ Assembly 13615] Heavy Timber Bunker Standard Timber Bunker : 10FT X 24FT X 8FT Bill of Materials (BOM): Lumber 3x12x12 / 2x4x12 / 4x12x16 / 10x10x12 / 4x8x16 Plywood ¾” X48”X96” Nails: 8D / 16D / 60D Roofing nails, Drift Pins, Sandbags, Chain link fence, fence post, cement, Plastic sheet polyetherine. Heavy Timber Bunker Sandbag stacked on all four sides 3’ X 6” opening on all four sides or as required Similar bracing on all four sides Chain liked fence towards the enemy Canopy over entrance for inclement weather protection Heavy Timber Bunker Heavy Timber Bridge Heavy Timber Bridge Typical Timber Bridge; 24’ W X 36’ LG (Military Load Class) MLC = 60 Can be built Longer but the MLC decrease Apply Wood Preservatives to all cut of Tread, Deck, and Stringers Heavy Timber Tower Heavy Timber Tower Bill Of Materials (BOM): 60’ Pile, Treated wood; Lumber, 12”X12”X16’ / 6”X6”X16’/ 2”X4”X12 ; Plywood, Steel Plate , Bolts, Nuts & washers Cement, Nails 60d,16d,8d, Note: For a complete list of all BOM for specific tower height refer to P437 or ABFC View Heavy Timber Tower • Footing Embedment for all towers is a constant 6’ Below Grade • Instead of concrete Footings sandbags can be substituted, 2’ high on top tower roof • Interior Plywood Bunker walls are lined with sandbags a minimum of 5’ high.