Inductive and Deductive Reasoning

Report
Inductive and Deductive
Reasoning
Arguments
• Premise: statement upon which an argument
is based or from which a conclusion is drawn
• Premise is either true or false
• Arguments: Consist of one or more premises
and one conclusion or claim, which is drawn
from those premises
Deductive Reasoning: In deductive, the conclusion is based on one or
more premises that state a generalization. It usually states a generalization or
fact and ends with a conclusion about something specific.
General
Premise: All
dogs are
mammals.
Conclusion:
My dog
Rover is a
mammal.
to
Specific
1. All women like
chocolate.
2. Ms. Rathmann
is a woman.
3. Therefore, Ms.
Rathmann likes
chocolate.
Inductive Reasoning: Works the other way around. Moves from
premises that state specific facts and observations to a broader
generalization or conclusion drawn from those premises.
1. My mom likes
chocolate.
2. My sister likes
chocolate.
3. Therefore, all
women like
chocolate.
Specific
Premise: My dog has
fur.
Premise: My friends’
dogs have fur.
Conclusion: Therefore,
all dogs have fur.
to
General
In inductive arguments, the premises make it likely the conclusion is true, but it is
possible for the conclusion to be false even if the premises are true.
Try it!
1. All students eat pizza.
Claire is a student at UT.
Therefore, Claire eats pizza.
Deductive!
2. All athletes work out in the gym.
Barry Bonds is an athlete.
Therefore, Barry Bonds works out in the gym.
Deductive!
3. My niece cries.
My niece is a baby.
All babies cry.
Inductive!
4. Dogs like dog bones.
My pet is a dog.
My pet, Simon, likes dog bones.
Deductive
Directions: On your own sheet of paper, identify the premises and conclusions and
determine whether the arguments are inductive or deductive.
1. All dogs are mammals. Golden retrievers are dogs. Therefore,
golden retrievers are mammals.
2. I saw a white albatross at the zoo. All albatrosses are white.
3. Smoking is bad for your health; therefore, you shouldn’t smoke.
4. My cat does not like to get wet. My neighbor’s cat does not like
to get wet. Cats do not like to get wet.
5. All flowers are plants. A daffodil is a flower. Therefore, a daffodil
is a plant.

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