All about the Indus River Valley

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All about the Indus River Valley
General Information
River Civilizations
 The 1st civilizations arose near rivers.
 The people of the Indus Valley farmed along the Indus
River.
 Subcontinent – a large landmass that is set apart from
the rest of the continent by a physical feature
 Indian Subcontinent – separated from Asia by the
Hindu Kush and the Himalayas ~ includes: India,
Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, and Bhutan
Questions 1 and 2
What physical feature was
central to early civilizations?
Which river formed the basis of
India’s first civilization?
Question 3
What countries make up the
Indian Subcontinent?
• Identify at least 4
Physical Features
 Features on the landscape
that were formed by natural
processes. Ex. mountains,
rivers, lakes
Himalayas
 The planet's tallest mountain range, including the
highest, Mount Everest. Provides a natural border for India.
Indus and Ganges Rivers
 Two of the most important geographic features in India, providing water
sources and creating fertile land.
Question 4
What natural barriers
separate the Indian
subcontinent from the
rest of Asia?
Question 5
The continental United
States is about 2,400
miles wide. How does
this length compare to the
Indian subcontinent?
River Systems ~ Indus River
• Flows across the Northwestern part
of the subcontinent
• Snow and ice from the mountains melt
and drain into the rivers, when the
rivers flood it leaves behind silt
• River water allowed for irrigation
part 1 envelope
India’s 1st Civilization
 Civilization grew around the Indus
Valley
 Developed in an area that is DRY most
of the year
part 2 envelope
River Systems ~ Ganges River
part 3
envelope
Flows across the Northern part of
the subcontinent
Floods create a HUGE, fertile
plain good for farming – this is
the Ganges Plain
The rich Ganges Plain was the
CENTER of another civilization
Question 6
Why were river floods
a welcome event for
early Indus Valley
people?
Question 7
What fertile plain is
located in the northern
part of the Indian
subcontinent?
Climate
part 4 envelope
 Monsoons-seasonal wind patterns that cause wet and dry seasons
 Much of India has a Tropical climate
 Winter- dry blow from the land
 Summer-wet blow from the ocean
Question 8
What impact do
monsoons have on
agriculture in India?
Beginning of Indus River Valley
 The Indus River Valley Civilization
started about 2500 B.C.E.
 Along the south-western part of the
Indus River.
 The largest city was Mohenjo-Daro,
in present day Pakistan.
 Settlements stretched all along the
river.
below envelope
Impact of Geography
3 tab
NATURAL BORDERS
 Borders made of land or water



Mountains- Himalayas, Hindu Kush
Water- Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, and
Indian Ocean
Prevented invasion and disease
FARMING / IRRIGATION
 Used the rivers and rain from the
monsoons to wter crops
TRAVEL
 Location to rivers allowed for easy
travel and trade
Timeline
 7000 B.C began growing crops around Indus River System
• With a steady food supply population grew
 3000 B.C cities began to develop on the Indus Valley plain
 2500 B.C cities were the center of civilization
 1700 B.C civilization disappeared
 1921 ruins were discovered for Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Question 9
When did cities begin
to develop in the Indus
Valley?
Question 10
When did the
Indus Valley
civilization flourish?
Technology
3 tab
 Cities were well planned
 Wide straight streets built in a grid a pattern
 Built thick walls around the city
 Built huge raised mound of earth and brick-remained above water during
floods
 Houses
 had bathrooms and toilets
 Trash chutes in many houses led to a bin in the streets
 Waste water flowed into brick-lined sewage channels-1st sewage
system
 Math
 Advanced system of weights and measurement based on units of 10
Question 11
Why do archaeologist
say that Indus Valley
cities were well
planned?
Farming
2 tab
 Irrigation channels
the monsoons were not predictable
 Irrigation channels and ditches brought water to the
wheat and barley fields

 Crops and animals
 1st farmers to grow cotton for cloth
 Raised cattle, sheep, goats, and chickens
 Surplus crops were stored in a GRANARY~ a
special building to hold grain
Trade ~The economy depended greatly on trade
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 Items made and sold
 Made jewelry from precious stones
 Cotton cloth was woven and sold
 Teak wood
 Trade
 Mesopotamia
 Egypt
 Advancement in technology led to carts and early
boats that were used as the main method of trade and
travel.
• Seals and Weights
• Traders used seals to identify their goods.
• Seals were stamped on clay squares attached to their
goods.
• Accurate weights and measures increased trade.
Question 12
What items were
exported for
trade?
Question 13
What
advancements aided
trade?
Cities
Mohenjo-Daro
3 tab
 Design
 Laid out in 12 blocks
 Blocks measured 1260 feet north to south
 750 feet east to west
 A central block on the west was raised 20 to 40 feet above
the other blocks
 The raised block is believed to be the center for religion
 Large buildings with verandas
 Supersized granary
 Two assembly halls
 Houses had bathrooms and sanitation facilities
Government
3 tab
 These items suggest that there was a STRONG central
government:
 Cities were well organized and show a high level of planning
 Used a common system of weight and measurements
 No royal statues or tombs makes is unlikely that a king ruled.
 THERE IS NOT ENOUGH EVIDENCE TO
DETERMINE THE TYPE OF GOVERNMENT THAT
DID EXIST.
Religion
3 tab
 Little is known
 No temples and no clear signs of priests
 The statues that have been found resemble the Gods in the
Hinduism
 Many Indus Valley carvings look like people meditating – an
important practice in Hinduism
Writing
We are still not sure how to
read the Seals that have
been found.
Social Structure- Caste System
 Caste system with four main classes
 Verna- a caste grouping
 People were born into social classes that could not be
changed.
Brahmins (priests and the king)
Kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats - rulers)
Vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants)
Shudras (peasants and serfs)
Twice Born
 Men in the TOP 3 varnas were “twice born”
 1st physical birth
 2nd spiritual birth – this happened after the
individual read the Vedas and mastered
writing using Sanskirt
Dalits
 a caste grouping that was added later for people
they others Castes are untouchables
 These pole completed the ‘dirty’ jobs: cleaning the
toilets, butchering animals, etc
Buildings and Structures
 All houses had access to water and were about the same size
 Houses had one or two stories
 Most buildings were made of dry bricks
 No large monuments or structures
 Individual buildings for bathing and using the restroom (had an early
"sanitation" system)
 Citadels were used for defense
Tools
Weapons
Technology
Used Bronze, Copper, Iron
Used Bronze to make
Large Irrigation System
Clay Used for Art and Tools
Not as advance as
Mesopotamia
1st to create measurement
and weighing equipment
Measuring system and tools
for measurement
(1st and most accurrate)
Arrows were crafted
Most technology was used to
help agriculture
Swords were made
Because of isolated
Boats and carts were used to
geography there was no need help with trade
for advanced weaponry.
Religion
 Hinduism 1700-1100 B.C.E.
 Buddhism 365 B.C.E.
Gender Roles
 Men worked within their designated caste social class
 Women were valued because of their ability to produce
offspring and nurse
 When children were old enough, they adopted their
parents' role

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