ISHRAE : Challenges in Operation

Report
ISHRAE : Acre Serve
Living in harmony with Nature
Challenges in Operation & Maintenance
of Green Buildings
Tejwant Navalkar
Dec 2012
AGENDA
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Green Buildings – Concepts
•
Review of Current Maintenance Practices
•
Need for “Green Maintenance”
•
Monitoring for effective Control
•
Participation of Maintenance at Design Stage
•
Conclusion
Living in harmony with Nature
What are Green Buildings
Living in harmony with Nature
Green Buildings are :
•
Resource efficient buildings
•
Very energy efficient,
•
Utilize construction materials wisely; including recycled,
renewable, and reused resources to the maximum extent
practical
•
Are Designed, constructed and commissioned to ensure
they are healthy for their occupants,
•
Have lower operating and owning costs,
•
Respect and maintain ecological balance
•
Are good for the earth planet
Factors contributing to Green Buildings
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Sustainability
Meeting the needs of people today without destroying the resources
that will be needed by future generation
•
Energy Efficiency
Using Equipment which require lowest input energy to deliver their
outputs
•
Efficient Water Management
Implementing effective control on water usage, minimising wastage
of water, recycling waste water and judicious selection of landscape
plants
•
Recycling and reuse of Materials
•
Indoor Environmental Quality
Monitoring and controlling the quality of air circulated through airconditioned spaces, providing lighting levels for minimal eye strain
and ensuring noise levels are within comfort zone
Factors contributing to Green Buildings
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Environmental Concern
Responsible disposal of waste, recycling of waste and use of nonozone depleting materials
•
Infrastrucutre Planning
Providing good Infrastructure in terms of clean, stable power, good
regular supply of potable water and efficient waste disposal,
combined with easy access to public transportation.
•
Use of Renewable Energy
Ensures virtually Zero Global Warming and provides self reliance
from external agencies in meeting its energy needs
•
Staff and User Training
Training individual users, owners, staff and inhabitants of
buildings in avoidance of wastage, recycling, correct use of
equipment and the importance of effective maintenance in ensuring
optimum efficiencies at all times
Living in harmony with Nature
Some Interesting Photos
Living in harmony with Nature
Rusted chilled water pipe
Rusted chilled water pipe
Cables connected without
lugs
Broken Insulation chilled
water pipe
Broken Insulation on
Valves
Badly dressed cables
Badly laid cables
Some Interesting Photos
Living in harmony with Nature
Badly maintained
condenser piping
Badly dressed cables
Badly maintained Cooling
Tower
Cables dangling in the
open
Rusted Chilled water
piping
Unarmoured cable laid in
water
Some Interesting Photos
Living in harmony with Nature
Badly maintained
plumbing pipes
Badly maintained
Pumping station
Badly maintained AC
outdoor units on terrace
Water logged terrace
Open Manhole covers
Terrace – Dumping Place
Current Maintenance Practices (1/3)
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Today a majority of the maintenance is re-active in
nature
•
Scheduled Maintenance Programs are done on a few
equipment based on :

the manufacturers recommendations

judgement of the chief or past tradition
•
Log books are maintained for a few equipment where
hourly readings of certain parameters are recorded
•
Very rarely are these readings analyzed or collated to
generate a trend analysis
•
No on line measurement of energy or water consumption
by energy centres
•
No effective equipment replacement plan
Current Maintenance Practices (2/3)
Living in harmony with Nature
•
There is no organized Complaint Management System
•
Complaints are noted in a register and attended on a best
effort basis
•
There are no standard time to repair, no history of
complaints and no mean time between failure (MTBF)
records being generated from the complaints completed
•
Due to lack of complaint history, the present stocking of
spares is almost entirely based on serendipity; either it is
never stocked or it remains a non-moving item for years
•
Air-balancing, room temperatures, diffuser/ grille
temperatures are very rarely measured
•
Water Analysis of the cooling tower make-up water or
boiler feed water is rarely done on a planned basis
•
Insulation of pipes, ducts is rarely checked and repaired
Current Maintenance Practices (3/3)
Living in harmony with Nature
•
No thermography is done on electrical panels to detect
any corrosion in joints or any loose connections
•
Cables after repairs are not properly dressed
•
Light fittings are not cleaned as a part of routine
maintenance
•
Lux levels in work areas and cabins are never measured
•
No effort is taken to identify over designed or under
designed equipment
•
AHU rooms, Electric meter rooms become dumping yards
for all sort of boxes, unwanted material, chairs etc.
Living in harmony with Nature
GREEN Maintenance Practices
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Effort should be taken to shift from Re-active Maintenance
to Pro-Active Maintenance and eventually to Predictive
Maintenance
•
Electric sub-meters, connected to a central energy
monitoring system, should be installed at each energy
consumption centre
•
Daily, Monthly and Annual reports should be generated
from these energy consumption readings for analysis
•
After analysis, efforts should be taken to identify the ways
and means of :
•

Reducing Maximum demand

Utilising lower night time tariffs and avoiding peak
time consumption
Similarly water sub-meters should be installed at major
consumption centres
Living in harmony with Nature
Daily Energy Consumption in a Typical Industry
Living in harmony with Nature
ENERGY kW
5000
Peak Load
4000
Base Load
3000
2000
1000
TOTAL
•
•
4
2
24
22
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
0
TIME OF DAY
Energy Consumption Pattern above depicts the following
characteristics during its 24 hour cycle :

A base load of about 40-50% of the peak load

About 3 - 4 peaks during the day
Peak Loads decides the Maximum Demand and consequently the
Power Tariff
Analysing Daily Energy through instruments
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Introducing Controls in a running building may be difficult
•
However it is possible to introduce instruments to :

Analyze critical Operating System Parameters

Measure Energy Consumption at distributed stages in the
process

Automate Start-up/ Shutdown of processes

Generate Alarms/ Reports during exception conditions
Break-up of Daily Energy Consumption
Living in harmony with Nature
5000
P-4
P-3
P-2
P-1
Peak Load
4500
4000
Energy kW
3500
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1
2
3
4
5
Time of Day
•
Based on break-up of daily energy consumption at distributed
consumption centres, it is possible to :

Impose Energy Demand Load Limits

Impose Constraints of usage Requirements

Optimize the overall operation

Evenly distribute energy loads to reduce peaks

Take advantage of Time of Day Tariff
Effect of Re-Engineering
Living in harmony with Nature
P-4
P-3
P-2
P-1
5000
Old Peak Load
4500
4000
Energy kW
3500
Modified Peak Load
3000
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 1
Time of Day
2
3
4
5
Living in harmony with Nature
Energy Measurements – Case Study
Living in harmony with Nature
Average Power Consumed for a day : Pharmaceutical Company
Energy Measurements – Case Study
Living in harmony with Nature
Power Consumed by a Compressor for a day : Pharmaceutical Co
Energy Measurements – Case Study
Living in harmony with Nature
Thermography of Electric Panel : Processing Lab
Identification of Over/ Under designed Motors
Living in harmony with Nature
Sr
No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
Des cription
ETP Compres s or 7.5 HP
Air Was her No. 2
AHU-5 Fan
Extruder Motor Repoces s ing Plant
Dis tillation C. T. Pump
Air Was her No. 1
AHU-1, 2, 3 & 4 Fans
ETP Pump 5 HP
Solution Cooling Tower Pump
Autoclave Exhaus t Fan
Grinder Motor Repoces s ing Plant
Boiler Blower Fan
Boos ter Pump
Autoclave-1
Hot Cold Circ. Pumps 3 & 4
Autoclave-3
Cooling Tower Pump (25 HP)
Compres s or – No. 1
Compres s or – No. 2
Boiler Feed Water Pump
Hot Cold Circ. Pumps 1 & 2
Chilled Water Pump
Revers e Os mos is Multis tage Pump
Autoclave-2
WFI Pump
Ultra Filtration Pump
Rated
KW
5.60
7.50
11.00
30.00
7.50
15.00
18.50
3.70
7.50
5.50
11.00
22.50
3.70
22.00
7.50
9.30
15.50
45.00
45.00
15.00
5.50
9.30
11.00
9.30
7.50
3.73
Max KW Avg. KW
Cons umed Cons umed
0.38
1.30
2.75
9.85
2.90
5.91
10.10
2.03
4.64
3.43
7.25
15.26
2.55
16.07
5.48
7.01
13.15
38.19
39.42
14.32
5.46
9.28
11.00
9.61
10.60
6.41
0.31
1.24
2.64
8.64
2.80
5.72
9.59
1.98
4.20
3.32
6.34
11.62
1.54
10.59
4.81
3.24
12.41
18.70
38.40
2.99
5.19
9.05
5.39
7.95
6.65
3.64
Diff of
Rated KW
over Max
KW
14.74
5.77
4.00
3.05
2.59
2.54
1.83
1.82
1.62
1.60
1.52
1.47
1.45
1.37
1.37
1.33
1.18
1.18
1.14
1.05
1.01
1.00
1.00
0.97
0.71
0.58
Diff of
Rated KW
over Avg
KW
18.06
6.05
4.17
3.47
2.68
2.62
1.93
1.87
1.79
1.66
1.74
1.94
2.40
2.08
1.56
2.87
1.25
2.41
1.17
5.02
1.06
1.03
2.04
1.17
1.13
1.02
Health Monitoring of Equipment
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Critical health parameters of equipment must be identified
and on-line measurements of these parameters provided to
give and insight into the health of the equipment
•
In some cases, like dirty filter or water flow switches,
alarms may be generated if the threshold conditions are
crossed
•
Threshold conditions can be established for each of the
health parameter for an equipment, much like that of a
human being
•
By continuous measurement of the health parameters, we
can move towards predictive maintenance, ensuring
against expensive, unplanned and forced shutdowns
•
By giving each machine its own customized treatment the
life of the equipment is increased and its initial efficiency
retained for longer period
Equipment Health Monitoring
Living in harmony with Nature
Equipment Monitored
Rotation Speed
Winding Temperature Sensors
Current Consumption
Vibration Sensors
Data Acquisition & Control System
Computer Workstation
EQUIPMENT HEALTH MONITORING SCHEMATIC
On-line Complaint / Breakdown Manangement System
Living in harmony with Nature
•
On-line Complaint/ Break-down Management system
should be introduced
•
This would help in building complaint history for each
equipment and provide valuable information regarding
mean time between failures, replacement indication and
build complaint history
•
Complaint History would provide effective means for
deciding on spares stocking
•
Complaint Management coupled with the Equipment Health
Monitoring, provides the right tools for predictive
maintenance
•
Efficiencies of each equipment can be effectively monitored
Other GREEN Maintenance Practices
Living in harmony with Nature
•
Ensure that the Fresh Air Dampers and other Volume
control dampers are in working condition
•
Ensure that all insulated piping and ducting is proper and
no air leakages occur in ducting above the false ceiling
•
Use of bio-degradable organic chemicals for anti-scaling
and anti-algae formation in cooling tower basins
•
Explore avenues for introducing energy efficient light
fittings and other equipment
•
Introduce Renewable Energy resources wherever feasible
especially for 24-hour operating lights
•
Educate and train all staff in the importance of avoiding
wastage of resources and recycling of material
Living in harmony with Nature
Participation at Planning, Design & Execution Stage
Living in harmony with Nature
•
It is very critical to involve the Operations and Maintenance
staff at the Design stage, so that Operations related issues
are addressed
•
It will ensure that equipment are installed with proper
access for maintenance
•
Instrumentation for central Monitoring and Control is
planned and built into the equipment at the design stage
•
The Maintenance staff get involved during execution stage
so that the entire cabling, ducting and piping route and the
technical specifications of equipment are known
•
Maintenance staff being associated with vendors during
execution stage helps in smooth handover after
commissioning
Contact Details
Living in harmony with Nature
DFX Systems Pvt Ltd
Engineering & Renewable Energy Solutions
Your Partner
in
Designing For eXcellence
www.dfxsystems.org
Tel: 91-22-2432 4083
Fax: 91-22-2432 5644
Tejwant Navalkar : +91-9821411436
[email protected]
Living in harmony with Nature

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