Topic 1 - Intro to APE PPT (ch1)

Adapted Physical Education
Chapter 1
 What are some positive experiences you
recall from your K-12 experiences
regarding students with special needs?
What is Adapted PE
 1. The term "adapted physical education"
means physical education that meets the
unique needs of any child (Sherrill, 2003).
What is Adapted PE
 2. Developing, implementing, and
monitoring a carefully designed physical
education instructional program for a
learner with a disability based on a
comprehensive assessment in order to give
the learner the necessary skills for a lifetime
of recreation, sport, fitness, and wellness
(Winnick, 2000).
– How is this different from PE for students
without disabilities?
Why do you take APE?
 Brainstorm:
Prevalence of Children with
 ~11% of the school age population
– Therefore, on average in a class of 30 students,
you will 3 with unique needs
 Twice as many males as adults
 Most (85%) have mild disabilities
Prevalence of Children with Disabilities
Definition of a Disability
 A physical or mental impairment that
substantially limits one or more of the major
life activities of such individual. Major life
activities include, but are not limited to,
walking, seeing, hearing, speaking,
breathing, learning, and working.
Role of APE teachers
 What are some of the roles of APE
– Work with a partner and list 4 on a
separate sheet of paper
– Draw on your experience as K-12
students and as teacher candidates.
Role of APE Teachers
 Instruction in accordance with educational
 Inclusion (mainstreaming) or separate
 Part of total educational team
– Classroom teachers, special ed teachers,
nurse, speech pathologist, OT/PT
 Creates community collaborations
 Prevent secondary disabling conditions
– Obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease,
History of APE
 1952 – Committee on APE of AAHPERD
– Adopted a resolution to accommodate children with
disabilities in PE programs.
 1968 – Architectural Barriers Act (ABA)
– Requires that buildings designed, built, altered, or
leased with funds supplied by the United States
Federal Government be accessible to the public.
Facilities that predate the law generally are not
covered but upon major renovations or alterations,
the building must become ABA compliant.
History of APE
 1973 The Rehabilitation Act (PL 93-112)
– Designed to prevent discrimination on the basis
of disability in institutions receiving federal
• Section 504: “Individuals with disabilities cannot be
excluded from any program or activity receiving
federal funds, based solely on the disability. In
physical education, intramurals, extracurricular or
interscholastic athletics, a reasonable
accommodation must be made to include a student
with disabilities who wishes to participate.”
History of APE
 1973 The Rehabilitation Act (PL 93-112)
- Defined a qualified individual “as a person with
a physical or mental impairment that
substantially limits one or more major life
activity” such as self-care, manual tasks,
walking, seeing, hearing , speaking, breathing,
learning, and working.
- Later reauthorized by the Americans with
Disabilities Act
…History of APE
 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children
Act (also called PL 94-142).
– All public schools receiving federal funds to
provide equal access to education for children with
physical and mental disabilities.
– Later reauthorized by IDEA, therefore the original
law is rarely cited.
– This law was a dramatic step forward for
individuals with disabilities and included 3
MAJOR provisions:
…History of APE
 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children
Act (PL 94-142).
– 1) FAPE - Free, Appropriate Public Education for
all children between the age of 3-21.
• means that special education and related services are
provided at public expense without charge in the
appropriate setting: classroom, home, and hospitals.
• includes an appropriate preschool, elementary, or
secondary school education in the state involved
…History of APE
 1975 Education for All Handicapped
Children Act (PL 94-142).
– 2) IEP - Individual Education Plan
• The IEP is a process in which parents,
educators, and the student work
together to ensure that the student is
able to achieve his or her designated
goals. (Auxter, Pyfer, Huettig, 1997) .
…History of APE
 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children
Act (PL 94-142).
– 3) LRE - Least Restrictive Environment
• The setting that enables an individual with disabilities to
function to the fullest of his or her capability.
• “Education in the least restrictive environment means that
individuals with disabilities are educated with individuals
who are not disabled, and special classes, separate
schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities
from the regular physical education environment occurs
only when the nature or severity of the disability of a
child is such that education in regular classes with the use
of supplementary aids and services cannot be achieved
satisfactorily” (OSE/RS, 2002).
Some Education Practices
Before PL 94-142
 Students with disabilities denied an
appropriate education
 Lack of due process or recourse
 Educational expenses borne by parents
 Infrequent evaluation of child’s
 Discriminatory testing
 Many other practices
…History of APE
 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act
– Interestingly, PL94-142 has provided the ONLY legal
definition of physical education:
– (I) the development of: (A) physical and motor fitness;
(B) fundamental motor skills and patterns; and
instruction in aquatics, dance, individual and group
games, and sports (including intramural and lifetime
sports). (Federal Register, 1977a)
• What is the significance of the definition?
…History of APE
 1980 – Education for All Handicapped
Children Act.
– Expanded the age range covered by the law
from 3-21 to infants and toddlers from birth to
3 years old.
– Instituted in the IFSP (individual family service
• Not discussed extensively in this course
…History of APE
2 Journals devoted to APE
 1984 – Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly
(APAQ) first published.
– Not accessible via CSU library database
 1984 – Palaestra 1st published (
– Is accessible via CSU library database
 Other adapted sources: include Perceptual and
Motor Skills, European Journal of Special Needs
Education, Disability and Rehabilitation,
 PE Journals: JOPERD, JPTE, TEPE, Physical
Educator, Quest, Research Quarterly, Physical
Education and Sport Pedagogy…
…History of APE
 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)
– Renamed PL 94-142 as IDEA
– Changed the term handicapped to individuals with
disabilities (person first language)
– Added autism and TBI as disability categories
• Adding coverable disabilities is important because only
students who have a specified disability (classified) are eligible
for special education services and funding!
– Adapted physical education (APE) must be taught by
“qualified professionals,” aka YOU.
…History of APE
 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Act
– Specified that physical education is a
service required BY LAW and therefore, MUST be
provided (no excuses). Physical education is not a
related service.
Related Services
 “Related services” are OPTIONAL support
services provided in addition to the direct services
required by law.
– Related services include speech and audiologist
services, psychological services, physical and
occupational therapy, therapeutic recreation,
early identification, counseling services, school
health services, social work, parent counseling
and training, orientation and mobility services,
medical services for diagnostic and evaluation
purposes, and others not specified above.
…History of APE
 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
– Mandated the elimination of discrimination against all
Americans with a qualifying disability.
• In essence, it extended civil rights protection for individual
with disabilities to all areas of life including employment,
public services, transportation, public accommodations,
services of private entities, telecommunications, state/local
• Provided the basis for such statements: “We do not
discriminate on the basis of race, religion, national origin, sex,
age, veteran status, or disability.” (or equal opportunity)
• The act does not specifically target education but certainly
impacts it.
…History of APE
 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act
– Reauthorized the definition of a qualified
individual and the Architectural Barriers Act
of 1968.
– PE related provisions:
• Requires that community recreational and sport facilities be
accessible (bowling alleys, golf courses, downhill and cross
country skiing centers, boat and canoe rentals, etc)
• Requires “reasonable accommodations” that do not produce
“undue hardship”
– What might be and undue hardship?
…History of APE
 1994 – Publication of the Adapted Physical
Education National Standards (APENS)
– National examination became available for
those wishing to become certified adapted
physical educator specialists (CAPES)
– APENS and CAPE information can be found
…History of APE
 1997 – Reauthorization of IDEA (Public
Law 105-17)
– See overview document
– ADD/ADHD and obesity were added to the list of
conditions in "other health impaired."
– Significant changes were made to regulations with
regard to state-wide assessments.
• Appropriate accommodations and modifications in
administration, if necessary.
• Provide for the conduct of alternate assessments for
children who cannot participate in the general
…History of APE
 2004 – Reauthorization of IDEA
– Overview document
– IDEA is periodically reauthorized
Words with Dignity

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