Cloud Databases Matt Gregg Bob Guidinger Cloud 101 • What do we mean by Cloud Databases? • Why do we have them? o Alternative to IT infrastructure investment (pay-as-you-go) o Analytical Usage: Data warehousing, data mining (readintensive) o Huge, fast storage, grid computing, virtualization, N-tier architecture, robust networks. o Elasticity, scalability, high availability, price-per-usage and multi-tenancy (fault tolerance) o Access anywhere, at any time, from any device Types • Cloud Storage o Files stored in the cloud o iCloud, Dropbox, etc. • Data as a Service (DaaS) o Data stored in the cloud o Backups • Database as a Service (DBaaS) o Data stored in the cloud o Full database management functionality o Common names • Amazon SimpleDB, Amazon RDS, Google BigTable, Yahoo Sherpa and Microsoft SQL Azure Database Storage Architectures • Shared-nothing o Splits the data into independent sets stored physically on different servers o Easily scalable o Difficult to maintain in cloud with data partitioning (shipping latency) o Ex. Oracle, Hadoop, Amazon’s Simple DB • Shared-disk o o o o Data stored on a SAN or NAS Fewer, low-cost servers Easy to virtualize Access to all data Transaction Processing applications. Oracle RAC, IBM DB2 pureScale, Sybase etc. support this architecture . Distributed Scalability ACID OLTP Analytical Maintenance Cost Useful for Cloud SharedNothing SharedDisk Partitioning Architecture Table 1: Comparison of shared-nothing and shared disk storage architectures Y Y Y N N Y High Y N Y Y Y Y Y Low Y Note: N-No, Y- Yes 3. A Comparative Study of Relational Challenges for Cloud Databases • ACID vs. BASE (Basically Available, Soft state, Eventually consistent) • Transaction processing o Data Consistency/Integrity o Database Security/Privacy • Analytical Processing Challenges o o o o Developing Scalability Querying a distributed database Vender portability Heterogeneous Cloud Database Providers • Note: These are managed database services. • SQL Services o Amazon Rel. Database Service, Clustrix, EnterpriseDB PostgreSQL, Google Cloud, HP Cloud Rel. DB, IBM SmartCloud, Microsoft SQL Azure, Oracle DB Cloud, Xeround • NoSQL Services o Amazon DynamoDB, Amazon ElastiCache, Cloudant, Database.com, Microsoft Azure Table Storage, MongoHQ Summary • Changing use of Databases • Benefits o Elastic, scalable, cheap, fault tolerant, access anywhere • Cloud Storage, DaaS, DBaaS • Shared Nothing vs. Shared Disk • BASE References 1. Arora, Indu, and Anu Gupta. "Cloud Databases: A Paradigm Shift in Databases.” International Journal of Computer Science Issues. 9.4 (2012): 77-83. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://ijcsi.org/papers/IJCSI-9-4-3-7783.pdf>. 2. Harris, Derrick. "Cloud databases 101: Who builds ‘em and what they do." GIGOM. N.p., 20 JULY 2012. Web. 22 Apr 2013. <http://gigaom.com/2012/07/20/clouddatabases-101-who-builds-em-and-what-they-do/>. 3. Bridgwater, Adrian. "Cloud databases: are lazy developers cutting corners?." Cloud Pro, 13 MAR 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2013. <http://www.cloudpro.co.uk/adrianbridgwater/5378/cloud-databases-are-lazy-developerscutting-corners>.