### Kitchen Math & Measuring

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Sara Jane Strecker, FACS Educator
Introduction
 Successful cooks know:
• How to read a recipe
• Abbreviations
• Measuring Techniques
• Equivalents
• How to Change a Recipe
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What’s in a recipe?
 A formula!
 Read the recipe before you cook.
The parts of the recipe tell you:
• Name
• Ingredients
• Equipment
• Directions
• Yield (number of servings)
• Sometimes - Nutritional Analysis
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What’s an Abbreviation?
 Understanding the language of recipes takes
the guesswork out of cooking.
 Abbreviation - The shortened form of a word.
 Abbreviations in measuring units:
• Save space on the cookbook page.
• Make recipes easier to read.
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Name the Abbreviations
 The U.S. uses the English system:
• Teaspoon
• Tablespoon
Tbsp. or T.
• Cup
c.
• Pint
pt.
• Quart
qt.
• Gallon
gal.
• Ounce/fluid ounce
• Pound
5
tsp. or t.
oz./ fl. oz.
lb.
Name the Abbreviations
 More abbreviations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Few grains, dash, pinch
Dozen
Pound
Inch
Second
Minute
Hour
• Degree
• Fahrenheit/Celsius
6
f.g.
doz.
lb.
in.
sec.
min.
hr.

F. / C
Name the Abbreviations
 Most other countries use
the Metric system:
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• Milliliter
ml
• Liter
L
• Grams
g
• Kilogram
kg
Name That Utensil
 Serving spoons & cups vary in size. Only use
these standard measuring utensils…
Can you name them?
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The Right Measuring Utensil
 What are two ingredients that
you’d measure with when using:
• measuring spoons?
• dry/solid measuring cups?
• a liquid measuring cup?
 Which measuring utensil would you use to
measure each of these ingredients?
•
•
•
•
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1 1/3 cups flour
1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
1/2 cup milk
2 tablespoons cooking oil
Measuring Liquid Ingredients
 Liquid ingredients can include:
• Milk, water, oil, juice, vanilla extract, etc.
 To measure 1/4 cup or more of a
liquid ingredient, use a clear, liquid
measuring cup.
• Place the cup on level surface and read measurements at eye level.
 For smaller amounts use measuring spoons.
• Fill the spoon until a slight dome is visible.
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Measuring Dry Ingredients
 A standard set of dry/solid measuring cups is
 What amount does each cup measure?
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Measuring Dry Ingredients
 Dry ingredients can include:
• Flour, sugar, brown sugar, salt, and baking powder.
 To measure 1/4 cup or more of a
dry ingredient use a measuring cup.
• Measuring cups generally come
in 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 1 cup sizes.
 To measure less than a 1/4 cup
use a measuring spoon.
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• Measuring spoons generally come in
1/4, 1/2, & 1 teaspoon & 1 tablespoon sizes.
• To measure 1/8 tsp. measure 1/4 tsp.
& then remove half.
Measuring Dry Ingredients
 Measuring flour:
• Do not pack the flour into the
measuring cup or spoon because you will
end up with more flour. Instead, scoop flour
into the cup and level with a spatula or knife.
 Measuring brown sugar:
• Pack the brown sugar tightly into the measuring cup or spoon.
Once it is packed down, level it with a straight edge or knife.
 Measuring granulated sugar:
• Fill the cup with sugar. Level with the back of a spatula or knife
so that sugar is even with top of measuring cup or spoon.
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Pass the Cup
 Dry/solid measure check-up:
• Which of these amounts is greater? Write the amount.
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1/2 cup
or
3/4 cup
1/4 cup
or
1/3 cup
1/4 cup
or
2 Tbsp.
1/2 cup
or
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
or
3 tsp.
1 1/3 cup
or
1 1/4 cup
Measuring Solid Ingredients
 Sticks of butter and margarine
have measurements marked
on the wrapper.
• One stick = 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons
 Measure solid fats, such as shortening or
peanut butter, in a dry measuring cup.
• Pack it into the cup and level it with a spatula. Then use a
plastic scraper to remove it from the cup.
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Measuring Just With Spoons
 This chart shows some amounts that you’ll often see in
recipes. And it shows how to measure those amounts
with measuring spoons.
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1 Tbsp.
1 tsp. + 1 tsp. + 1 tsp.
3/4 tsp.
1/4 tsp. + 1/4 tsp. + 1/4 tsp.
or 1/2 tsp. + 1/4 tsp.
1/8 tsp.
half of 1/4 tsp.
1/8 cup
1 Tbsp. + 1 Tbsp.
Basic Equivalents
 Equivalents are amounts that are equal to each other.
• They are useful when you must alter or change a recipe
to serve more or less people than the recipe yields.
 Dry/Liquid equivalents:
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• Pinch or Dash
• 1 Tablespoon
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less than 1/8 teaspoon
3 teaspoons
• 1/4 cup
• 1/3 cup
• 1/2 cup
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4 Tablespoons
5 Tablespoons & 1 teaspoon
8 Tablespoons
• 3/4 cup
• 1 cup
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12 Tablespoons
16 Tablespoons
Basic Equivalents
 1 fluid ounce = 2 Tablespoons
 8 ounces = 1 cup
 16 ounces = 1 pound
1 pint = 2 cups
1 quart = 2 pints = 4 cups
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 8 pints = 16 cups
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Basic Equivalents
1 Tablespoon = 3 t e a spoons
There are 3 letters in the word tea and 3 teaspoons in a tablespoon.
1/4 c. = 4 Tbsp.
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Basic Equivalents
remember:
A formula
2 c. = 1 pt.
2 pt. = 1 qt.
4 qt. = 1 gal.
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