Review Sheet : DNA, RNA & Protein Synthesis

Report
Markert
Biology
2011
 Molecules of DNA are
composed of long chains of
_______
 Nucleotides
 A nucleotide consists of
_______, _________, and
__________.
 a sugar, a phosphate group,
and a nitrogen base.
 The part of the molecule for
which deoxyribonucleic acid
is named is the _______
 sugar - deoxyribose
 Of the four nitrogen bases in
DNA, which two are purines
and which two are
pyrimidines?
 Purines are
Adenine and
Guanine
 Pyrimidines
are Thymine
and Cytosine

Which of the following is not true about DNA
replication?
 a.
It must occur before a cell can divide
 b.
Two complementary strands are
duplicated.
 c.
The double strand unwinds and
unzips while it is being duplicated.
 d.
The process is catalyzed by enzymes
called DNA mutagens.
 d.
The process is
catalyzed by enzymes
called DNA mutagens.
 RNA differs from DNA in
that RNA
a. _______
b. _______
c. _______
is single-stranded.
contains the nitrogen base
uracil.
contains a different sugar
molecule.
 In RNA molecules, adenine is
complementary to _______
 uracil
 The function of rRNA is to
form _______
 ribosomes
 During transcription, the
genetic information for
making a protein is
“rewritten” as a molecule of
_______
 messenger
RNA
 Each nucleotide triplet in
mRNA that specifies a
particular amino acid is
called a(n) _______
 codon
 Each of the following is a
type of RNA except
 a.
 b.
 c.
 d.
carrier RNA.
messenger RNA.
ribosomal RNA.
transfer RNA.
 a.
carrier RNA.
 A ribosome has
 A. one binding site for DNA.
 B. three binding sites used during
translation.
 C. four binding sites for tRNA.
 D. no binding sites since the
proteins must detach.
 B. three binding sites used
during translation.
 NOT ON THE TEST!!!
 The form of ribonucleic acid
that carries genetic
information from the DNA to
the ribosomes is _______
 mRNA
mRNA codons
amino acid
UAU, UAC
tyrosine
CCU, CCC, CCA,
proline
CCG
GAU, GAC
aspartic
acid
AUU, AUC, AUA
UGU, UGC
isoleucine
cysteine
Refer to the illustration. Suppose that
you are given a protein containing the
following sequence of amino acids:
tyrosine, proline, aspartic acid,
isoleucine, and cysteine. Use the portion
of the genetic code given to determine
which of the following contains a DNA
sequence that codes for this amino acid
sequence.
a. AUGGGUCUAUAUACG
b. ATGGGTCTATATACG
c. GCAAACTCGCGCGTA
d. ATAGGGCTTTAAACA
 b. ATGGGTCTATATACG

Transfer RNA
 a.
carries an amino acid to its
correct codon.
 b.
synthesizes amino acids as they
are needed.
 c.
produces codons to match the
correct anticodons.
 d.
converts DNA into mRNA.
 a.
carries
an amino
acid to its
correct
codon.
amino acid
attachment site
UA C
anticodon
 Transcription is the process
by which genetic information
encoded in DNA is
transferred to a(n) _______
 RNA
molecule
 A DNA subunit composed of
a phosphate group, a fivecarbon sugar, and a
nitrogen-containing base is
called a(n) _______
 nucleotide
 The name of the five-carbon
sugar that makes up a part of
the backbone of molecules
of DNA is _______
 deoxyribose
 Watson and Crick
determined that DNA
molecules have the shape of
a(n) _______
 double
helix
 Due to the strict pairing of
nitrogen bases in DNA
molecules, the two strands
are said to be _________to
each other.
 complementary
 The process by which DNA
copies itself is called _______
 replication
 The nitrogen-containing
base that is only found in
RNA is _______
 uracil
 Messenger RNA is produced
during the process of _____
 transcription
 During translation, amino
acids are brought to the
ribosomes by molecules of
_______
 transfer RNA
amino acid
attachment site
UAC
anticodon
 Nucleotide sequences of
tRNA that are
complementary to codons
on mRNA are called _______
 anticodons
 The sequence of three
nucleotides that code for
specific amino acids or stop
signals in the synthesis of
protein is called a(n) _______
 codon
 The information contained in
a molecule of messenger
RNA is used to make protein
during the process of _____
 translation
 Use the base pairing rules to
correctly match the nitrogen
bases together.
 _____ pairs with ______
 ______ pairs with _________
•Use the base pairing rules to correctly match the nitrogen bases together.
________________pairs with_______________ ________________pairs with ______________
 Use the base pairing rules to
correctly match the nitrogen
bases together.
T
A
 _________
pairs with ______
G pairs with _________
C
 ______

For each process below, identify where it
occurs in the cell and what is produced.
 Replication:
 Transcription:
 Translation
•Use the base pairing rules to correctly match the nitrogen bases together.
________________pairs with_______________ ________________pairs with ______________

For each process below, identify where it occurs
in the cell and what is produced.
 Replication: Nucleus, identical DNA strand
 Transcription: Nucleus, mRNA
 Translation Ribosomes, tRNA - protein
 List three differences between
DNA and RNA
 a.
 b.
 c.
•Use the base pairing rules to correctly match the nitrogen bases together.
________________pairs with_______________ ________________pairs with ______________
 List three differences between DNA
and RNA
 a. DNA – double strand; RNA – single strand
 b. DNA – deoxyribose sugar; RNA – ribose sugar
 c. DNA – Thymine nitrogen base; RNA – Uracil
nitrogen base
 Identify 3 types of RNA, where
they are found and what they do.
 a.
 b.
 c.
•Use the base pairing rules to correctly match the nitrogen bases together.
________________pairs with_______________ ________________pairs with ______________
 Identify 3 types of RNA, where they
are found and what they do.
 a. mRNA –
 b. tRNA –
 c. rRNA -
•Use your codon chart on to complete the table below.

Use your codon chart on to complete the
table below.
DNA
Triplet
TTC
mRNA
codon
UAG
tRNA
anti-codon
Amino
acid
coded
CAG
met
•Use the base pairing rules to correctly match the nitrogen bases together.
________________pairs with_______________ ________________pairs with ______________
DNA Triplet
TTC
TAC
mRNA
codon
tRNA
anti-codon
Amino acid
coded
ATC
CAG
UAG
AUG
UAC
met
GUC
AAG
CAG
VAL
UUC
AUC
LYS
STOP

Using the following DNA sequences, identify each of the
following: Mutations: substitution, insertion and deletion

TAC GCC AGC CCG AGC TAT AAA ATT

Mutation: ___________________________
 1: TAC GCA GCC CGA GCT ATA AAA TT

Mutation ___________________________
 2: TAC GCC AGC CCG AAC TAT AAA ATT

Mutation ___________________________
 3: TAC GCC ATG CCC GAG CTA TAA AAT T
•Use the base pairing rules to correctly match the nitrogen bases together.
________________pairs with_______________ ________________pairs with ______________

Mutations: substitution, insertion and deletion


TAC GCC AGC CCG AGC TAT AAA ATT
DELETION
Mutation: ___________________________
 1: TAC GCA GCC CGA GCT ATA AAA TT

SUBSTITUTION
Mutation ___________________________
 2: TAC GCC AGC CCG AAC TAT AAA ATT

INSERTION
Mutation ___________________________
 3: TAC GCC ATG CCC GAG CTA TAA AAT T
 Which mutations above would
have the have the greatest
impact on an organism? Why?
•Use the base pairing rules to correctly match the nitrogen bases together.
________________pairs with_______________ ________________pairs with ______________

Which mutations above would have the
have the greatest impact on an organism?
Why? ?????????
C
E
D, F
G
F
D
H

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