IC 555 TIMER M.S.P.V.L. Polytechnic College, Pavoorchatram What is the 555 timer? • The 555 timer is one of the most remarkable integrated circuits ever developed. It comes in a single or dual package and even low power cmos versions exist - ICM7555. • Common part numbers are LM555, NE555, LM556, NE556. The 555 timer consists of two voltage comparators, a bi-stable flip flop, a discharge transistor, and a resistor divider network. Block Diagram of Timer 555 IC Inside the 555 Timer – The voltage divider (blue) has three equal 5K resistors. It divides the input voltage (Vcc) into three equal parts. – The two comparators (red) are op-amps that compare the voltages at their inputs and saturate depending upon which is greater. • The Threshold Comparator saturates when the voltage at the Threshold pin (pin 6) is greater than (2/3)Vcc. • The Trigger Comparator saturates when the voltage at the Trigger pin (pin 2) is less than (1/3)Vcc – The flip-flop (green) is a bi-stable device. It generates two values, a “high” value equal to Vcc and a “low” value equal to 0V. • When the Threshold comparator saturates, the flip flop is Reset (R) and it outputs a low signal at pin 3. • When the Trigger comparator saturates, the flip flop is Set (S) and it outputs a high signal at pin 3. – The transistor (purple) is being used as a switch, it connects pin 7 (discharge) to ground when it is closed. • When Q is low, Qbar is high. This closes the transistor switch and attaches pin 7 to ground. • When Q is high, Qbar is low. This open the switch and pin 7 is no longer grounded What are the 555 timer applications? • Applications include – precision timing, – pulse generation, – sequential timing, – time delay generation and pulse width modulation (PWM). Pin configurations of the 555 timer • Pin Functions - 8 pin package • Ground (Pin 1) • Not surprising this pin is connected directly to ground. • Trigger (Pin 2) • This pin is the input to the lower comparator and is used to set the latch, which in turn causes the output to go high. • Output (Pin 3) • Output high is about 1.7V less than supply. Output high is capable of Isource up to 200mA while output low is capable of Isink up to 200mA. • Reset (Pin 4) • This is used to reset the latch and return the output to a low state. The reset is an overriding function. When not used connect to V+. • Control (Pin 5) • Allows access to the 2/3V+ voltage divider point when the 555 timer is used in voltage control mode. When not used connect to ground through a 0.01 uF capacitor. • Threshold (Pin 6) • This is an input to the upper comparator. • Discharge (Pin 7) • This is the open collector to Q14 in figure 4 below. • V+ (Pin 8) • This connects to Vcc and the Philips databook states the ICM7555 cmos version operates 3V - 16V DC while the NE555 version is 3V - 16V DC. Note comments about effective supply filtering and bypassing this pin below under "General considerations with using a 555 timer" Types of 555-Timer Circuits 5V 7 DI S DI S V CC 7 V CC R R 8 4 4 R Ra 8 5V 1K C C CV NE 5 55 1 GND CV L ED L ED 1 0 .0 1 u F 5 T HR TR 5 T HR TR 3 NE 5 55 1 6 2 3 2 Q 0 .0 1 u F Rb GND Q 6 2 • Astable Multivibrator puts out a continuous sequence of pulses Monostable Multivibrator (or oneshot) puts out one pulse each time the switch is connected • Monostable Multivibrator (One Shot) 8 V cc R Ra 2 3 Vcc 4 Reset Threshold Com parator - +V + 6 R Q S Q 3 -V R Trigger - +V 2 1 3 7 C + Vcc -V Trigger Com parator Control Flip-Flop R 1 M onstable M ultivibrator O ne-Shot O utput Behavior of the Monostable Multivibrator • The monostable multivibrator is constructed by adding an external capacitor and resistor to a 555 timer. • The circuit generates a single pulse of desired duration when it receives a trigger signal, hence it is also called a one-shot. • The time constant of the resistor-capacitor combination determines the length of the pulse. Uses of the Monostable Multivibrator – Used to generate a clean pulse of the correct height and duration for a digital system – Used to turn circuits or external components on or off for a specific length of time. – Used to generate delays. – Can be cascaded to create a variety of sequential timing pulses. These pulses can allow you to time and sequence a number of related operations. Astable Pulse-Train Generator (Multivibrator) V cc 8 R R1 4 Threshold Com parator - +V + R2 6 R Q S Q 3 -V R - +V 2 + -V Trigger Com parator 7 C Control Flip-Flop R 1 O utput Astable Pulse-Train G enerator Behavior of the Astable Multivibrator • The astable multivibrator is simply an oscillator. The astable multivibrator generates a continuous stream of rectangular off-on pulses that switch between two voltage levels. • The frequency of the pulses and their duty cycle are dependent upon the RC network values. • The capacitor C charges through the series resistors R1 and R2 with a time constant (R1 + R2)C. • The capacitor discharges through R2 with a time constant of R2C Uses of the Astable Multivibrator – Flashing LED’s – Pulse Width Modulation – Pulse Position Modulation – Periodic Timers Flashing LED’s • 40 LED bicycle light with 20 LEDs flashing alternately at 4.7Hz Understanding the Astable Mode Circuit • 555-Timers, like op-amps can be configured in different ways to create different circuits. We will now look into how this one creates a train of equal pulses, as shown at the output. First we must examine how capacitors charge 10V TC LO SE = 0 1 U1 R1 2 8V V V 1 V 1k 6V U2 Capacitor V1 TO PE N = 0 C1 4V 2 1 0V Voltage 1 uF 2V 0V 0s 0 1ms V(U2:1) V(R1:2) 2ms 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms 7ms 8ms 9ms 10ms V(V1:+) Time • Capacitor C1 is charged up by current flowing through R1 V1 V 10 V I C A P A C IT O R R1 C A P A C IT O R 1k • As the capacitor charges up, its voltage increases and the current charging it decreases, resulting in the charging rate shown Capacitor Charging Equations 10mA 10V 8mA 8V 6mA Capacitor and Resistor 6V Current Capacitor 4mA 4V 2mA 2V 0A Voltage 0V 0s 1ms I(R1) 2ms 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms 7ms 8ms 9ms 10ms I(C1) 0s 1ms V(U2:1) 2ms V(R1:2) 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms 7ms 8ms 9ms 10ms V(V1:+) Time Time t • Capacitor Current I Ioe • Capacitor Voltage V V o 1 e • Where the time constant t R C R1 C 1 1 m s Understanding the equations 10V 8V 6V Capacitor Voltage 4V 2V 0V 0s 1ms V(U2:1) V(R1:2) 2ms 3ms 4ms 5ms 6ms 7ms 8ms 9ms 10ms V(V1:+) Time • Note that the voltage rises to a little above 6V 1 in 1ms. (1 e ) .632 Capacitor Charging and Discharging • There is a good description of capacitor charging and its use in 555 timer circuits at http://www.uoguelph.ca/~antoon/gadgets/555/555.html 555 Timer • At the beginning of the cycle, C1 is charged through resistors R1 and R2. The charging time constant is ch arg e ( R 1 R 2 ) C 1 • The voltage reaches (2/3)Vcc in a time t ch arg e T 1 0 . 693 ( R1 R 2 ) C 1 555 Timer • When the voltage on the capacitor reaches (2/3)Vcc, a switch (the transistor) is closed (grounded) at pin 7. • The capacitor is discharged to (1/3)Vcc through R2 to ground, at which time the switch is opened and the cycle starts over. disch arg e ( R 2 ) C 1 t disch arg e T 2 0 . 693 ( R 2 ) C 1 555 Timer • The frequency is then given by f 1 0.693( R1 2 R 2 ) C 1 1.44 ( R1 2 R 2 ) C 1 555 Animation Output is high for 0.693(Ra+Rb)C Output voltage high turns off upper LED and turns on lower LED Capacitor is charging through Ra and Rb http://www.williamson-labs.com/pu-aa-555-timer_slow.htm 555 Animation Output is low for 0.693(Rb)C Output is low so the upper LED is on and the lower LED is off Capacitor is discharging through Rb PWM: Pulse Width Modulation • Signal is compared to a sawtooth wave producing a pulse width proportional to amplitude What Can Be Done With PWM? Low Duty Cycle Medium Duty Cycle High Duty Cycle • Question: What happens if voltages like the ones above are connected to a light bulb? Answer: The longer the duty cycle, the longer the light bulb is on and the brighter the light. What Can Be Done With PWM? • Average power can be controlled • Average flows can also be controlled by fully opening and closing a valve with some duty cycle The End …..Thank you…..