Inductive and Deductive Reasoning Arguments • Premise: statement upon which an argument is based or from which a conclusion is drawn • Premise is either true or false • Arguments: Consist of one or more premises and one conclusion or claim, which is drawn from those premises Deductive Reasoning: In deductive, the conclusion is based on one or more premises that state a generalization. It usually states a generalization or fact and ends with a conclusion about something specific. General Premise: All dogs are mammals. Conclusion: My dog Rover is a mammal. to Specific 1. All women like chocolate. 2. Ms. Rathmann is a woman. 3. Therefore, Ms. Rathmann likes chocolate. Inductive Reasoning: Works the other way around. Moves from premises that state specific facts and observations to a broader generalization or conclusion drawn from those premises. 1. My mom likes chocolate. 2. My sister likes chocolate. 3. Therefore, all women like chocolate. Specific Premise: My dog has fur. Premise: My friends’ dogs have fur. Conclusion: Therefore, all dogs have fur. to General In inductive arguments, the premises make it likely the conclusion is true, but it is possible for the conclusion to be false even if the premises are true. Try it! 1. All students eat pizza. Claire is a student at UT. Therefore, Claire eats pizza. Deductive! 2. All athletes work out in the gym. Barry Bonds is an athlete. Therefore, Barry Bonds works out in the gym. Deductive! 3. My niece cries. My niece is a baby. All babies cry. Inductive! 4. Dogs like dog bones. My pet is a dog. My pet, Simon, likes dog bones. Deductive Directions: On your own sheet of paper, identify the premises and conclusions and determine whether the arguments are inductive or deductive. 1. All dogs are mammals. Golden retrievers are dogs. Therefore, golden retrievers are mammals. 2. I saw a white albatross at the zoo. All albatrosses are white. 3. Smoking is bad for your health; therefore, you shouldn’t smoke. 4. My cat does not like to get wet. My neighbor’s cat does not like to get wet. Cats do not like to get wet. 5. All flowers are plants. A daffodil is a flower. Therefore, a daffodil is a plant.