Viktor Lowenfeld & Mary Ann Stankiewicz

Report
Viktor Lowenfeld
&
Mary Ann
Stankiewicz
Jessica Gaston
Viktor Lowenfeld

Biographical information

Born in Linz, Austria in 1903, died at age 57
in 1960

Graduated from Kunstgewerbeschule in
1925, Vienna Academy of Fine Art in 1926,
and Vienna University in 1928
Viktor Lowenfeld

1926-1938: Taught at Hohe Warte Institution
for the Blind
 Left Austria in 1938 because of German invasion.
Moved to United States.

Started art department at Hampton
Institute

Started art education department at Penn
State
Viktor Lowenfeld

1947 – Published Creative and Mental
Growth
 “Free expression as necessary to the healthy growth
and development of the

child.” (Efland, 235)
Provided “psychologically compatible art activities”
(Efland, 235).
Viktor Lowenfeld

1947 – Published Creative and Mental
Growth

Described stages of growth in understandable terms:

Scribble Stage (2-4 years)

Preschematic (4-6 years)

Schematic (7-9 years)

Dawning Realism/Gang Age (9-11 years)

Psuedorealistic Stage (11-13 years)
Mary Ann Stankiewicz

Still actively working in arts education
research. Currently writing a book on the
history of the Massachusetts College of Art.

Recognized for scholarship in art education
history
Mary Ann Stankiewicz

Positions held:



Professor of Art Education at Penn State

Assistant Vice President of academic
affairs for Ringling School of Art and
Design

Program officer with the Getty Center for
Education in the Arts
President of NAEA
Coordinator for art education programs at
University of Maine and California State
Mary Ann Stankiewicz

Prolific writer

Written in several art education journals
as well as publishing books

Maryannstankiewicz.com/wordpress
Mary Ann Stankiewicz

Roots of Art Education Practice published in
2001

Book sections: The Early Years of Art
History in the United States; Histories of Art
and Design Education: Cole to Coldstream;
Art in a Democracy; Women, Art, and
Education; In Their Own Words: The
Development of Doctoral Study in Art
Education; Contemporary Issues in Art
Education; and Women Art Educators V.
References
Alter-Muri, S.B. (2002). Viktor Lowenfeld revisited: a review of Lowenfeld’s
preschematic, schematic, gang age stages. American Journal of Art
Therapy, 40(3), 170-192.
Efland, A.D. (1990). A History of art education: Intellectual and social currents
in teaching the visual arts. New York: Teachers College Press.
Lowenfeld, V. (1947). Creative and mental growth (3rd ed.). New York:
Macmillan.
Lowenfeld, V. (1987). Therapeutic aspects of art education. American Journal
of Art Therapy, 25, 111-146.
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.arteducators.org/
(n.d.). Retrieved from http://maryannstankiewicz.com/wordpress/

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