Improving Outcomes for ALL Students Through

Empirically Supported Academic
Gary L. Cates, Ph.D.
Illinois State University
What are Scientifically Based
• Employs systematic, empirical methods
• Ensures that studies and methods are
presented in sufficient detail and clarity
• Obtains acceptance by a peer-reviewed
journal or approval by a panel of independent
experts through scientific review
• Uses research designs and methods
appropriate to the research question
Evidence-Based Interventions
• School-based professionals have a
responsibility for both promoting and
implementing interventions that are evidencebased
• AND objectively evaluating the effectiveness
of those interventions through the data-based
decision-making process. (NCLB & IDEA
Research-Based or Evidence-Based
• Are based on efficacy studies
• Are scientifically rigorous meaning• -random assignment to all treatment
• -carefully selected and well defined
participant populations
• -very highly trained implementers who
have supervision.
…Scientifically Rigorous
• -Clearly defined independent
variable(s); i.e., intervention(s)
• -Clearly defined dependent variabledata
• -A set of procedures to clearly
implement the independent variable
• Procedures for accurately measuring
the dependent variable
Be Good Consumers
• Does the intervention meet the
standards for Research-Based
Interventions (internal validity)?
• Has the published research been peerreviewed?
• Have the results been replicated?
• Does this apply to my population
(External Validity)?
Selecting Research-Based
• Maalox Approach -attempt highprobability strategies that have
demonstrated research support and are
likely to show quick and effective results
before conducting lengthy evaluations
that may not lead to beneficial
Standard Treatment Protocol
• This models utilizes a set of standard
research-based interventions implemented in
• They occur in a natural progression and are
similar for students experiencing similar
learning difficulties
• The STP model can save time and energy
• School/districts can inventory resources,
programming, strategies, personnel etc. and
sequence or prioritize their use
• (Flexible Services Delivery System)
• (Aimsweb)
• (Florida Center for Reading Research)
• (Big Ideas in Reading)
(Un. of Virginia – PALS page – instructional strategies:)
• (Intervention
• (What Works
• (Center on Instruction)
Useful Websites
• More detailed descriptions of interventions in
areas of handwriting, math, phonemic
awareness, phonics interventions, reading
vocab, reading comprehension, reading
fluency, spelling interventions, and writing
interventions posted
ndex.html. Developed by Peggy Swerdlik fro
Peoria (CSSS Project).
Center on Instruction
• “Your gateway to a cutting-edge
collection of scientifically based
research and information on K-12
instruction in reading, math, science,
special education, and English
Language Learning. Explore links to
topic-based materials, syntheses of
recent research, and exemplars of best
Center on Instruction
Reading Block (90)
A Principal’s Guide
Reading Research and Classroom
• Data Driven Centers
• Selecting Reading Programs, FCRR
Center on Instruction
• Differentiated Reading Instruction
• Planning, Scheduling, and Supporting
Intensive Interventions for Struggling
• Put Reading First (NRP)
• Reading Fluency Intervention
• Reading Comprehension Strategies
• Vocabulary Development
What Works Clearinghouse
• What Works Clearinghouse (WWC)
collects, screens, and identifies studies
of effectiveness of educational
interventions, programs, products,
practices and policies.
• Intervention rating-strength of evidence
• Improvement Index-effect size
• Beginning Reading
What Works Clearinghouse
Elementary Math
Middle School Math
English Language Learners
Dropout Prevention
Character Education
The Campbell Collaboration
• Systematic reviews of research
evidence prepared and maintained by
contributors to the Campbell
Collaboration’s Review Groups are
designed to meet the needs of those
with a strong interest in high quality
evidence on “what works” for educators
and their students.
The Campbell Collaboration
After School Programs
Class size and academic achievement
Volunteer tutoring programs
Parental Involvement
Peer Assisted Learning
Student Assistance Programs
Intervention Central
• Intervention Central offers free tools and
resources to help school staff and
parents to promote positive classroom
behaviors and foster effective learning
for all children and youth. The site was
created by Jim Wright, a school
psychologist and school administrator
from Central New York
Intervention Central
Intervention Ideas
Tools for Educators
CBM Warehouse
On-Line Tools
Worksheet Generator
Behavior Reports
List Builders
Survey Generators
CBM and RtI Resources
Chart Wizard
Special Connections
• Connects teachers to strategies that
help students successfully access the
general education curriculum
• Instruction
• Assessment
• Behavior Plans
• Collaboration
• Direct Instruction
Special Connections
Cognitive Strategies
Classroom Peer Tutoring
Reading Acquisition
Reading Comprehension
The Iris Center
• All Iris materials are feely available for
use via the website and may be
reprinted without permission
• Star Legacy Modules
• Case Studies
• Activities
• Information Briefs
• Differentiated Instruction
The Iris Center
Research Supported Behavioral
Interventions Across a Three Tier
Model of Support
Things to keep in mind about interventions…
Intensive and focused – it should give struggling readers a
chance to practice a limited set of skills with immediate
corrective feedback.
Intervention is in addition to core reading program!
Intervention starts at the lowest skill that is deficient then
moves up the continuum as children reach automaticity and
Example: Focus on student’s proficiency with recognizing
and expressing initial sounds before teaching
segmentation of all sounds in words
Benchmark/Core Programs (Elem):
1. Rigby Literacy (Harcourt Rigby Education,
2. Trophies (Harcourt School Publishers, 2003)*
3. The Nation’s Choice (Houghton Mifflin, 2003)
4. Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Reading (2003)
5. Open Court (SRA/McGraw-Hill, 2002)*
6. Reading Mastery Plus (SRA/
McGraw-Hill, 2002)
7. Scott Foresman Reading (2004)
8. Success For All (1998-2003)
9. Wright Group Literacy (2002)
10. Read Well*
Reviewed by: Oregon Reading First and FCRR
Comprehensive: Addressed all 5 areas
and included at least grades K-3
~80% of Students
Peer-Assisted Learning
Strategies (PALS): A Multiple
Strategy Intervention
PALS Research
• Based on Juniper Gardens ClassWide Peer
Tutoring Model
• Has over 10 years of experimental research
• Used in Title 1 and Non-Title 1 Schools
• Implemented in urban and suburban schools
• Includes high, average and low achievers as
well as students with disabilities
• Available in reading and math
Critical Features of PALS
• Supplemental reading practice several times per
week (30-45 minutes each session, depending on
grade level and activities)
• Structured activities
• Reciprocal roles (Coaches and Readers)
• Individualized support-corrective feedback
• More time on task with active engagement
• Inclusion of all students with built-in opportunities for
• Facilitation of positive peer interactions
• Opportunities to monitor student progress
• Practical and Effective Strategies
General Procedures for PALS
• PALS is conducted three times each week (about 30-45 min.
per session) but four times is recommended in Title 1 schools or
very low achieving schools
• Students are rank ordered , split in half, and strong readers in
top half are paired with weaker readers in bottom half
• Each pair is assigned to one of two teams
• Teams and pairs remain together for 3-4 week, and partners
work to earn points for their time each week
• Within pairs, the stronger reader read first to provide a model,
but coach and reader roles are switched during each activity
• Partners read text at the level of the weaker reader.
• Teachers monitor students, provide help, and award bonus
points for good tutoring behaviors.
PALS Activities for Kindergarten and FirstGrade Students-Includes Teacher-Led Practice
and Partner Activities Conducted in Pairs
• Phonological Awareness (e.g., saying
first and last sounds, rhyming, counting
sounds, segmenting, and blending)
• Letter-Sound Correspondences (e.g.,
letters and letter combinations)
• Decoding (e.g., words and sentences)
• Fluency (e.g., sight words, stories, and
book reading)
PALS in Grades 2-6
• Partner Reading (11-12 minutes)
-Stronger reader reads for 5 minutes
-Weaker reader rereads the same text for 5 minutes
-Weaker reader retells selection for 1 min. grades 2-3
and for 2 min. in grades 4-6
• Paragraph Shrinking (10 minutes)
-Stronger reader reads new text, stopping to summarize
after each paragraph; states the most important who
or what, tells what mainly happened, and gives main
idea statement in 10 words or less (5 min)
-Weaker reader continues with new text using same
procedure (5 min)
PALS in Grades 2-6 (Continued)
• Prediction Relay (10 minutes)
-Stronger reader makes prediction for
next half page, reads half-page, stops to
verify prediction for 5 minutes
-Weaker reader continues with new text
using the same strategy for 5 minutes
Error Correction in PALS
• Reading aloud
-Stop, You missed this word. Can you figure it out?
Read the sentence again.
-Reader waits longer than 4 seconds.) The word is
____. What word? Good! Read the sentence again.
• Paragraph Shrinking
-That’s not quite right. Skim the paragraph and try
again. (Decide-correct, give points. Incorrect, tell the
• Practice
-Stories-Goldilocks and Little Red Riding Hood
-Prompt card
( Middle and High School)
Building Continuously Improving General
Education Instruction
Use of Teaching Routines and Learning
Well Designed Curriculum with
“Big Idea”
Effective Secondary Classroom
Study and Organizational Skills
~80% of Students
Curriculum Modification
1. Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton
2. Reading Mastery (SRA)
3. 6 Minute Solutions-F
4. Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)*PA,P, F,
5. REWARDS (Sopris West)*P, F
6 Ladders to Literacy (Brookes)
7. Read Naturally *-F
8. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies:
KPALS (PA, P) and PALS*-, F
Earobics* (Tier III too)-PA
9. Project READ* (Tier III too)
~80% of Students
(Middle School):
1. Early (Soar to) Success (Houghton
2. Reading Mastery (SRA)
3. Early Reading Intervention (Scott
4. Great Leaps (Diamuid, Inc.)*-P
5. REWARDS (Sopris West)*-P
6 Ladders to Literacy (Brookes)
7. Read Naturally *-F
8. Peer Assisted Learning Strategies
~80% of Students
(High School):
Consultation Support
~80% of Students
Intervention (Elementary)
1. Corrective Reading (SRA)*
~80% of Students
Language! (Sopris West)
Wilson Reading System* (Tier 2 also)
Reading Mastery
Earobics (phonics/phonemic
awareness; Cognitive Concepts)
Great Leaps/ Read Naturally
(Fluency) (Tier II also)
REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and
Vocab. in Plus Program)
Soar to Success (comp.)
Wilson Reading Program*
Lindamood Phonemic Sequencing
Reading Curriculum*
~80% of Students
Intervention (Middle
School and High
1. Corrective Reading (SRA)*
2. Failure Free Reading*
Language! (Sopris West)
3. Wilson Reading System*
4. Reading Mastery
5. Earobics (phonics/phonemic
awareness; Cognitive Concepts)
6. Great Leaps/ Read Naturally
7. REWARDS (Fluency, Comp. and
Vocab. in Plus Program)
8. Soar to Success (comp.)
9. Lindamood-Bell Programs*
10. Spell-Read P.A.T*
Early Literacy Interventions
• Letter or sound bingo
• I say you say (Blend/Segment)
– Deletion
– Substitution
Letter Name AcquisitionDiscrete Trial Learning
• Give the student an unknown letter-name
• Two Known letter cards and 1 unknown letter
cards are placed in front of the student
• Tell the student to point to the unknown card.
• A) If the correct letter is named, the cards are
mixed and placed in front of the student who
is asked to point to the unknown letter again.
When the student is able to correctly point to
the unknown letter five times the letter
becomes known.
Letter Name Acquisition-Discrete
Trial Learning
• Then, one of the original known cards is
removed leaving the new known card and the
old known card . Finally a new unknown card
is added to the grouping.
B) If an incorrect letter is named, the student is
told the correct name and asked to repeat the
correct letter name. Then the cards are mixed
and placed in the front of the student again.
The examiner asks the student to point to the
unknown letter.
• Steps 2 & 3 are repeated until all of the
unknown cards are considered known
Letter Naming-Listening Passage
• Place the Letter naming probe in front of the
• Explain that the examiner will read the probe
to them before the student is allowed to read
it to them. May need to point to each letter as
they read the probe in order to keep the
student’s attention
• Read the probe correctly
• Allow the student to read the probe and note
any errors.
• Repeat with different probes as often as
• Systematic and Explicit Phonics
• Instruction significantly improves young
children’s decoding, spelling, and reading
comprehension and older students’ word
reading and oral text reading skills.
-Systematic: logical sequence and careful
selection of letter-sounds for instruction
-Explicit: precise directions for teachers or
careful wording to emphasize accurate
models for students and to make letter-sound
relationships and conspicuous
Why is Phonics Instruction So
Challenging for Many Teachers?
• Many teacher preparation programs do not
provide training in phonics instruction
• The English alphabet contains 26 letters but
we use roughly 44 phonemes. These sounds
are represented by as many as 250 different
spellings (e.g., /f/ as in ph, f, gh, ff)
• Many core beginning reading programs have
not emphasized systematic and explicit
phonics instruction
Phonics Instruction
• Use a functional sequence of lettersounds , one that leads to rapid success
in reading words.
• Provide opportunities for practicing
decoding skills both in word lists and in
connected text.
Systematic and Explicit Phonics
• Introduce most common sound for a new
letter /k/ for “C”
• Separate instruction of potentially confusing
letters due to visual or auditory similarity h/n,
• May introduce lower case letters first (more
• Start with high-utility letters (s,t, m, and
vowels, not z, x)
Systematic and Explicit Phonics
• Select words that start with continuous
sounds rather than stop sounds when
beginning to sound out words-or for blending
to sound and segmenting practice (use “mat”
before “bat”)
• Potential sequence for introducing letters
<a,m, t, s, S, i, f, d, r, o, O, g, l, h, u, U, c, C,
b,n, k, K, v, V, e, w,W, j, p, P, y, Y, T, L, M, F,
D, I, N, A, R, E, H, G, B, x,X, q, z, Z, J, Q>
• Repeated and monitored oral reading
significantly improves reading fluency
and overall reading achievement
• Caution: Silent, independent reading
with little guidance or feedback may not
be enough to improve fluency and
overall reading achievement
Why Fluency is Important
• More fluent readers focus their attention on
making connections among the ideas in a text
and between these ideas and their
background knowledge. Therefore, they are
able to focus on comprehension
• Less fluent readers focus their attention
primarily on decoding and accessing meaning
of individual words. Therefore, they appear to
have little attention left for comprehending
connected text
Reading Fluency Interventions
Repeated Readings
Performance feedback
Contingent Reinforcement
Listening While Reading
Choral Reading
Paired Reading/Duet Reading
Fluency Interventions
• Model fluent reading. Have students reread
text themselves. Read aloud daily.
• Students should read aloud repeatedly with
• Use text at independent level (approx 95%
• Use adults, peers, or tape recorders for
modeling and practicing one to one (although
can do class wide partner reading). Choral
reading may engage groups of students.
Error Correction Procedures
Sentence Repeat
Error Drill
Phrase Drill
Word Supply
Research Based InterventionsReading Fluency-Newscaster
• Objective: To increase prosody
(expression) for students who have
difficulty with phrasing and expression
• Materials: Short texts at the student’s
instructional level (can read with at least
95% accuracy)
Research Based Interventions-SelfMonitoring-Pencil Tap
• Objective: To increase self-monitoring
and self-correction of errors in reading
among students who read with low
• Materials: Short texts at the student’s
instructional level
• Many words are learned indirectly through
everyday experiences with oral and written
language (e.g., conversations, listening to
others read, reading independently).
• However, some vocabulary words must be
taught directly through specific word
instruction or through word-learning
Direct Vocabulary Learning: Specific
Word Instruction
• Direct vocabulary instruction aids in comprehension
• However, a text may have too many unknown words
for direct instruction-be selective with vocabulary.
Students do not have to know all words in order to
understand text.
• Words selected should be important, useful, and
• Teach specific words prior to reading text (e.g., use a
model, synonym, or definition)
• Repeat exposure to vocabulary often and in many
different contexts
• Teach word-learning strategies (use of dictionaries
and other reference tools, contextual clues, word
Direct Vocabulary Learning: Specific
Word Instruction (Cont.)
• An important aspect of teaching
vocabulary is selecting a set of
appropriate examples
Examples for Specific Word
• Model the concept “above”. Use hand or
object and place above or not above other
objects (demonstrate position).
• Teach meaning or “gigantic” by using the
known synonym “large”. Connect to prior
knowledge, check with examples and nonexamples, and use in sentences
• Teach meaning by providing definition”: “exita door that leads out of the building. Is this
(point to front door) an exit or not? How do
you know?
• IS the reason for reading
• Comprehension is both purposeful and
active. Good readers have a purpose for
reading, and they think actively about what
they are reading as they are doing it
(metacognition-monitoring understanding
during reading and applying “fix up”
strategies, such as adjusting reading speed
and rereading; also checking understanding
Comprehension Interventions
Pre-Teach Vocabulary
Pre-Teach Concepts
Timelines & Flow Charts
Comprehension Interv. Cont.
• SQ3R (Study, Question Read, Recite,
• POSSE (Predict, Organize, Search,
Summarize, Evaluate)
• Click or Clunk
Effective Comprehension Strategies
• Comprehension Monitoring-involves students using a
set of steps to recognize when they have difficulty
• Graphic and semantic organizers (webs, charts,
frames)-to illustrate relationships among ideas and
• Summarizing-involves synthesis of important idea;
helps to identify main ideas, eliminate unnecessary
information, and remember content
• Answering questions and generating own questionshelps students to establish purpose, focus, attention,
think, and monitor actively, review content, and relate
content to prior knowledge.
Comprehension-Text Lookback
• Text lookback is a strategy that students
can use to boost their recall of
expository prose by looking back in the
text for important information.
• Student write lookback questions for
assigned readings.
• Must teach skimming to be effective
Comprehension Strategies
Should Be Taught Directly
• As with other “big ideas” in reading
instruction, comprehension strategies must
be taught explicitly
-Provide explanations--why strategy helps and
when it should be applied
-Model or demonstrate strategy-think aloud
-Provide guided practice using strategy
-Scaffold assistance during practice
opportunities until students become
independent in applying strategy
Comprehension: Click or Clunk
• When the student reaches the end of each
paragraph, they should ask themselves what
did the paragraph say. If they understand,
they say, “Click:” If not,they say, “clunk” and
they do not continue reading and refer to their
reading checklist.
• When the student reaches the end of a page,
they ask themselves “What do I remember”?
If they remember they say, “click”. If they do
not remember, they say “clunk” and refer to
the study sheet.
Reading Comprehension-Mental
Imagery: Improving Text Recall
• By constructing “mental pictures” of what they are
reading and closely studying text illustrations,
students increase they reading comprehension
• In teaching, read aloud and ask class what mental
pictures come to mind as they read
• Independently students are reminded to “make a
picture in your head about what you are reading and
study the pictures carefully”.

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