eng. - Jain Sanskar Shivir

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What is Jainism?
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At least 2500+ years old
Followed by 3 - 4 million people mostly in India
Life affirming but world-denying
Seeks to release the soul from the round of
rebirth, to liberate spirit from matter
• Ahimsa – non-violence – is the hallmark of this
spiritual discipline
• No creator god
• Spiritual life is primarily moral rather than
ritualistic
The founders of Jainism
24 Tirthankaras (“ford maker”): great teachers
• Going back countless thousands of years before
recorded history
• Mahavira (“great hero”) – the 24th and final
Tirthankara – reformer of ancient Jainism
– Nataputta Vardhamana
– Lived 599 - 527 BCE in northeast India
• 30 years as student (never married)
• 12 years as ascetic renunciant
• 30 years as spiritual teacher (tirthankara)
Jain Monastics: Two major sects
• Digambara (“sky clad”)
– Wear no clothes
– Live alone or in small
groups in the forests
– Admit only men
Jain Monastics: Two major sects
• Svetambara (“white clad”)
– Wear white robes
– Live in community
– Admit both men and
women
– Some wear face masks to
protect minute life forms
from harm
The 3 Basic Principles, or The 3 Ratnas
• Right faith
• Right knowledge
• Right action
5 Principles of Living (Vows)
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Ahimsa: non violence
Satya: Only speak the truth
Asteya: Do not steal
Brahma-charya: Sexually monogamous
Aparigraha: Detach from material things,
people, and places.
Basic Practices
• A vegetarian diet is followed, to prevent
harm to any animal.
• Sacred texts are often read daily.
• The 4 stages of life are followed.
Groups of Jains
• Shvetambaras-known for monks that wear
white robes.
• Digambaras-known for monks that do not
wear anything.
• Sadhu is a monk. Sadhvi is a nun.
Cosmology
• The universe goes through time cycles, called
Kalchakra. Each Kalchakra consists of a
Utsarpini and an Avsarpini. Each Utsarpini
and Avsarapini is divided into 6 periods called
Aras.
• It is believed we are in our 5th Ara of the
Avarpini period. There are about 18,500 until
the next Ara.
Six Universal Substances
• According to Jain Science, the universe is
comprised of six substances
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Soul (Jiva)
Matter (Ajiva)
Space (Akash)
Time (Kal)
Dynamic medium (Dharmastikay)
Stationary medium (Adharmastikay)
JAINA REALITY:
• JIVA (souls)
• AJIVA (material atoms)
• EACH LIVING THING IS A COMBINATION OF JIVA AND
AJIVA
• THEIR MOVEMENTS CAUSE THE CREATION AND
DESTRUCTION OF EVERYTHING AROUND US
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JIVA
• In its PURE state, not associated with matter
• Consciousness its essence
• All are alike
Main characteristics:
• KNOWLEDGE: omniscient
• BLISS: utterly pure
• ENERGY: unlimited
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“Soul - God” – Each
living being has a
Soul; God is a fully
enlightened Soul.
Each Soul is capable
of becoming God.
QUALITIES OF SOUL
• QUALITIES
Omniscience
Utterly pure
unlimited
Why the soul, which
possesses infinite faith,
infinite bliss and infinite
power, seems limited &
differ?
Obstacles of Karma
WHAT DEFILES SOUL? KARMA
KARMA: MATTER
• Obstructs knowledge
• Defiles bliss
• Limits energy
• MATTER IS SEEN AS A SHACKLE BINDING THE
SOUL
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WHY DOES KARMA OCCUR?
If soul is inherently pure, why embodied in
matter?
• No answer/no real question
• THE CONDITION IS THE BEGINNING POINT
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FOR JAINS, THE ORIGIN OF KARMIC
MATTER IS NOT
IMPORTANT
BUT ITS REMOVAL
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What is Karma?
• Karma is a matter(Pudgal) determining
the fate of the soul in rebirths
• It is composed of very fine karmic
particles
= karmons
• Entire Universe is filled with Karmic
Particles
Jain Karma Theory
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Law of Cause and Effect
Law of Action and Reaction
What one sows, one reaps
Our intention behind our actions of mind,
speech and body binds us with Karma
Empowering Theory
• While the Law of Karma dictates what we
are experiencing now to be the result of
our own past action.
• Only WE are responsible for our past,
present and future and only WE can alter it.
No one else can!
Jiva (Soul)
Extended substance
Many bodies there are many souls.
Soul
Liberated(Mukta)
Bound(Baddha)
Bound soul
1. Mobile(trasa)
2. Immobile(sthavana) Lives in atoms
and vegetable kingdom
Mobile Soul
•Having two senses(worms)
•Three senses(ants)
•Four senses(wasps)
•Five senses(higher animals)
Six Universal Substances
• According to Jain Science, the universe is
comprised of six substances
– Soul (Jiva)
– Matter (Ajiva)
– Space (Akash)
– Time (Kal)
– Dynamic medium (Dharmastikay)
– Stationary medium (Adharmastikay)
BASIC DOCTRINES
• BONDAGE (KARMA)
• LIBERATION (REMOVAL OF KARMIC MATTER)
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CAUSES OF BONDAGE:
• IGNORANCE
• Responsibility? Ourselves!
• Through thought, speech, action – CREATE
OUR OWN BONDAGE
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KARMA
• EACH PRESENT MOMENT OF EXISTENCE IS
‘EARNED’ BY OUR PAST ACTIONS
• EACH FUTURE LIFE IS ‘EARNED’ BY OUR
PRESENT LIFE
• CONDUCT OF THOUGHTS, SPEECH, ACTIONS
CAUSES BONDAGE
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THE ULTIMATE GOAL
To free our soul from its bondage of
Karma
Through (Three Jewels:tri-ratna)
1.Samyak Darshan (Rational
Perception)
2.Samyak Gnyan (Rational
Knowledge)
3.Samyak Charitra (Rational
Conduct)
Fivefold spiritual discipline
Maha vrata
Great vows
anu vrata
lesser vows
1.Non-Injury (ahimsa)
2.Non-uttering of falsehood (satya)
3.Non-stealing (asetya)
4.Abstention from sensuality (brahmacharya)
5.Non-possession (aparigraha)
Ahimsa (Non violence)
• Ahimsa is disciplined behavior towards
every living being - Dashvaikalika Sutra
(6/9)
• Absence of violence of any sort towards all
beings at all times is Ahimsa. - Yogasutra
• In its absolute definition, ‘Ahimsa is the
absence of evil thoughts, feelings or
attitude’
Ahimsa (Non violence)
• Ahimsa is not to be practised at the physical
level only but at a mental one as well. In
other words, it is stated that there should be
no Himsa by ‘ Man ‘ (mind), ‘Vachan’
(speech), or ‘Kaya” (body).
• Even hurting feelings is himsa.
TOOLS OF AHIMSA VOW: MONKS AND
NUNS
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Whisk broom utilized when walking
Straining water for organisms
Face cloth
Strict vegetarianism, OR, fruitarianism, the
practice of only eating that which will not kill
the plant or animal from which it is taken. e.g.
milk, fruit, nuts.
• Never lighting a lamp at night, never walking
in the dark, never put out a fire
• Bathing is forbidden, as it harms the water
and the vermin on the body.
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TRUTHFULNESS (SATYA)
• Great care must be taken that speech is
always positive
• Closely related to ahimsa – speech
resulting in ‘hurting’ must be avoided
• THUS, AT THE END OF A MONK’S LIFE, HE
OR SHE MAY REFRAIN FROM SPEAKING
AT ALL
• Honesty characteristic of Jain business
people
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SEXUAL PURITY (BRAHMACARYA)
• Ascetics – no sexual activity – no
THOUGHT of sex
• Laypeople – no sexual activities or
thoughts outside of marriage
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NONATTACHMENT (APARIGRAHA)
• More than simple non-possession
• GOAL = completely ridding the self of
thoughts and attitudes that are vehicles
of desire
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LAST STAGE
• MOKSHA (COMPLETE LIBERATION)
• CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED BY ARHANT IN A MOMENT
PRIOR TO DEATH
• WHERE ALL KARMIC ACTIONS AND THOUGHT ARE
COMPLETED GOTTEN RID OF
• UNLIKE BUDDHISTS AND HINDHUS
• TOTAL PERFECTION IS NOT POSSIBLE DURING LIFE
• COMES ONLY UPON THE FINAL DEATH
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Unique Teachings of Jainism
• God is not a Creator, Preserver or Destroyer
of the Universe
• Every living being has a potential to
become God
• Path of liberation is to follow rational
perception, rational Knowledge and
rational conduct
• Conquer your desire by your own effort to
attain liberation
THANK YOU
JAINISM & MAHAVIRA SWAMI
WHAT IS JAINISM?
THE WORD “JAINS” IS DERIVED FROM
WORD “JIN” WHICH ACTUALLY MEANS
“CONQUARER OF DESIRES”
 THE JAINISM IS BASED BASICALLY
ON IDEA OF
“WINNING OUR OWN DESIRES”
•WHO FOUNDED
JAINISM?
• THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF JAINISM
WAS ALREADY IN EXISTANCE
BEFORE THE BIRTH OF
BARDHAMANA OR
MAHAVIRA
.PARSWANATH WAS HIS PREDECESSOR 23RD
TIRTHANKAR.
.1ST TIRTHANKAR WAS RISHABHDEV.
 MAHAVIRA, (C. 599-527 BC) WAS 24TH AND
MOST RECENT
TIRTHANKARA
(“FORDMAKER” OR
FORD BUILDER)
MAHAVIR’S EARLY LIFE?
.CHILDHOOD NAME - VARDHAMANA,
.BIRTH DATE- 599 BCE.
.BIRTH PLACE- KUNDAGRAM,VAISHALI
(MUJAFFARNAGAR,BIHAR)
. FATHER’S NAME-SIDDHARTHA
.MOTHER’S NAME - TRISHALA
.WIFE’S NAME - YASHODA
.DAUGHTER’S NAME- PRIYADARSHNI.
.
AT 30 RENOUNCED HIS FAMILY AND
POSITION TO BECOME A WANDERING,
NAKED ASCETIC. THROUGH TWELVE AND
A HALF YEARS OF SEVERE ASCETIC
PRACTICE AND ABSOLUTE NONVIOLENCE.
.HE GOT THAN KAVALYA AND BEGAN TO
BE CALLED AS JIN, ARHAT, NIGRNTHA &
MAHAVIRA.
• . HE THEN WENT TO MAGADHA, MAHILA,
CHAMPA & KOSH LA.
• HE PASSED AWAY IN PAWAPURI IN
468 BCE
MEANING OF HIS NAMES?
JIN- CONQUEROR
ARHAT-VENERABLE
NIGRANTHA-
FREE FROM FETTERS
KAVELIN-OMNISCIENT
MAHAVIR- THE SUPREME
HERO
NO BELIEF IN THE EXISTENCE OF GOD(ATHEISM)
ATTAINMENT OF SALVATION
RIGHT FAITH
RIGHT KNOWLEDGE
RIGHT CONDUCT
THEORY OF KARMA
NIRVANA
FIVE VOWS:SATYA (NOT TELLING A LIE )
AHIMSA (NON-VIOLENCE)
ASTEYA(NOT TO TAKE ANYTHING WHICH IS NOT FREELY
GIVEN)
APARIGRAHA(NON-ATTACHMENT)
BRAHMACHARYA(SELF CONTROL SHOULD BE PRACTISED)
PUNCHAMAHAVRATA
Jain hand is the emblem of the Jainism,
which symbolizes Ahimsa, nonviolence, the
wheel in the center is the wheel of
Samsara, the word in the center of the
wheel reads “stop.”
THEORY OF KARMA
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THE CYCLE OF REBIRTH IS ASSOCIATED WITH
KARMA
.IT CAN BE FREE FROM IT THROUGH-PUNCHAMAHABRAAT
.ASECTISM
.PENNANCE
.MONASTIC EXISTENCE
QUESTIONS
• NAME THE 23RD TIRTHANKAR.
• WHAT ARE THE MAIN TEACHINGS OF JAIN
TIRTHANKARAS?
• WHO WAS THE 1ST TIRTHANKARA?
• WHO WAS THE 24TH TIRTHANKARA?
ASSIGNMENT
•WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS
OF JAINISM ON INDIAN
SOCIETY?
Internal God/Soul versus External God
Jainsim
Soul
Western Schools:
Soul
__
QUALITIES OF SOUL
• QUALITIES
Omniscience
Sentience
Everlasting
Liberation
Liberation
Life span
Status
Body
Obstructive
View Deluding
Sensation
Omniscience
Knowledge Covering
Intuition Covering
Choice: Circle of Life
or Moksha
Moksha
Circle of Life
and “Death”
Karma & Reincarnation
western schools:
linearity of life cycle
eastern schools:
cycle of life/death - nirvana
heaven
nirvana
cycle of
life/death
birth: pure
state
death
hell
enlightenment
elimination
of
karmic
bondage
Different Core
Western Schools:
Eastern Schools:
External god controls you
God is the soul – within you
Religion/philosophy/science
separate
Religion and philosophy
are intertwined
Linear nature of life/death
As you sow so you reap on
judgement day
Cyclic nature of life/death nirvana
Karma determine your
next life
Help Each Other
• Parasparopgraho Jivänäm –
– Tattvärtha Sutra
All life is bound together by mutual support
and interdependence (If one does not care
for nature one does not care for oneself)
– Refreshingly contemporary in its premise and in
its promise.
– Forms the basis of the modern day science of
ecology.
Why are Jains vegetarians?
Non-vegetarian Living - Cruelty to Animals:
• Animals Killed per Day in USA
Cattle
- 130,000
Calves
- 7,000
Hogs - 360,000
Chickens - 24,000,000
Why are Jains Vegetarians (cont.)?
Non-vegetarian Living - Impact on Ecology
• Greenhouse effect
– World's 1.3 billion cows annually produce 100 million
tons of methane
– Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas which traps 25
times as much solar heat as CO2
• Water Consumption
– Livestock (Cattle, Calves, Hogs, Pigs) production
accounts for more than half of all the water consumed
in USA.
Why are Jains Vegetarians ?
Non-vegetarian Living - Impact on Ecology
• Land Usage
– A third of the surface of North America is
devoted to grazing
– Half of American croplands grow livestock feed
for meat and dairy products
– 220 million acres of land in the USA have been
deforested for livestock production
– 25 million acres in Brazil, and half the forests in
Central America
For thousands of years,
Jains have been practicing
vegetarianism
Animal Compassion
Vegetarianism
Meditation
For thousands of years,
Jains have been practicing
Meditation and
Yoga
Meditation & Yoga
NonViolence
“Soul - God” – Each
living being has a
Soul; God is a fully
enlightened Soul.
Each Soul is capable
of becoming God.
Jain Symbols
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OM (Aum)
Om is a religious symbol. In
Jainism it means wholeness
of Panch Parmeshthi. Om
is Aum in Sanskrit. This Aum
of Sanskrit is made up of five
alphabets - a + a + ā + u +
m = Aum
'a' stands for Arihant
'a' stands for Ashariri
'ā' stands for Acharya
'u' stands for Upadhyay
’m' stands for Muni
The Jain Flag:
Jin-Shaasan Flag has Five colours:
White, Red, Orange, Green and Dark
Blue (or Black).
White represents Arihant
Red represents Siddha
Orange represents Acharya
Green represents Upadhyay
Dark Blue (Black) represents Sadhu
In the centre of the flag is the Swastik.
Swastik represents the four states of
existence of life.
Respect for Jain Flag is respect for
Panch-Parmeshthi. Respect for PanchParmeshthi destroys the sorrow of the
four states of existence and finally guides
us to our sweet home of infinite bliss and
pleasure.

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