Carol Ann DuffY We remember your childhood well • Think about the title. • The poem is a dramatic monologue: • The speaker sounds very much on the defensive: clearly the grown-up child has complained about something or asked an awkward question. The parent insists that the child was brought up well and was loved IOC • Interactive oral commentary at the church • You will choose a poem randomly • You will have 20 minutes to prepare your commentary in a quiet room • You will be escorted to my room and sit across the table from me and talk for 8 minutes about the poem. • Commentary needs to be formal, organized and reveal how well you are able to identify poetic features and how they support the poet’s purpose. • I will give you a minute warning to wrap it up. • I will ask some follow up questions and we have a short 2 minute discussion on the poem • Then we transition to a ten minute discussion on either Lear or SL. (Again I go down a list of questions and where you are when you walk in is what I ask. Carol Ann Duffy • Born on December 23 1955, in Glasgow, Scotland's largest city. • Attended Liverpool University The first female, Scottish Poet Laureate in the role's 400 year history, • Accepted position in 2009 • “the queen of modern British poetry" • "The beginning of a poem is always a moment of tiny revelation, a new way of seeing something, which almost simultaneously attracts language to it and then the impulse is to catch that with a pen and paper.” Carol Duffy Education for Leisure Dramatic Situation • Dramatic monologue • Speaker is a young adolescent male who is bored and tired of being ignored, overlooked. He wants attention in the worst way…by committing Violence, playing god, causing destruction and fear as a means of feeling powerful. • Speaking to the reader • Tone is sinister: Today I am going to kill something • Tone is also ironic: contrast between the speaker’s view of himself and reality. Structure • Regular lined verses – Five stanzas - four lines each • Poem moves from a threat to action • Builds tension with escalating images of violence • Syntax: Short “jabbing” sentences. …Why? • Other lines that are more lyrical – Line 4 – Last line STRUCTURE • Punctuation – Use of end stops and enjambment. Title? Ironic. Leisure of the unemployed, the drop outs, the underclass. Time on their hands because they have either dropped out of school or have been expelled. Language • Colloquial diction, slang • direct address at end • Connotation of the word “genius” – We usually associate the word with creativity, but here word is used with irony. Not as bright as he thinks. Irony of a poor education – . “God”: association of omnipresent being who created the world, but here used to show how speaker takes joy in destruction: “I see that it is good.” Capable only of destruction, not creation Language Imagery: Grey with boredom [day] Pavements Glitter: Interesting contrast. Glitter with what? (blood, something to do?) language • Allusion to Gloucester’s line in King Lear.(WHY?) • Image of fly being squashed • Another Language. ( death vs language of art) • Ironic humor to show discrepancy between speaker’s egotistical view of himself and our view of him. Musical Devices? • Unrhymed free verse • Non-metrical (pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.) • Except for some Iambic meter in lyrical lines (line 4 and last line) (yearning) • Flat, plodding rhythm…reinforces the monotony of his life. Thesis • Duffy uses______________,___________, • and__________________to show_________________________. • Duffy uses colloquial diction, allusions to God, and a threatening tone to dramatize the increasingly violent actions of a frustrated and disenfranchised youth. War Photographer • From Duffy’s first collection: Standing Female Nude 1985 Warm up • Take your commentary and either read it to partner, or tell them what you discovered about the poem. • If you were not here on Friday, read the poem on your own and write down your first impressions of it. What is it about? Identify two most significant poetic features. War Photographer • The poem comes from Duffy’s friendship with Don McCullin and Philip Jones Griffiths, two well-respected stills photographers who specialised in war photography. • Duffy is fascinated by what makes someone do such a job and how they feel about being in situations where a choice often has to be made between recording horrific events, and helping. Vietnam War Vietnam Iraq, 2005 Iran, 1979 War Photographer Terms: Alliteration: repetition of (usually) consonant sounds at the beginning of a sentence. Big Bad Bear Connotation: the emotional association we have with a word. Caesura: a pause within a line of poetry. Used for dramatic effect, or to create tension, surprise Diction: word choice (contributes to tone) Imagery: use of figurative language to create images in mind of reader Make notes on the structure of the first verse In his darkroom he is finally alone with spools of suffering set out in ordered rows. The only light is red and softly glows, as though this were a church and he a priest preparing to intone a Mass. Belfast. Beirut. Phnom Penh. All flesh is grass. Is this continued throughout? Why? Structure • 4 stanzas • 6 lines per stanza • Regular rhyme scheme – ABBCDD, etc. WHY? • Imposes order in the chaos of war • Like the photographer – order with the photos, making sense of the chaos Imagery • Four groups…underline and analyze images in assigned stanza. • how do they support topic & theme of poem? – First by self – Discuss with group – -class In his darkroom he is finally alone with spools of suffering set out in ordered rows. The only light is red and softly glows, as though this were a church and he a priest preparing to intone a Mass. Belfast. Beirut. Phnom Penh. All flesh is grass. • In his darkroom he is finally alone • with spools of suffering set out in ordered rows. • The only light is red and softly glows, • as though this were a church and he • a priest preparing to atone a Mass. • Belfast. Beirut. Phnom Penh. All flesh is grass. alliteration – what is the effect? Contrast to what? What are the connotations of the colours? In his darkroom he is finally alone with spools of suffering set out in ordered rows. The only light is red and softly glows, as though this were a church and he a priest preparing to atone a Mass. Belfast. Beirut. Phnom Penh. All flesh is grass. Litany of horror; what is the effect of the caesura? Simile – reverence and devotion to the pictures 1. regularity/order – reflects structure 2. Suggestion of graves/bodies Isaiah 40:6 – shortness of life He has a job to do. Solutions slop in trays beneath his hands which did not tremble then though seem to now. Rural England. Home again to ordinary pain which simple weather can dispel, to fields which don’t explode beneath the feet of running children in nightmare heat. Ambiguity – chemicals/solutions to war Implies carelessness He has a job to do. Solutions slop in trays beneath his hands which did not tremble then though seem to now. Rural England. Home again to ordinary pain which simple weather can dispel, to fields which don’t explode beneath the feet Why did they not tremble then? Why now? of running children in nightmare heat. Suggests idyllic life True meaning to the poem contrast Contrast: barefoot children running in grass for fun/those running from war – end of innocence and, possibly, life. Cannot compare to pain of war Something is happening. A stranger’s features faintly start to twist before his eyes, a half-formed ghost. He remembers the cries of this man’s wife, how he sought approval Without words to do what someone must and how the blood stained into foreign dust. Something is happening. A stranger’s features Ambiguous: Literal – developing the photo. Figurative – person in pain faintly start to twist before his eyes, a half-formed ghost. He remembers the cries of this man’s wife, how he sought approval Without words to do what someone must and how the blood stained into foreign dust. Metaphor – 1. image on photo, 2. death Photographer’s dilemma – has a job to do. A hundred agonies in black-and-white from which his editor will pick out five or six for Sunday’s supplement. The reader’s eyeballs prick with tears between the bath and pre-lunch beers. From the aeroplane he stares impassively at where He earns his living and they do not care 1. Photo Trivialises; we are only moved momentarily 2. Good/evil 3. Truth/lies A hundred agonies in black-and-white from which his editor will pick out five or six for Sunday’s supplement. The reader’s eyeballs prick Contrast to war zone with tears between the bath and pre-lunch beers. From the aeroplane he stares impassively at where He earns his living and they do not care. Chooses photos to suit the article; don’t convey the full horror of war Who are they? Suggests they are used for entertainment En route to another assignment; poem is cyclical; unceasing wars Discussion Points • How do you think this photographer feels about their job? Pride or guilt? • How do you think Duffy feels towards the newspaper editors? • What does Duffy seem to be suggesting about the way the readers react to seeing these images? • What is Duffy trying to point out about life in Britain compared to Beirut etc? • Themes? Diction • Which words or phrases seem significant in contributing to the tone of the poem? • For example alone…in first stanza • Suggests isolation, detachment. Theme? • Effects of war • Shows trauma caused by witnessing tragedy, horrors of war. • Juxtaposition of photographer’s inner conflict, (being impassive, objective among such horror) and the public’s fleeting interest and lack of concern for such events.. Group Thesis How does author +verb+ lit. feature+ verb+lit. effect + why. War Photographer • Duffy uses________, ______, and ______ to reveal_______________. • Write it down and share with class. turn it in. Thesis example • Duffy uses a regular rhyme scheme, a shifting tone, and the contrasting imagery of war and rural England to reveal the cyclical nature of conflict and the impassivity that some feel toward others’ suffering. terms • Colloquialism: in a conversational manner that may include slang: • Connotations: emotional association a reader has for a certain word: – God …. in Education it has a – connotation not as creator but destroyer. • Alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds at beginning of sentences; • Assonance: repetition of same vowel sound – : open, broken; remembered, tendered • Consonance: identical consonant sound at end of word preceded by different vowel: • Home, same, breath, worth Dramatic Situation? Conflict? There is a lot of tension between the speaker and listener. We get the impression that the listener is not given much chance to speak - or, if they do, that it is ignored • As readers, we cannot be sure whose memory is more accurate - the parents' or the child's. • Is the child exaggerating about the horrors that appear to have taken place? Or are the parents guiltily trying to convince themselves that they didn't happen? Structure • The poem consists of six stanzas of three lines, each of roughly the same length. Each stanza begins with a statement that denies what the child believes to have happened - 'Nobody hurt you' Language • There are many frightening ideas in the poem that are suggested but not developed: • "The bad man on the moors" (line 2), • a door being locked (line 3), • the child being "sent ... away" (line 13). • definite sense of fear on the part of the child. • "skidmarks of sin" (line 16) are and what is meant by “laid you wide open for Hell" (line 17). violent verbs • 'hurt, argued, forced, begged' which add to the sense of danger. • Onomatopoeia is used to describe the voices, "Boom. Boom. Boom. We associate a booming sound with explosions and bombs, • It is ironic that the parent uses the metaphor "called the tune" (line 10) to indicate the control they had over the child, when the 'music' produced was so violent. theme • "the secret police of your childhood” • Poem about memory, childhood, truth lies. • A parent trying to soft peddle a difficult childhood? For Tomorrow • Commentary on Standing Female Nude • Socratic Seminar Ticket 10 pts. • I am collecting both. Stealing: central questions • Why does Duffy use a contrast of colloquial and poetic diction? What is the effect? • Discuss the central image of the snowman in the poem. How does Duffy use it? • Colloquialism: in a conversational manner that may include slang: • Connotations: emotional association a reader has for a certain word: • Alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds at beginning of sentences; • Assonance: repetition of same vowel sound – : open, broken; remembered, tendered Stealing • • • • Dramatic Situation? Dramatic Monologue Angry tone Speaker? Who is he talking to? Structure • 5-5lined regular verse. • Unrhymed and irregular in meter. • Begins and ends with question. Nothing unusual about syntax Stanzas control the poem…keep it from spilling over. Contains the energy Language • Slang: “Better off dead.” • One word sentences • Lyrical lines: “A tall white mute/beneth the winter moon.” Why? • Sharp violent verbs: piercing my gut – Slice of ice. Why? language • Metaphor: snowman, Why significant? • Simile: “ a mind as cold as the slice of ice within my own brain. • Caesuras in the middle of the lines. Why effective Musical devices • Internal rhyme: “I started with the head/ better off dead – Slice of ice • Alliteration: ripped out in rags • Repetition: Again. Again. • Assonance: mute, moon, mats, mind: For Monday • Shooting Stars • Annotate poem. Use different colors highlighters or pencils. If you don’t have that use boxes, circles and underlines. • One color for images • One color for diction (words that seem carefully chosen for effect • Punctuation • Write a working Thesis at the bottom or top of page.. Don’t write a commentary until after we discuss it on Monday Standing Female Nude • Title Poem of her first Collection of poetry: Standing Female Nude – 1985 Picasso Standing Female Nude The Grand Nude; 1908 Gorges Braque 18921963 • Who has more power in this poem? • What is Duffy saying about art? What is Duffy saying about “ART” other themes? • Gender and class struggles • Objectification of women • Exploitation of women/artists and commercialization of art. • She is paid little, the artist’s work is later sold and resold for millions of dollars. • Think about Power, Gender and class struggles, the male gazeideas, contrasts Line breaks emphasize and juxtapositions. • Why in the last stanza do we have two one word lines? What do they represent or support? • Finished… enjambment: line continues just as the work seems to never end. Tone? • Cynical tone of a prostitute who poses for money. • “The bourgeoisie will coo… – Inequality of the classes – She stands for 6 hours for a few francs – Poem ends on the mention of francs also. Me • Reassertion of the model’s individualism. • “Finished …..me.” Two lines stick out and form their own thought • Speaks also to the artist’s transformation of model into an unrecognizable version of herself. Francis Bacon painting breaks new record • Sold last year for record breaking price of $142,405,000 sold in 6 minutes Some thoughts on structure • Duffy likes regular lined stanzas • “I found that [Stealing] fell naturally (as most of my poems do) into regular-lined verses- in this case, 5 5-lined verses. The verses are unrhymed and irregular in meter. These free verses work for me like small canvasses to hold the words of the poem. They help to control the rhythm of the poem… ” For Wednesday • Read “Warming her Pearls.” We will annotate and discuss in class. • Write a Formal 1/3-1 page commentary typed on Shooting Stars (10 pts) • Follow flow sheet – Thesis – At least 2 or 3 poetic devices used and to what effect – Cite lines Comments on commentary Commentaries need to be a a paragraph, not a list of observations. Work on this for the rest. Must be specific Some imagery is used to show …. Which imagery? Many of you are not stating how features are used: Syntax is regular – Why? How does fit poem? Commentary • Use formal third person • No first person. • Need to focus on literary devices and how they contribute to the meaning of the poem. Commentary continued • Commentaries should have a thesis: • How does author +verb+ lit. feature+ verb+lit. effect + why. • In the poem Mrs. Aesop, Carol Ann Duffy uses a sarcastic tone and humorous allusions to Aesop’s Fables to show the wife’s discontent in her marriage and to depict her husband as an unoriginal bore. • Don’t refer to persona in poem as narrator. It is a speaker • Avoid empty phrases: It seems to me, in my opinion, interesting to note. They don’t add to commentary. They only take up space. “I have no choice.” Different interpretations here, but the artist might mean 1. needs $. 2. must paint because he loves it. It is what he does Good comments • The phrase “Belly nipple arse” lacks punctuation which shows that she is being looked at as an overall item, not for her individual attributes. • This enjambment creates a broken rhythm to the poem that relates to the poverty of the model. Student Thesis • Duffy uses a lack of punctuation, a cynical tone, and enjambment to illustrate the deception behind the ideals of art; it is not a free, truthful medium, but rather a business and industry in which the subjects have little power to define themselves. Shooting Stars Class Performance • Six groups (count off) • Each group will present one stanza. Use choral voices, poses, actions to bring meaning to poem. • We will perform with no break More Poetry terms A caesura is a strong pause within a line, and is often found alongside enjambment. Enjambment: the running over from one line to another Shooting Stars Small Group: 1. Reflect on title: make web of denotations and connotations. 2 what is the dramatic situation and how is it demonstrated through structure ( form, movement, end-stopped lines: enjambment)/ Why 6 Stanzas? 3. Who is the speaker? Large Group 4. What is the significance of the images and how do they contribute to theme[s]? 5: What type of diction is used, what tone is created, and how does it support theme or action of poem? 6 Discuss use of punctuation and how it supports theme or poet’s intention. Terms Anaphora: the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. Euphemism: mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing. Shooting Stars After I no longer speak they break our fingers to salvage my wedding ring. Rebecca Homework For Friday: Use flowchart (10 pts) • Read Mrs. Aesop and write an introduction paragraph, followed by thesis • Title? • Structure? • Context ( topic common to writer?) • Speaker? • Literal meaning? • Deeper Meaning • Then thesis We Remember Your childhood is from Duffy’s collection The Other Country. The title suggests that parents are talking to their grown children. Typical for Duffy, the poem is written in regular lined stanzas( in this case 3 lines per stanza) and display irregular end rhyme. These tight stanzas represent the containment of memory discussed in the poem, more specifically the parents desire to control, or deny the frightened memories of the child. The address of the poem is a dramatic monologue, in which we hear only the parents’ denial of the child’s questions about her childhood. On a symbolic level, this poem is about memory and the tendency of those in authority to control the past. •Duffy uses mysterious and dark imagery, colloquial diction, and caesura to reveal the tension created by conflicting memories between parent and child. upright as statues, brave. You would not look at me. You waited for the bullet. Fell. I say, Remember. Remember those appalling days which make the forever bad. One saw I was alive. Loosened world his belt. My bowels opened in a ragged gape of fear. Between the gap of corpses I How would you prepare to die, on a perfect April evening with young men gossiping and smoking by the graves? My bare feet felt the earth and urine trickled down my legs. I heard the click. Not yet. A trick. After immense suffering someone takes tea on the lawn. After the terrible moans a boy Sister, if seas part us, do you not consider me? at dusk Tell them I sang the ancient psalms inside the wire and strong men wept. Turn thee am desolate and lost. unto me with mercy, for I Persona • A strong woman( speaking from the grave?) describing how the women were brave as statues. • Ends with song (psalm 26-16) one of King David’s, pleads with God for deliverance from affliction, shame and death: ‘let not my enemies exult over me’ (verse 2). Punctuation • Lack of commas between names to show loss of individuality. • Elipses…. The names go on and on…. • Rhetorical questions: How would you prepare to die? Do you not consider me? • 4th stanza: no commas…horror runs into the mundane Shooting Stars • Use of emotional and biblical diction to show the cruelty of the Nazis and the speaker’s plea to remember these atrocities and for humankind to show mercy. • Duffy juxtaposes violent Imagery of The Holocaust with the mundane to show the indifference to human suffering. “The world/turns in its sleep” Warming Her Pearls Selling Manhattan. Copyright © 1987 Annotate by self • Box important images (simile, metaphor, concrete images) • Circle diction and Language that is significant (word choice) • Underline sounds (musical devices) • Mark aspects of structure that seem significant Warming Her Pearls as group: • • • • • • Title? Structure? Context ( topic common to writer?) Speaker? Literal meaning? Deeper Meaning? (can fill this out later) Identify poetic devices in assigned stanza 2. Structure 3. Language 3f. Images 4.Musical Devices From Duffy in The Guardian Book Club Feb 2012 • It appears alongside "Warming Her Pearls", a lesbian love poem in the voice of a lady's maid who fancies not the mistress's pearls but the mistress herself. I think what I was interested in at the time of writing these poems was in finding a language and imagery for the erotic and the hidden or secret. The pearls warmed by the pining servant's skin are, of course, a metaphor for her desire; but a poem is also like a pearl – a languagejewel provoked into existence by the grit of feeling or revelation. Terms • Satire: A type of literature in which folly, evil or topical issues are held up to scorn through ridicule, irony or exaggeration. • Euphemism: an inoffensive word or phrase substituted for one considered offensive or harmful. Write thesis for poem • How does author +verb+ lit. feature+ verb+lit. effect + why. • Example: • Carol Ann Duffy uses a sarcastic tone and humorous allusions to Aesop’s Fables to show the wife’s discontent in her marraige and to depict her husband as an unoriginal bore. Evidence for Thesis • 5-8 items Author uses______to (show, illustrate, portray) – State line number say the line and explain how it connects to thesis, or poem’s theme. ( “In line 6, stanza 2 Duffy alludes to King Lear: say line”.) – Explain the literary effect (“Duffy uses allusion in stanza two in order to show the alienation of this young man from his education.”) – Move to next example • Little Red Cap Allusion: using an old literary character little girl, pawn, victim. Here more realistic. What could happen. She can take care of herself . Making fun…turning story on its head. Reflection on marriage …loss of innocence. Broken away from marriage. She saves herself. Bones… past oppression of grandmother who was eaten, could not escape. Short internal rhyme, similariteis to older fok story. Rhyme…creepy images…foreshadowing Structure: short pwerul phrases… she becomes the the power. Repetition of axe: to emphasize the oppression and her breaking from it. Allure of the wolf Symbolism of the wolf: men house becomes a place where women are subjugated by men.At childhoods end…end of being safe Allusion of original story, likes his appearance. She is on the make. Pawl Drawl: consonnance … internal rhyme. Pacing increased…Heightens the emotions, emotion attachement. String of words…excitement Third stanza of…metaphor into the tangled thorny place” POETRY!!!Winged innoncences is now knowledge books… repetition of words. Allusion: a reference to another literary work, famous person, myth, poem Childhoods end? Adolescent First Stanza: long sentence. The edge of the town…the end of childhood Images: mmmmalliteration muted….soft sound…life is sheltered. Second stanza: Reading poetry. His maturity and intelligence. Authority allusion to the original …She was scared of the wolf in the original, here this is what attra ts her. Internal line,,Rushed pacing…excitement Third Stanza: my first: emphas on first “encounter”First line: coloquial language. Informal…youth of speaker she is defending the situation. Short sentences. Periods create caesura.Poetry. Terms • Insult Poem: Poking fun at someone using exaggeration (Sisyphus, Aesop) • Satire: a piece of work that ridicules human Folly, evil or a topical issue. • Doggeral verse trite sentimental verse with forced rhyme or rhythm to create comic effect. (Sisyphus) • Revisionism:Rewriting well known text in which character or plot is changed to challenge the original view, or to present it with a different perspective. Re-rendering of Fairy Tales • Little Red-Cap takes on a feminist twist to the original tale in which a young girl falls victim to a predator. • Here, Little Red-Cap initiates the relationship with a “wolf” or older man for the sexual experience, but also to be introduced to the world of poetry. • The poem serves as an metaphor for female writers in a male world, finding voice Sound Device: consonance • Consonant sound preceded by a different vowel sound: – Home, same/ worth, breath, • Used to underscore emotion behind words • Gives poem a lyrical feel • At times creates a certain beat • Perk, shriek, cork, park, gawk, (Sisyphus) contributes to angry tone. Sound Device: assonance • Repetition of vowel sounds in middle of word – Near rhyme – Slow down the pace – Creates mood, tone Item: I gyve unto my wief my second best bed.” (from Shakespeare's will) The bed we loved in was a spinning world of forests, castles, torchlight, clifftops, seas where he would dive for pearls. My lover's words were shooting stars which fell to earth as kisses on these lips; my body now a softer rhyme to his, now echo, now assonance; his touch a verb dancing in the centre of a noun. Some nights, I dreamed he'd written me, the bed A page beneathhis writers’s hands. Romance and drama played by touch, by scent, by taste. In the other bed, the best, our guests dozed on, dribbling their prose. My living laughing love – I hold him in the casket of my widow's head as he held me upon that next best bed. Anne Hathway -tribute poem • Epigraph (best bed saved for guests) • Sonnet: love poem • Bed as metaphor for the marriage of love and language • Diction: lively words, spinning, dancing – Create a cheerful tone, warm tone • Sound: alliteration, assonance, consonance, iambic pentameter • Imagery: of language, of lovemaking • Allusions to his play • Lyrical voice of speaker-an equal match. • Duffy uses imagery of writing and lovemaking, lively diction, and iambic pentameter to reveal the speaker’s love and admiration for husband, William Shakespeare. Penelope • At first, – She looked for her husband, but by the end she has found satisfaction in independence • Tapestry becomes a metaphor for her life • Concrete images throughout • Use of color and sound that depicts young life with Odysseus • Irregular rhythm in 4th verse that is suggestive of the picking apart what she knitted at night Penelope • Alliteration line 25 of the l sound. • Metaphor “loose gold stitching of sun” – Sun setting on their relationship – Beautiful lyrical image and sound supported by alliteration sm0oth s sound • of needle as weapon 44-45 Organize by features • jI will discuss each feature and how they are present in each stanza. • My Thesis: • In “The Dolphins” Duffy uses regular lined structure, unusual syntax, repetition and imagery of loss to create pathos for the dolphins whose world has been reduced to an artificial pool. The Dolphins Organize by features Topic Sentences 1 Syntax is irregular to show how their world has been changed., – “World is what you live in.” The Object (world) becomes the subject – Short sentences =flat tone 2 Repetition is used to reinforce the loss of freedom and repetitive nature of their captivity. (world, man, space, blessed, disappeared) – Reinforces the repetitive motion of – swimming in circles 3 Imagery of loss is shown through concrete images and metaphor 5. Additional features: assonance, sorrowful tone, Activity • 1. Meet in groups to discuss assigned poem • 2. Identify poetic devices and how they are used: what is their effect? • 3. Come up with thesis statement • Get with someone who has a different poem and deliver a five minute oral. – I will ring bell. Practice Oral intro: • • • • • • • • • Intro Title? Structure? Context ( topic common to writer?) Speaker? Literal meaning? Deeper Meaning? (can fill this out later) Thesis Commentary: – – – – Dramatic situation Structure Language Musical devices The Grammar of Light • Rules of light. Light brings order to life just as parts of speech bring order to language The Grammar of Light: About the way light defines and brings order to our lives Moments of Grace: about time time and memory. Discussion of senses and how they pull us into the past, as well as bring us back into the present…”Now I smell you peeling an orange.: Blessings and grace; religious diction to honor those moments of memory and present time. Exam on Monday • As you enter you will draw your poem and show me your stamped commentaries. • You may start writing as soon as you sit down. • You must finish by the end of the hour • Staple your rubric to the front of essay and turn in. • Bring a lap top if you want and share it with me on google by the end of the period. Do not share it with me 1 or 2 hrs. after class. • You may write in pencil, but please make sure it is dark and easy to read. If I can’t read your writing you may lose points. Opening comments for Oral • General comments of poem: Title, poet, context (collection) • Structure: Duffy uses… • What is it about? Literal meaning – Identify dramatic situation The speaker. Is it a dramatic monolgue? Be clear with pronouns. She? Duffy? Or the speaker • Deeper meaning? Say one or two sentences here. • Thesis • Continue with analysis. Be sure to cite lines when you discuss literary devices and their effects approaches 1 Stanza by Stanza 2 Or by most obvious literary features in poem stated in thesis 3 Or:(Dramatic situation, structure, Language, musical devices) • Make sure you are relating back to thesis, literary effect and poet’s intent. Evidence for Thesis • 5-8 items Author uses______to (show, illustrate, portray) – State line number say the line and explain how it connects to thesis, or poem’s theme. ( “In line 6, stanza 2 Duffy alludes to King Lear: say line”.) – Explain the literary effect (“Duffy uses allusion in stanza two in order to show the alienation of this young man from his education.”) – Move to next example Away And See • With partner discuss the meaning of the poem • What are the main literary features and how are they used…to what effect? • Class Discussion • Title? – imperative sentence. A command to travel, live life, embrace the world and all the experience it has to offer • What is it about? – A parent telling a grown child to explore • Speaker – parent • Structure? – Five four lined stanzas. The last lines are four word commands to enjoy the world. Use the senses, inhale the world she seems to be saying • Context? – As in the previous two poems, she honors the written word. She personifies language giving it flight, giving words life. • Literal meaning? – clear • Deeper meaning? – use the senses to interpret the world and words to express its abundence. • Thesis: Duffy uses Repetition, imagery of the senses, and personification to command us to embrace the gifts of the world.