All About Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives Mrs. Wishart’s 8th Grade Language Arts Class Review: What is a verb? A verb is a word that expresses an action or a state of being (linking verbs) • I love cheese. I turned the page. (action verbs) • I am a teacher. I turned green. (linking verbs) There are also helping verbs. • Helping verbs always help either an action verb or a linking verb. • I will play the piano. (will = helping verb, play = action verb) • I will be a teacher. (will = helping verb, be = linking verb) What are verbals? The three types of verbals are gerunds, participles, and infinitives. Gerunds, participles, and infinitives are formed from verbs, but each performs a different function in a sentence. • gerunds: nouns • participles: adjectives • infinitives: nouns, adjectives, and adverbs Let’s make a foldable about verbals!!! • Pay attention while Mrs. Wishart demonstrates how to construct your foldable. On the top flap write, “ All About Verbals.” On the second flap write, “Gerunds.” On the third flap write, “Participles.” On the fourth flap write, “Infinitives.” Gerunds •A gerund is formed by adding –ing to a verb. •It always acts as a noun. •Example: Dancing to music makes me happy. Participles • A participle is formed by adding –ing or –ed to a verb. • It always acts as an adjective. • Example: The dancing girl turned up the volume on her overloaded iPod. More Gerunds and Participles Gerunds: Gerunds are formed when –ing is added to a verb. The gerund acts as a noun. Identify the gerund in each sentence. • The giggling from the students could be heard in the next room. • The stadium officials would not tolerate booing. • Reviewing for the test was tiresome. Participles: Participles are formed when –ed or –ing is added to a verb. The participle acts as an adjective. Identify the participle in each sentence. • The old flag, battered by wind and weather, was finally replaced. • Exhausted, Victor fell to the ground after his long run. • The skaters, moving effortlessly, danced across the ice. Gerund and Participle Practice Identify the gerund or participle in each sentence. Be prepared to explain why each is a gerund or participle. Before seeing the sun, we were unhappy. Finished, the artists cleaned their brushes. The plane, veering wildly, almost crashed to the ground. Infinitives • An infinitive is formed by adding to in front of the verb. • It can act as a noun, adjective, or adverb. • Example 1:To dance is my dream. (noun: subject) • Example 2:I have a date to dance on Saturday. (adjective modifying date) • Example 3:I went to the gym to dance. (adverb modifying went) Wrong Side of the Bed 1. Read Wrong Side of the Bed independently. Pay close attention to the gerunds, participles, and infinitives. 2. Follow along as Mrs. Wishart reads, Wrong Side of the Bed. We will discuss the use of gerunds, participles, and infinitives throughout the text. Don’t Make Me Do That! Write a paragraph about your least favorite chore or job to do around the house. Include at least one gerund, one participle, and one infinitive in your writing. Underline the gerund in red, the participle in blue, and the infinitive in green.