6 Kingdoms of Life Part 1

Report
6 Kingdoms of Life Part 1:
Archaebacteria, Eubacteria,
Protist, and Fungi
1
Characteristics of Living Things
• 5 characteristics of living things
– Made up of cells
– Reproduce
– Based on genetic code
– Metabolism
– Homeostasis
• To be considered living, an object MUST have
ALL 5 characteristics
2
• As living things are constantly being
investigated, new attributes are revealed
that affect how organisms are placed in a
standard classification system.
3
Classification
• Scientists have determined
seven levels of classification:
– Kingdom = Kings
– Phylum = Pass
– Class = Classes
– Order = to Order
– Family = Families
– Genus = and their Good
– Species = Sons around
4
Classification of Modern
Humans
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Kingdom = Animalia
Phylum = Chordata
Class = Mammalia
Order = Primates
Family = Hominidae
Genus = Homo
Species = sapiens
5
• The grouping of organisms into
KINGDOMS is based on 3 factors:
– 1. Cell Type
– 2. Cell Number
– 3. Feeding Type
6
1st Criterion for Kingdom Divisions: Cell Type
Prokaryotes
or
Eukaryotes
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6 kingdoms
1. Eubacteria
2. Archaebacteria
3.
4.
5.
6.
Protista
Fungi
Plantae
Animalia
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
8
2nd Criterion for Kingdom Divisions: Cell
Number
•Unicellular- single celled organism –
protozoans, bacteria, some algae
•Multicellular- many celled organism –
cells start to specialize/differentiate
9
• Unicellular
• Multicellular
10
3rd Criteria for Kingdom Divisions: Feeding
Type
–Autotroph or Producer
Make their own energy source
–Heterotroph or Consumer
Must eat other organisms to survive
Includes decomposers – those that eat dead
matter!
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Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
Kingdoms
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Bacteria
Microbiology- the study of very small,
microscopic organisms
–
–
–
–
–
Bacteria
Fungi
Viruses
Protists
Etc.
13
Bacteria=Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes
No organelles except
ribosomes
NO NUCLEUS
Eukaryotes
Lots of organelles
INCLUDING NUCLEUS
14
Prokaryotic History
• Oldest organisms: 3.5
billion yrs. old.
• Live in almost every
environment.
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Eubacteria
• Kingdom Eubacteria
– Common environments
– Believed to be the
ancestors of
mitochondria and
chloroplasts--organelles in eukaryotic
cells
16
Archaebacteria
• Kingdom Archaebacteria
– Found in extreme environments-extremophiles
– Ancient bacteria-gave rise to eukaryotic cells
17
Characteristics-Size
• Size
• Red blood cell is 250X’s larger than a bacterium
• 1 gram of soil can contain 2.5 BILLION bacteria
• Relative bacteria size
18
Characteristics-Shapes
• Shapes:
– Cocci- round
– Bacilli- rod-shaped
– Spirilla- spiral
19
Prokaryotic Structure
• Interior structures
– Has DNA and cytoplasm—
no nucleus or other
membrane bound organelles
EXCEPT ribosomes
– Ribosomes- the protein
making factories of all cells
20
Prokaryotic Structure
• Exterior structures
– Flagella-whip-like tail for
locomotion
– Cell membrane to control
what goes in and out
– Cell wall for protection
21
2 Types of Cell Walls
• 2 types of cell walls
found in bacteria
– Identified as Gram + or
Gram –
– There’s a chemical
difference b/t them.
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Gram staining
• Special staining
process
• “Gram positive is
purple; Gram
negative is not.”
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2 Types of Cell Walls
•
Gram +
– Thick cell wall
– Holds purple stain,
so cells look purple
•
Gram —Two thin layers
make up cell wall
—Doesn’t hold
purple stain so
appears pink
24
2 Types of Cell Walls
• Treatment of illness due to
these bacteria is different!
– Gram - : bacteria that stain pink
and are generally NOT affected
by antibiotics
• i.e. E. coli
– Gram +: bacteria that stain
purple do to a thick cell wall and
are affected by antibiotics
• i.e. S. pneumoniae
25
Prokaryotic Reproduction
• Binary fission- process of
asexual reproduction where 1
becomes 2.
– Results in clones
– Colony- 1000’s of bacteria that
result from one undergoing
binary fission
26
How are prokaryotes so diverse?
• They have several ways of exchanging genetic info
• Conjugation--exchanging DNA through a straw-like
tube called a pilus
• Transformation—another method of transferring genes
between bacteria.
27
Useful Prokaryotes
• Decomposers- Recycle nutrients such as CO2 , water,
nitrogen, and phosphorus
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Useful Prokaryotes
•Nitrogen fixation- soil bacteria
take nitrogen gas from the air
(N2) and change it into a useable
form that plants can absorb
(NH3- ammonia.)
•Plants use the nitrogen to
produce their proteins and DNA.
•Some bacteria are photosynthetic
and also provide oxygen
N2
YUMMY!
Bacteria
NH3
29
Useful Prokaryotes
•
•
•
•
Food-- yogurt, olives, pickles, chocolate
Drugs -- insulin production
Clean up oil spills
Animal digestion and vitamins, including
our own
• Microbe Discovery Movie
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•
•
•
•
Harmful Prokaryotes
Pathogen- disease causing organisms.
Pathologists -scientists who study pathogens.
Not many bacteria are pathogenic— ONLY 1%!
Disease Transmission:
a.) Water
b.) Air
c.) Food
d.) Animals/Insects
e.) Human Contact
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Prokaryotic Diseases
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tuberculosis
Syphilis
Bubonic Plague
Typhus
Tetanus
Lyme Disease
32
Controlling Prokaryotic Growth
• What do bacteria require to live and reproduce?
- Food, water, and the right climate.
-Give bacteria these things, and they grow;
remove them and they don’t.
33
Nutrition and Energy
• How do bacteria “eat”?
– 1.) Autotrophic- “self-feeders”
• Photosynthetic- MAKE energy source and
release oxygen
• Can also be chemosynthetic
– 2.) Heterotrophic- “other-feeders”
• GET energy source outside themselves
– Consumers
– Decomposers
– Parasites
34
Feeding Prokaryotes in the Lab
• Plastic Petri dishes have a Jell-O like substance called
AGAR with nutrients and water for bacteria to grow
on.
35
GROWTH CURVE
36
Controlling Prokaryotic Growth
• Antibiotics
• Sanitizing--Antiseptics and
Disinfectants
• Freezing
• Cooking
• Pasteurizing
• Dehydrating
• Vaccination
37
Antibiotics
• Alexander Fleming
• Mold on his Petri dish had a zone of inhibitionarea in which bacteria didn’t grow.
• Mold released the antibiotic
penicillin
BACTERIA
• Antibiotic=against life; any
substance produced by a
microbe that slows the
MOLD
growth of other microorganisms.
38
Antibiotics
• Antibiotics are made by :
– Fungus (mold)
– Other bacteria, the most
common Streptomyces.
– Present day antibiotics are
synthetic modifications of
naturally occurring ones.
• Work well on Gram + bacteria
• NOT the same thing as aspirin
or tylenol, which are pain
killers
BACTERIA
Each paper disk has antibiotics
39 on it.
Which antibiotic is more powerful?
Antibiotic Resistance
• Antibiotic resistance- some bacteria
are not affected by certain antibiotics!
• Can be resistant due to:
– Special cell walls (i.e. Gram – bacteria)
OR
– Special antibiotic resistant genes
• Don’t finish antibiotics:
– Weaker bacteria destroyed.
– **Resistant bacteria still live and pass on
resistant genes through binary fission,
conjugation and transformation
– Conjugation animation
Movie
40
Sanitizing
• Antiseptics- chemicals used to inhibit growth of
bacteria on living tissues
• Disinfectants- chemicals used to inhibit growth of
bacteria on NON-living things.
41
Freezing
• How would this
control the growth
of bacteria?
• Would freezing
kill all the bacteria?
42
Cooking
• Cooking can control bacterial
growth and kill most bacteria if
heated to certain temps—165F
or hotter.
• Use a meat thermometer
• Wash hands after handling raw
meat
43
Pasteurizing
• Pasteurization- using heat to kill bacteria in
liquids.
44
Dehydrating
• Dehydration- removal of water from a substance
• How would this control the growth of bacteria?
45
Vaccination
• Vaccination- a shot, pill, or mist that prevents you
from getting a disease. DOES NOT CURE YOU.
• Fast and strong immune system memory cells
produced which provides immunity just like if you
got the disease (i.e. tetanus.)
46
Vaccination
• Can use weakened (attenuated) bacteria or viruses
• MOSTLY use parts of bacteria or viruses—acellular
• Vaccine video
47
BACTERIA KINGDOMS
PROKARYOTIC
UNICELLULAR
HETEROTROPHS AND AUTOTROPHS
ARCHAEBACTERIA
OLDEST
FORM
OF LIFE
LIVES IN EXTREME
ENVIRONMENTS
EUBACTERIA
3.5 BILLION
YEAR OLD
ANCESTORS
MORE
RECENTLY
EVOLVED
LIVES IN MORE
COMMON
ENVIRONMENTS
48
Protist Kingdom
49
Kingdom Protista
50
Protists, what are they?
• Protists are defined by what they are
NOT…
– Eukaryotes that are not plants,
animals, or fungi
• 1st eukaryotic organisms
• Autotrophic or heterotrophic
• Asexual or sexual reproduction
• Most are unicellular (algae exception)
• Many are aquatic
• “Junk drawer kingdom”
51
Protists and the Evolutionary Tree
We are going to take a look at some phyla within the Protist
Kingdom
52
Animal-like Protists
• Unicellular
• Heterotrophic organisms
• Animal like protists are distinguished by how they
move:
1) Sarcodines—move with pseudopods
2) Ciliates—move with cilia
3) Zooflagellates—move with flagella
4) Sporozoans—immobile
53
Sarcodines
• Animal-like protists that use pseudopods for feeding
and moving
• Pseudopods-extensions of cytoplasm
• Ex) Amoeba
FOOD
54
Amoeba microscope footage
Sarcodines
• Ameobic dysentery
• Montezuma’s
revenge or “traveler’s
diarrhea”
Ameoba histolytica
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Ciliates
• Animal-like protists that use cilia for feeding and
movement
• Cilia-hair-like structures
• Ex) Paramecium
Paramecium microscope footage
56
Zooflagellates
• Animal-like protists swim
using flagella
• Trypanosoma protist spread
by the bite of tsetse fly
causes African Sleeping
Sickness
• Giardia can contaminate
water and cause digestive
problems
• Trichonympha lives in
mutualistic relationship with
termites
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Sporozoans
• Animal-like protists that don’t move on their own and
are parasitic
• Plasmodium sporozoan causes malaria
• Sporozoan parasite is carried by female Anopheles
mosquito
58
Plasmodium Life Cycle
• Mosquito bites human and
parasite injected
• Parasites invade liver,
reproduce, and develop
• Liver cells burst and parasites
move to red blood cells
• RBC burst-person experiences
anemia, fever, chills, may
result in death
• Parasites may then move into other
RBC or are picked up by mosquito
and transferred to another person
59
Plantlike Protists
• Autotrophs- contain chlorophyll and carry out
photosynthesis
• Euglenophytes
• Diatoms
• Algae
• Often called “phytoplankton”- small
photosynthetic organisms near the surface of
ocean
• Releases tons of oxygen into the atmosphere
• Important food source for many “filter feeders”
60
Euglenophytes
• Plant-like protists that have flagella and chloroplast,
but no cell wall.
• Ex) Euglena
• Autotrophs when sunny but heterotrophs when not
Euglena microscope footage
61
Diatoms
• Plant-like protists that produce thin, delicate cell
walls made of silicon
• Used in toothpaste, paints on license plates,
dynamite
62
Algae
• Plant-like protists
– Unicellular algae
– Multicellular algae
• Red and brown algae
• Contains special
pigments that allows it
to live deep areas of
water
• Commonly called
“seaweed” (ex: Kelp)
63
Plantlike Protists: Algae
• Green Algae- some are unicellular, some form
colonies, few are multicellular
64
Humans and Algae
• Humans understand many beneficial uses of algae:
1) Used to make nutrient agar
2) Used as ingredient in ice cream, pudding, salad
dressing, syrups
3) Food source – humans and other animals
4) Releases oxygen from photosynthesis
• Algae causes harm in “algal blooms” – depletes water
of nutrients and oxygen
65
Fungus-like Protists
• Decomposers
• Heterotrophic protists that
absorb nutrients, but lack cell
walls with chitin
– Slime molds- found near
moist, rotting logs and
composts
– Slime mold video
– Water molds – can be parasitic
and cause “ick” in fish
66
PROTIST KINGDOM
EUKARYOTIC
UNICELLULAR AND MULTICELLULAR
HETEROTROPHS AND AUTOTROPHS
PLANT-LIKE
AUTOTROPHIC SO
CREATE OWN
ENERGY SOURCE
ANIMAL-LIKE
FUNGUS-LIKE
HETEROTROPHIC SO HAVE TO
CONSUME ENERGY SOURCE,
BUT ARE UNICELLULAR,
UNLIKE ANIMALS
HETEROTROPHIC
DECOMPOSERS THAT
HAVE TO CONSUME
ENERGY SOURCE
EXAMPLES:
EXAMPLES:
EXAMPLES:
67
Fungi Kingdom
68
Fungi
Unicellular
(yeast)
Multicellular
• All fungi are
eukaryotic
• They may be
unicellular or
multicellular (most)
yeast
69
Fungi Characteristics
• Most are immobile
• All have cell walls made of “chitin”- a carbohydrate
which also makes up the exoskeleton of insects
CHITIN!
70
Fungal Structure
• Fungi are made of thin strands called hyphae
• Each strand consists of cells separated by a wall called a
septa
71
Fungal Structure (cont.)
• As hyphae grow, they
form a tangled mass
called a mycelium
• The mycelium is usually
underground or
embedded in some food
source
• The main function of
mycelium is to absorb
food
72
Nutritional Status of Fungi
• Heterotrophs because they feed off non-living,
organic matter
• All fungi must absorb food outside the body
– Animals = ingest then digest
– Fungi = digest then ingest.
– Enzymes break down food outside of body (use
“exoenzymes”).
• Important decomposers in the ecosystem
• Along with bacteria, fungi are important in recycling
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nutrients such as carbon and nitrogen
Fungal Reproduction
• The part of the fungus that we
see above ground is called the
fruiting body
• The fruiting body is the main
reproductive part of the fungus
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Fungal Reproduction
• Fungi reproduce asexually and sexually.
• Asexual reproduction can be done by…
a. Hyphae breaking off and growing on their own.
b. Producing spores.
78
Fungal Reproduction
• Fungal spores are found in almost any environment.
• Wind  blows spores  land in “favorable” spot  new
fungus.
• Some fungi attract animals to aid in spore dispersal. Ex.)
Stinkhorn fungus
79
Fungal Reproduction
• Sexual reproduction
involves two different
mating types
• No males or females,
instead they are known as
“+” plus or “-” minus.
• When hyphae from two
different mating types come
together, they fuse together
forming a diploid zygote.
80
Groups of Fungi
• The main phyla of fungi are divided according to
how they sexually produce spores
– 1.) Zygomycetes
– 2.) Ascomycetes
– 3.) Basidiomycetes
– 4.) Deuteromycetes
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Zygomycetes
• Ex.) Bread mold
• Some of the hyphae form a zygosporangium which
produces spores
• Spores can be carried by wind
82
Ascomycetes (sac fungi)
• Ex.) Yeast and mildew
• Form spores in saclike structures called asci
• Each ascus bursts open shooting spores into the air
83
Basidiomycetes (club fungi)
• Ex.) Mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi
• Spores form under the caps of mushrooms on
structures called basidia
84
Deuteromycetes
• Ex.) Penicillin, many
disease causing fungi.
• These fungi do not
reproduce sexually.
85
Helpful Fungi
Penicillin
• Fungi can be very helpful
and delicious
• Many antibacterial drugs are
derived from fungi
• Fungi accounts for the blue
vein in blue cheese!
86
Harmful Fungi
• Fungi also causes a number of plant and animal
diseases:
•Athlete's Foot
87
Harmful Fungi
• Ringworm
• Fungi on discoveryed
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FUNGUS KINGDOM
EUKARYOTIC
MULTICELLULAR
HETEROTROPHS
ZYGOMYCETES
ASCOMYCETES
FORMS
ZYGOSPORANGIUM
WHICH FORMS
SPORES
FORMS SACS
CALLED ASCI
THAT FORMS
SPORES
EXAMPLES:
DEUTEROMYCETES
BASIDIOMYCETES
NO
SPORES
SPORES
FORM ON
BASIDIA
EXAMPLES:
EXAMPLES:
EXAMPLES:
90

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