Lesson 26 The Process of Reduction

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The Process of Reduction
Lesson 26
By Joseph C. Blumenthal
When we substitute a simpler word group for a longer
and more complicated word group, we say that we
reduce the longer word group.
To reduce a word group means to (simplify, complicate) it.
When we substitute a simpler word group for a longer
and more complicated word group, we say that we
reduce the longer word group.
To reduce a word group means to (simplify, complicate) it.
In general, express you ideas in the simplest word
group you can without sacrificing clearness. A good
sentence, like a good machine, has no useless parts.
If you can express your idea in a prepositional phrase,
don’t use (a sentence, an adjective).
In general, express you ideas in the simplest word
group you can without sacrificing clearness. A good
sentence, like a good machine, has no useless parts.
If you can express your idea in a prepositional phrase,
don’t use (a sentence, an adjective).
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sentence
Clause
Phrase (verbal, appositive, prepositional)
Single word (adjective, adverb)
As we proceed through this list from 1 to 4, the sentence
elements become more (simple, complicated).
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sentence
Clause
Phrase (verbal, appositive, prepositional)
Single word (adjective, adverb)
As we proceed through this list from 1 to 4, the sentence
elements become more (simple, complicated).
The process of reducing a word group to a simpler
word group is called reduction.
a.
b.
Changing a sentence to an appositive
phrase.
Changing a single word to a clause.
Which is an example of reduction? (a, b)
The process of reducing a word group to a simpler
word group is called reduction.
a.
b.
Changing a sentence to an appositive
phrase.
Changing a single word to a clause.
Which is an example of reduction? (a, b)
a.
b.
Changing a sentence to an appositive
phrase.
Changing a single word to a clause.
Which change would be preferable in your writing? (a, b)
a.
b.
Changing a sentence to an appositive
phrase.
Changing a single word to a clause.
Which change would be preferable in your writing? (a, b)
When you reduce a word group, you generally improve
your writing by using (fewer, more) words.
When you reduce a word group, you generally improve
your writing by using (fewer, more) words.
We have spent many frames on reducing sentences to
subordinate word groups—to clauses and various
kinds of phrases. Now we shall practice other types
of reduction.
Ann stumbled while she was coming down the
stairs.
Which two words can you omit from the adverb
clause without changing the meaning? ___ ___
We have spent many frames on reducing sentences to
subordinate word groups—to clauses and various
kinds of phrases. Now we shall practice other types
of reduction.
Ann stumbled while she was coming down the
stairs.
Which two words can you omit from the adverb
clause without changing the meaning? she was
Ann stumbled while (she was) coming down the
stairs.
The two words that we can omit from the adverb
clause are the subject and a part of the ____.
Ann stumbled while (she was) coming down the
stairs.
The two words that we can omit from the adverb
clause are the subject and a part of the verb.
The word elliptical means “having words omitted.” An
adverb clause from which words have been omitted
is an elliptical clause.
Ann stumbled while (she was) coming down the
stairs.
In the above sentence, using the elliptical clause
eliminates ___ words (How many?)
The word elliptical means “having words omitted.” An
adverb clause from which words have been omitted
is an elliptical clause.
Ann stumbled while (she was) coming down the
stairs.
In the above sentence, using the elliptical clause
eliminates two words (How many?)
Crackers will stay crisp if they are kept in a tin
box.
The italicized elliptical clause can be reduced to:
_____________
Crackers will stay crisp if they are kept in a tin
box.
The italicized elliptical clause can be reduced to:
if kept in a tin box
While he was looking for a job, Ted had many
disappointments.
The elliptical clause to which the italicized adverb
clause can be reduced to: _______________
While he was looking for a job, Ted had many
disappointments.
The elliptical clause to which the italicized adverb
clause can be reduced to: While looking for a job,
An adverb clause can often be reduced to a
present participle phrase.
When I saw the child, I put on the breaks.
Seeing the child, I put on the breaks.
This reduction eliminates ___ words. (How many?)
An adverb clause can often be reduced to a
present participle phrase.
When I saw the child, I put on the breaks.
Seeing the child, I put on the breaks.
This reduction eliminates two words. (How many?)
How can the adverb clause be reduced?
Because I wanted experience, I fixed the
radio myself.
______________, I fixed the radio myself.
How can the adverb clause be reduced?
Because I wanted experience, I fixed the
radio myself.
Wanting experience, I fixed the radio myself.
An adverb clause that starts with the clause signal
so that can often be reduced to an infinitive
phrase.
I set the alarm so that it would wake me at
six.
I set the alarm to wake me at six.
The reduction eliminates ____ words. (How many?)
An adverb clause that starts with the clause signal
so that can often be reduced to an infinitive
phrase.
I set the alarm so that it would wake me at
six.
I set the alarm to wake me at six.
The reduction eliminates three words. (How many?)
He adjusted the carburetor so that it
would use less gas.
What is the infinitive phrase to which the adverb clause can
be reduced:
He adjusted the carburetor ___________.
He adjusted the carburetor so that it
would use less gas.
What is the infinitive phrase to which the adverb clause can
be reduced:
He adjusted the carburetor to use less gas.
Adjective clauses, too, can often be reduced to the same
kind of verbal phrases. See how we change an adjective
clause to a present participial phrase:
a.
b.
The house was built on a hill that overlooked
a lake.
The house was built on a hill overlooking a
lake.
The present participle in sentence b is ________.
Adjective clauses, too, can often be reduced to the same
kind of verbal phrases. See how we change an adjective
clause to a present participial phrase:
a.
b.
The house was built on a hill that overlooked
a lake.
The house was built on a hill overlooking a
lake.
The present participle in sentence b is overlooking.
Books may be borrowed by anyone who has a
library card.
Fill in the present participial phrase to which the
adjective clause can be reduced:
Books may be borrowed by anyone _______
__________.
Books may be borrowed by anyone who has a
library card.
Fill in the present participial phrase to which the
adjective clause can be reduced:
Books may be borrowed by anyone having a
library card.
Now we shall reduce an adjective clause to past
participial phrase:
We bought some corn that was picked this
morning.
Which two words in the adjective clause can be
omitted without changing the meaning? ___ ___
Now we shall reduce an adjective clause to past
participial phrase:
We bought some corn that was picked this
morning.
Which two words in the adjective clause can be
omitted without changing the meaning? that was
We bought some corn that was picked this
morning.
Fill in the past participle phrase to which the adjective
clause can be reduced:
We bought some corn _____________.
We bought some corn that was picked this
morning.
Fill in the past participle phrase to which the adjective
clause can be reduced:
We bought some corn picked this morning.
An adjective clause can sometimes be reduced to an
infinitive phrase.
You need more facts that will prove your
argument.
You need more facts to prove your argument.
In the second sentence we changed the verb will
prove to the infinitive ______.
An adjective clause can sometimes be reduced to an
infinitive phrase.
You need more facts that will prove your
argument.
You need more facts to prove your argument.
In the second sentence we changed the verb will
prove to the infinitive to prove.
We are planning a program that will stimulate
an interest in science.
Fill in the infinitive phrase to which the adjective clause
can be reduced:
We are planning a program _____________
________________.
We are planning a program that will stimulate
an interest in science.
Fill in the infinitive phrase to which the adjective clause
can be reduced:
We are planning a program to stimulate an
interest in science.
By understanding the various types of subordinate word
groups, you not only save words but also give more
interesting variety to your sentences.
If you had several adjective clauses close together, would
it generally be a good idea to change one of them to a
participial phrase? (yes, no)
By understanding the various types of subordinate word
groups, you not only save words but also give more
interesting variety to your sentences.
If you had several adjective clauses close together, would
it generally be a good idea to change one of them to a
participial phrase? (yes, no)
If you thought that you had repeated the word because
too many times, how could you change the adverb
clause in the following sentence?
I threw away the box because I thought it was
empty.
I threw it away the box, ________ it was empty.
If you thought that you had repeated the word because
too many times, how could you change the adverb
clause in the following sentence?
I threw away the box because I thought it was
empty.
I threw it away the box, thinking it was empty.
If you thought that you had used to many clauses
beginning with “When you…,” how could you change
the adverb clause in the following sentence?
When you train a dog, always use the same
commands.
In ____________ , always use the same
commands.
If you thought that you had used to many clauses
beginning with “When you…,” how could you change
the adverb clause in the following sentence?
When you train a dog, always use the same
commands.
In training a dog , always use the same
commands.
As I got off the bus, I saw fire engines.
After the above sentence, which of the following
sentences would offer greater variety –a or b?
a.
b.
As I looked down the street, I saw clouds
of smoke.
Looking down the street, I saw clouds of
smoke.
As I got off the bus, I saw fire engines.
After the above sentence, which of the following
sentences would offer greater variety –a or b?
a.
b.
As I looked down the street, I saw clouds
of smoke.
Looking down the street, I saw clouds of
smoke.
Write the following answers on your own sheet of
paper.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
If they are overcooked, vegetables lose their
flavor. (elliptical clause)
1. __________________, vegetables lose their
flavor.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
A violin will deteriorate if it is not played
occasionally. (elliptical clause)
2. A violin will deteriorate
______________________________.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
As I walked through the tall grass, I suddenly
heard the rattle of a snake. (present
participial phrase)
3. ______________________________, I
suddenly heard the rattle of a snake.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
Since I don’t understand Spanish, I was at a
serious disadvantage. (present participial
phrase)
4. ______________________________, I was at
a serious disadvantage.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
We went to the lake so that we could escape the
heat. (infinitive phrase)
5. We went to the lake
______________________________.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
It is a tedious job which requires much patience.
(present participial phrase)
6. It is a tedious job
______________________________.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
The union published a full-page advertisement
which stated their viewpoint on the strike.
(present participial phrase)
7. The union published a full-page advertisement
______________________________.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
Every nail that was used in the old fort was
made by hand. (past participial phrase)
8. Every nail _____________________was
made by hand.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
Most of the articles that were advertised in the
paper were sold out. (past participial
phrase)
9. Most of the articles
_____________________were sold out.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
Frank had little money that he could spend on
entertainment. (infinitive phrase)
10. Frank had little money
_________________________.
In this and the following frames, reduce each
italicized clause to the type of word group
indicated in parentheses:
We called a meeting so that we could elect
officers. (infinitive phrase)
11. We called a meeting
_________________________.
You are done!!!

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