Cross-Site - Franziska Roesner

Report
Detecting and Defending Against
Third-Party Tracking on the Web
Franziska Roesner, Tadayoshi Kohno, David Wetherall
April 26, 2012
NSDI
Third-Party Web Tracking
Advertise.com
Tracker.com
Bigger browsing profiles
= increased value for trackers
= reduced privacy for users
(Hypothetical tracking relationships only.)
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
2
Tracking is Complicated
• Much discussion of tracking, but limited
understanding of how it actually works.
• Our goals:
– Understand the tracking ecosystem.
• How is tracking actually done in the wild?
• What kinds of browsing profiles do trackers compile?
• How effective are defenses available to users?
– Address gaps with new defense (ShareMeNot).
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
3
Outline
• How Tracking Works
– Tracking Mechanisms
– Tracking Taxonomy
• Measurements
• Defenses
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Franziska Roesner
4
Mechanisms Required By Trackers
• Ability to store user identity in the browser
– Browser cookies
– HTML5 LocalStorage and Flash cookies (LSOs)
– Not considering more exotic storage mechanisms or
approximate fingerprinting
• Ability to communicate visited page and user
identity back to tracker
– Identity: Cookies attached to requests
– Visited page: HTTP referrers
– Both: scripts that embed information in URLs
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
5
Tracking: The Simple Version
• Within-Site: First-party cookies are used to track
repeat visits to a site.
• Cross-Site: Third-party cookies are used by trackers
included in other sites to create profiles.
tracker.com
http://site1.com
http://site2.com
Cookie Database
tracker.com:
id=789
cookie:
id=789
<iframe
src=tracker.com/a
d.html>
ad
cookie:
id=789
</iframe>
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
processing engine
9:30am: user 789
visited site1.com
9:31am: user 789
visited site2.com logs
6
Our Tracking Taxonomy
Name
N/A
Scope
User Visits
Directly?
Within-Site Yes
Site does its own on-site analytics.
Evolution: Embedding analytics libraries
Analytics
Within-Site No
Vanilla
Cross-Site No
Evolution: Third-party cookie blocking
Forced
Cross-Site Yes
(forced)
Overview
Site uses third-party analytics engine (e.g.,
Google Analytics).
Site embeds third-party tracker that uses
third-party storage (e.g., Doubleclick).
Site embeds third-party tracker that forced
the user to visit directly (e.g., via popup).
Referred
Cross-Site
No
Tracker relies on another cross-site tracker to
leak unique identifier values.
Personal
Cross-Site
Yes
Site embeds third-party tracker that the user
otherwise visits directly (e.g., Facebook).
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
7
Quirks of Third-Party Cookie Blocking
• Option blocks the setting of third-party
cookies: all browsers
• Option blocks the sending of third-party
cookies: only Firefox
• Result: Once a third-party cookie is somehow
set, it can be used (in most browsers).
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
8
Forced Tracking
http://site1.com
<iframe
src=tracker.com/a
d.html>
tracker.com
processing engine
High-level point:
On most browsers,adif a tracker can ever set a cookie,
tracker.com:
</iframe> popup
id=321
third-party cookie
blocking is rendered ineffective.
Cookie Database
http://site2.com
<iframe
src=tracker.com/a
d.html>
ad
logs
1:30pm:
site1.com: user
321
1:31pm:
site2.com: user
321
</iframe>
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
9
Our Tracking Taxonomy
Type (Name)
N/A
Scope
User Visits
Directly?
Within-Site Yes
Site does its own on-site analytics.
Evolution: Embedding analytics libraries
Analytics
Within-Site No
Vanilla
Cross-Site No
Evolution: Third-party cookie blocking
Forced
Cross-Site Yes
(forced)
Evolution: Complex ad networks
Overview
Site uses third-party analytics engine (e.g.,
Google Analytics).
Site embeds third-party tracker that uses
third-party storage (e.g., Doubleclick).
Site embeds third-party tracker that forced
the user to visit directly (e.g., via popup).
Referred
Cross-Site
No
Tracker relies on another cross-site tracker to
leak unique identifier values.
Personal
Cross-Site
Yes
Site embeds third-party tracker that the user
otherwise visits directly (e.g., Facebook).
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
10
Referred Tracking
http://site1.com
tracker.com
processing engine
<iframe
src=tracker.com/a
d.html>
High-level point:
ad
One tracker with
client-side state can enable
tracker.com:
</iframe>
id=522tracking by
partners without
client-side state.
othertracker.com/tra
Cookie Database
http://site2.com
<iframe
src=tracker.com/a
d.html>
ck?id=522&referrer=
site1.com
processing engine
ad
</iframe>
othertracker.com/tra
ck?id=522&referrer
=site2.com
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
othertracker.com
logs
2:34pm:
site1.com: user
522
2:35pm:
site2.com: user
522
11
Our Tracking Taxonomy
Type (Name) Scope
N/A
User Visits Overview
Directly?
Within-Site Yes
Site does its own on-site analytics.
Evolution: Embedding analytics libraries
Analytics
Within-Site No
Vanilla
Cross-Site No
Evolution: Third-party cookie blocking
Forced
Cross-Site Yes
(forced)
Evolution: Complex ad networks
Site uses third-party analytics engine (e.g.,
Google Analytics).
Site embeds third-party tracker that uses
third-party storage (e.g., Doubleclick).
Site embeds third-party tracker that forced
the user to visit directly (e.g., via popup).
Referred
Cross-Site
No
Tracker relies on another cross-site tracker to
leak unique identifier values.
Personal
Cross-Site
Yes
Site embeds third-party tracker that the user
otherwise visits directly (e.g., Facebook).
Evolution: Social networks
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
12
Personal Tracking
• Just loading these buttons (not clicking on
them) enables tracking.
• Users visit these sites directly.
• This tracking is often not anonymous (linked
to accounts).
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
13
Our Tracking Taxonomy
Type (Name) Scope
N/A
User Visits Overview
Directly?
Within-Site Yes
Site does its own on-site analytics.
Evolution: Embedding analytics libraries
Analytics
Within-Site No
Vanilla
Cross-Site No
Evolution: Third-party cookie blocking
Forced
Cross-Site Yes
(forced)
Evolution: Complex ad networks
Site uses third-party analytics engine (e.g.,
Google Analytics).
Site embeds third-party tracker that uses
third-party storage (e.g., Doubleclick).
Site embeds third-party tracker that forced
Anonymous
the user to visit directly (e.g., via popup).
Referred
Cross-Site
No
Tracker relies on another cross-site tracker to
leak unique identifier values.
Personal
Cross-Site
Yes
Site embeds third-party tracker that the user
otherwise visits directly (e.g., Facebook).
Evolution: Social networks
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
14
Outline
• How Tracking Works
– Tracking mechanisms
– Tracking taxonomy
• Measurements
• Defenses
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Franziska Roesner
15
Measurement Tool: TrackingTracker
•
•
•
•
Firefox add-on
Based on taxonomy of client-side mechanisms
Crawls the web, automatically categorizing trackers
Monitors:
– Third-party requests
– Cookies, HTML5 LocalStorage, Flash LSOs
(considers state that changes across clean measurement runs)
– Identifier leaks
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
16
Measurement Study
• 3 data sets
– Alexa Top 500
• 5 pages per domain: main page and up to 4 links
– Alexa Non-Top 500
• Sites ranked #501, #601, #701, etc.
• 5 pages per domain: main page and up to 4 links
– AOL search logs
• 300 unique queries for 35 random users
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
17
Tracking Prevalence (Top 500)
• 524 unique trackers on 500 domains
457 domains (91%) embed at least one tracker.
(97% of those include at least one cross-site tracker.)
50% of domains embed
between 4 and 5 trackers.
One domain
includes
43 trackers.
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
18
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April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
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Doubleclick:
Avg 39% (Max 66%)
Facebook:
Avg 23% (Max 45%)
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
Each line
represents
one user.
Google:
Avg 21% (Max 61%)
20
LocalStorage and Flash Cookies
• Surprisingly little use of these mechanisms!
• Of 524 trackers on Alexa Top 500:
– Only 5 set unique identifiers in LocalStorage
– 35 set unique identifiers in Flash cookies
• Respawning:
– LS  Cookie: 1 case; Cookie  LS: 3 cases
– Flash Cookie: 6 cases; Cookie  Flash: 7 cases
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
21
Outline
• How Tracking Works
– Tracking mechanisms
– Tracking taxonomy
• Measurements
• Defenses
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
22
Defenses to Reduce Tracking
• We explore several in the paper:
– Third-party cookie blocking
– Do Not Track header
– Popup blocking
– Clearing client-side state
– Disabling JavaScript
– Private browsing mode
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
23
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April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
24
Personal Tracking Revisited
• Most popular, based on measurements:
– Facebook, Google, Twitter, AddThis, YouTube,
LinkedIn, Digg, Stumbleupon
• Third-party cookie blocking is ineffective.
• Existing browser extension solutions remove the
buttons (undesirable to some users).
• Can we reduce tracking but allow use?
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
25
ShareMeNot
http://sharemenot.cs.washington.edu
• A browser extension that protects against
tracking from third-party social media buttons
while still allowing them to be used.
• Firefox version: removes cookies from relevant
requests until user clicks button.
– Similar: Priv3 Firefox add-on
• Chrome version: replace buttons with local
stand-in button until user click.
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
NEW
26
Effectiveness of ShareMeNot (Top 500)
Tracker
Facebook
Without ShareMeNot With ShareMeNot
154
9
Google
Twitter
AddThis
149
93
34
15
0
0
YouTube
LinkedIn
Digg
Stumbleupon
30
22
8
6
0
0
0
0
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
27
Summary
• Introduced taxonomy of tracking behavior for any
client-side identifiers.
– Analytics, Vanilla, Forced, Referred, Personal
• Studied tracking in the wild with browser
measurements.
– Revealed rich tracking ecosystem.
– Results can assist informed broader discussions.
• Developed ShareMeNot, a new privacyenhancing defense for personal tracking.
http://sharemenot.cs.washington.edu/
April 26, 2012
Franziska Roesner
28

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