Regio Project A Brief Literature Review March 2014 Contents 1. Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) 2. Modern Foreign Language (MFL) Pedagogy in the UK 3. Motivation and Transition 4. iPads Pedagogy Secondary School Primary School A quick reference to the UK’s education system Key Stages (KS) School years Ages Foreign Languages Compulsory 0 Reception Class 4-5 No 1 Year 1 Year 2 5-6 6-7 No No 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 7-8 8-9 9-10 10-11 Yes Yes Yes Yes 3 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 11-12 12-13 13-14 Yes Yes Yes 4 Year 10 Year 11 14-15 15-16 No No Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) • CLIL not clearly defined in Europe, thus effectiveness difficult to measure (Cenoz 2013) • CLIL contexts are important to assess effectiveness: policy, teachers’ training, age of implementation & extracurricular exposure to target language (Sylvén 2013, Cenoz 2013). • CLIL in Spain has increased greatly in the last decade, with some regional differences. It also has a large and early implementation. However, evidence suggests that extracurricular exposure is limited (Sylvén 2013). Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) • Aims need to be clear before implementation: – Aim: functional bilingual: early introduction – Aim: acquire subject specific proficiency: later introduction • Language only-lessons offer low cognitive challenges, CLIL increase meta cognitive skills (Hunt 2012) • CLIL promotes linguistic competence, cognitive development & thinking skills(Marsh & Langé 2002) Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) • Recommendations: • Solid empirical research needed • Europe needs to research effects and features instead of reporting benefits (Perez-Cañado 2012) • Methodological flaws are common (PerezCañado 2012) • Longitudinal studies needed (Perez-Cañado 2012) Modern Foreign Language (MFL) Pedagogy in the UK A brief history of policy? • 1990s: National curriculum: Languages for all in KS3 & KS4 • 2000S: A National Languages Strategy: – 2002: end of languages for all – 2003: KS3 MFL Framework (MFL removed at KS4) – 2005: KS2 Framework for languages – 2007: Revised National Curriculum – 2009: KS3 Framework for languages • 2014: National Curriculum revised: Foreign languages compulsory in primary school. New National Curriculum in England: languages programmes of study • In 2014 languages in primary schools became compulsory (KS2, ages 7-11) • Options: Modern Foreign Language (MFL) Ancient Foreign Language (AFL) French Latin German Greek Italian Spanish Mandarin Points of discussion • Lack of staff expertise • Lack of consistency in FL provision in primary schools • No assessment tools in place • Lack of resources/budget cuts • Curriculum does not place enough emphasis on developing children’s cultural understanding • Options are not necessarily relevant for UK’s context: there are other languages that are greatly spoken in the UK: Arabic, Russian, Somali • Pros: greater collaboration among schools can ease pupils’ transition from KS2 to KS3 In conclusion • CLIL needs more empirical research avoiding methodological flaws. • Spain is an interesting case study to assess CLIL because of history of implementation. • It is important for pupils that MFL classes are enjoyable (Evans & Fisher 2009). • In England, there is a lack of consistency in FL provision in primary schools and challenges in progression in Year 7 groups (Evans & Fisher 2009). • Use of ICT was reported to be a key driver for improving quality of language teaching and learning, as well as interactivity (Evans & Fisher 2009). 3. Motivation and Transition What is motivation to learn L2? • different overlapping factors such as interest, curiosity, or desire to achieve. • differs in different situations and circumstances • subject to various external influences such as parents, teachers, peers and exams. 3. Motivation in foreign and second language learning • Learning a foreign language implies a social venture. Language belongs to a person’s whole social being; it is a part of one’s identity, and is used to convey this identity to other people. • It involves an alteration in self-image, the adoption of new social and cultural behaviours and ways of being, and has a significant impact on the social nature of the learner. • Learning a second language is learning to be another social person. It’s acquiring the skill and behavior patterns which are characteristic of another community. Gardner’s socio-educational model of language learning motivation • This model incorporates the learner’s cultural beliefs, their attitudes towards the learning situation, their integrativeness, and their motivation. • Defines motivation as the combination of effort plus “the desire to learn a language, the motivation intensity, and attitudes towards learning such language”. • Other factors, such as attitude towards the learning situation and integrativeness can influence these attributes Reasons for learning another language • Instrumental Orientation: the reason to learn a language lies on external goals such as passing exams, financial rewards, a career or gaining promotion. • Integrative Orientation: the reason to learn a language lies on the wish to identify with the culture of speakers of that language. Dörnyei’s model: levels • The language level encompasses various orientations and motives related to aspects of the second language. These will influence the goals learners set and the choices they make. • Dörney’s learner level involves individual characteristics that the learner brings to the learning task. • The situation level is related to the course, the teacher, and the group dynamics. A social-constuctivist view of motivation • A constructivist view of motivation centres around the premise that each individual is motivated differently. • People will make their own sense of various external infuences that surround them in ways that are personal to them, and they will act on their internal disposition and use their personal attibutes in unique ways. • What motivates one person to learn a foreign language and keeps going will differ from individual to individual. • An individual’s motivation is subject to social and contextual influences. These will include the whole culture and context and the social situation, as well as significant other people and the individual’s interactions with these people Internal • Intrinsic interest of activity • Perceived value of the activity • Sense of agency • Mastery • Self-concept • Attitudes • Affective states • Developement al stage • Gender and External • Significant others • Nature of interaction with significant others • Learning environment • Broader content The role of significant others • The personality or nature of the person introducing the acitivity. • The way in which the person presents the activity and works with the learner during the completion of that activity. • The attitudes voiced (and displayed) by friends, families, media figures Suggestions for language teachers: • Recognise the complexity of emotion • Be aware of both initiating and sustaining motivation • Discuss with learners why they are carrying out activities • Involve learners in making decisions related to learning the language • Involve learners in language learning goals • Regonise people as individuals • Build up individuals’ beliefs in themselves • Develop internal beliefs • Help to move towards a mastery oriented style • Enhance intrinsic motivation • Build up a supporting learning environment • Give feedback that is informational. 4. The use of iPads in the classroom: Pedagogy and motivation ‘It appears that one-to-one Tablets offer a sense of inclusion that allow children, irrespective of socioeconomic status or level of attainment, an opportunity to thrive through a new pedagogical model of pupil-led learning’. Dr Barbie Clarke, Siv Svanaes, 2012 The introduction of iPads Three main issues: 1. Technical 2. Pedagogical 3. Management Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield Academy, Kent Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield Academy, Kent The Evolution of Pedagogical Approaches A movement away from traditional pedagogy toward exploring wider concepts and ideas. • • • • Digital Capital. Student led. Learning outside the classroom. Shifts in modes of assessment. What does the use of the iPad mean for the learner? • • • • • Motivation. Quality and standard of work. Collaborative learning. Re-inforcement. Accessability. Supports: • Creativity. • Research. • Critical thinking. • Problem solving. • Decision making. Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield Academy, Kent Data taken form Paul Heinrich, Longfield Academy, Kent Technical considerations • Effective project management is crucial. • Requires a high quality of cable and wireless networking. • Licensing issues. • Technical and repair issues. • ‘ileaders’ Future Questions • Does it have to be the iPad? • Ownership or lease? • One iPad per child? Key Research Findings: • Language is acquired most successfully when it is learned for communication purposes in meaningful and significant social situations. • Technology offers real benefits in the development of intercultural understanding, increases motivation and has interesting implications for language learning processes. • IPads enable students to be effective contributors. • Students, teachers and parents unanimously identified enjoyment and motivation as the most compelling benefits of the iPad. References • • • • • • • • Statutory Guidance: National curriculum England: languages programmes of study. Available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-curriculumin-england-languages-progammes-of-study British Council: The Education systems of England, Wales, Scotland & Northern Ireland. Available at http://www.britishcouncil.org/flasonline-uk-education-system.pdf. Jasone Cenoz (2013) Discussion: towards an educational perspective in CLIL language policy and pedagogical practice, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16:3, 389-394. Evans M. & L. Fisher (2009) Language Learning at KS 3: The impact of the KS3 MFL Framework and changes to the curriculum of provision and practice. University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. Hunt, Marilyn (2011) Learners’ perceptions of their experiences of learning subject content through a foreign language, Educational Review 63: 365-378. Pérez-Cañado, M.L. (2012) CLIL research in Europe: past, present,and future, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 15:3, 315-341. The Guardian. Languages in primary schools: getting ready for 2014. Rebecca Radcliffe. 15 May 2013. Wade P., H. Marshall & S. O’Donnell (2009) Primary Modern Foreign Languages Longitudinal Survey of Implementation of National Entitlement to Language Learning at KS2. London. DCSF. References • • • • • • Sylvén, L.K (2013) CLIL in Sweden – why does it not work? A metaperspective on CLIL across contexts in Europe, International Journa of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 16:3, 301-320. Ros Mitchell, Linguistics & Modern Foreign Languages in Schools. University of Southampton Cambridge University Press. Dörnyei, Z., & Kubanyiova, M. (2014). Motivating learners, motivating teachers: Building vision in the language classroom. Cambridge: Dr Barbie Clarke, Siv Svanaes (2012) Tablets for Schools: One-to-one Tablets in Secondary Schools: An Evaluation Study Stage 1: 20112012. Kevin Burden, Paul Hopkins, Dr Trevor Male, Dr Stewart Martin, Christine Trala (2012) iPad Scotland Evaluation. Technology Enhanced Learning Group, Hull University. Paul Heinrich. The iPad as a tool for education: A Study of the Introduction of ipads at Longfield Academy, Kent. Thank you.