What is Jainism? • • • • At least 2500+ years old Followed by 3 - 4 million people mostly in India Life affirming but world-denying Seeks to release the soul from the round of rebirth, to liberate spirit from matter • Ahimsa – non-violence – is the hallmark of this spiritual discipline • No creator god • Spiritual life is primarily moral rather than ritualistic The founders of Jainism 24 Tirthankaras (“ford maker”): great teachers • Going back countless thousands of years before recorded history • Mahavira (“great hero”) – the 24th and final Tirthankara – reformer of ancient Jainism – Nataputta Vardhamana – Lived 599 - 527 BCE in northeast India • 30 years as student (never married) • 12 years as ascetic renunciant • 30 years as spiritual teacher (tirthankara) Jain Monastics: Two major sects • Digambara (“sky clad”) – Wear no clothes – Live alone or in small groups in the forests – Admit only men Jain Monastics: Two major sects • Svetambara (“white clad”) – Wear white robes – Live in community – Admit both men and women – Some wear face masks to protect minute life forms from harm The 3 Basic Principles, or The 3 Ratnas • Right faith • Right knowledge • Right action 5 Principles of Living (Vows) • • • • • Ahimsa: non violence Satya: Only speak the truth Asteya: Do not steal Brahma-charya: Sexually monogamous Aparigraha: Detach from material things, people, and places. Basic Practices • A vegetarian diet is followed, to prevent harm to any animal. • Sacred texts are often read daily. • The 4 stages of life are followed. Groups of Jains • Shvetambaras-known for monks that wear white robes. • Digambaras-known for monks that do not wear anything. • Sadhu is a monk. Sadhvi is a nun. Cosmology • The universe goes through time cycles, called Kalchakra. Each Kalchakra consists of a Utsarpini and an Avsarpini. Each Utsarpini and Avsarapini is divided into 6 periods called Aras. • It is believed we are in our 5th Ara of the Avarpini period. There are about 18,500 until the next Ara. Six Universal Substances • According to Jain Science, the universe is comprised of six substances – – – – – – Soul (Jiva) Matter (Ajiva) Space (Akash) Time (Kal) Dynamic medium (Dharmastikay) Stationary medium (Adharmastikay) JAINA REALITY: • JIVA (souls) • AJIVA (material atoms) • EACH LIVING THING IS A COMBINATION OF JIVA AND AJIVA • THEIR MOVEMENTS CAUSE THE CREATION AND DESTRUCTION OF EVERYTHING AROUND US 14 JIVA • In its PURE state, not associated with matter • Consciousness its essence • All are alike Main characteristics: • KNOWLEDGE: omniscient • BLISS: utterly pure • ENERGY: unlimited 15 “Soul - God” – Each living being has a Soul; God is a fully enlightened Soul. Each Soul is capable of becoming God. QUALITIES OF SOUL • QUALITIES Omniscience Utterly pure unlimited Why the soul, which possesses infinite faith, infinite bliss and infinite power, seems limited & differ? Obstacles of Karma WHAT DEFILES SOUL? KARMA KARMA: MATTER • Obstructs knowledge • Defiles bliss • Limits energy • MATTER IS SEEN AS A SHACKLE BINDING THE SOUL 19 WHY DOES KARMA OCCUR? If soul is inherently pure, why embodied in matter? • No answer/no real question • THE CONDITION IS THE BEGINNING POINT 20 FOR JAINS, THE ORIGIN OF KARMIC MATTER IS NOT IMPORTANT BUT ITS REMOVAL 21 What is Karma? • Karma is a matter(Pudgal) determining the fate of the soul in rebirths • It is composed of very fine karmic particles = karmons • Entire Universe is filled with Karmic Particles Jain Karma Theory • • • • Law of Cause and Effect Law of Action and Reaction What one sows, one reaps Our intention behind our actions of mind, speech and body binds us with Karma Empowering Theory • While the Law of Karma dictates what we are experiencing now to be the result of our own past action. • Only WE are responsible for our past, present and future and only WE can alter it. No one else can! Jiva (Soul) Extended substance Many bodies there are many souls. Soul Liberated(Mukta) Bound(Baddha) Bound soul 1. Mobile(trasa) 2. Immobile(sthavana) Lives in atoms and vegetable kingdom Mobile Soul •Having two senses(worms) •Three senses(ants) •Four senses(wasps) •Five senses(higher animals) Six Universal Substances • According to Jain Science, the universe is comprised of six substances – Soul (Jiva) – Matter (Ajiva) – Space (Akash) – Time (Kal) – Dynamic medium (Dharmastikay) – Stationary medium (Adharmastikay) BASIC DOCTRINES • BONDAGE (KARMA) • LIBERATION (REMOVAL OF KARMIC MATTER) 28 CAUSES OF BONDAGE: • IGNORANCE • Responsibility? Ourselves! • Through thought, speech, action – CREATE OUR OWN BONDAGE 29 KARMA • EACH PRESENT MOMENT OF EXISTENCE IS ‘EARNED’ BY OUR PAST ACTIONS • EACH FUTURE LIFE IS ‘EARNED’ BY OUR PRESENT LIFE • CONDUCT OF THOUGHTS, SPEECH, ACTIONS CAUSES BONDAGE 30 THE ULTIMATE GOAL To free our soul from its bondage of Karma Through (Three Jewels:tri-ratna) 1.Samyak Darshan (Rational Perception) 2.Samyak Gnyan (Rational Knowledge) 3.Samyak Charitra (Rational Conduct) Fivefold spiritual discipline Maha vrata Great vows anu vrata lesser vows 1.Non-Injury (ahimsa) 2.Non-uttering of falsehood (satya) 3.Non-stealing (asetya) 4.Abstention from sensuality (brahmacharya) 5.Non-possession (aparigraha) Ahimsa (Non violence) • Ahimsa is disciplined behavior towards every living being - Dashvaikalika Sutra (6/9) • Absence of violence of any sort towards all beings at all times is Ahimsa. - Yogasutra • In its absolute definition, ‘Ahimsa is the absence of evil thoughts, feelings or attitude’ Ahimsa (Non violence) • Ahimsa is not to be practised at the physical level only but at a mental one as well. In other words, it is stated that there should be no Himsa by ‘ Man ‘ (mind), ‘Vachan’ (speech), or ‘Kaya” (body). • Even hurting feelings is himsa. TOOLS OF AHIMSA VOW: MONKS AND NUNS • • • • Whisk broom utilized when walking Straining water for organisms Face cloth Strict vegetarianism, OR, fruitarianism, the practice of only eating that which will not kill the plant or animal from which it is taken. e.g. milk, fruit, nuts. • Never lighting a lamp at night, never walking in the dark, never put out a fire • Bathing is forbidden, as it harms the water and the vermin on the body. 35 TRUTHFULNESS (SATYA) • Great care must be taken that speech is always positive • Closely related to ahimsa – speech resulting in ‘hurting’ must be avoided • THUS, AT THE END OF A MONK’S LIFE, HE OR SHE MAY REFRAIN FROM SPEAKING AT ALL • Honesty characteristic of Jain business people 36 SEXUAL PURITY (BRAHMACARYA) • Ascetics – no sexual activity – no THOUGHT of sex • Laypeople – no sexual activities or thoughts outside of marriage 37 NONATTACHMENT (APARIGRAHA) • More than simple non-possession • GOAL = completely ridding the self of thoughts and attitudes that are vehicles of desire 38 LAST STAGE • MOKSHA (COMPLETE LIBERATION) • CAN ONLY BE ACHIEVED BY ARHANT IN A MOMENT PRIOR TO DEATH • WHERE ALL KARMIC ACTIONS AND THOUGHT ARE COMPLETED GOTTEN RID OF • UNLIKE BUDDHISTS AND HINDHUS • TOTAL PERFECTION IS NOT POSSIBLE DURING LIFE • COMES ONLY UPON THE FINAL DEATH 39 Unique Teachings of Jainism • God is not a Creator, Preserver or Destroyer of the Universe • Every living being has a potential to become God • Path of liberation is to follow rational perception, rational Knowledge and rational conduct • Conquer your desire by your own effort to attain liberation THANK YOU JAINISM & MAHAVIRA SWAMI WHAT IS JAINISM? THE WORD “JAINS” IS DERIVED FROM WORD “JIN” WHICH ACTUALLY MEANS “CONQUARER OF DESIRES” THE JAINISM IS BASED BASICALLY ON IDEA OF “WINNING OUR OWN DESIRES” •WHO FOUNDED JAINISM? • THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF JAINISM WAS ALREADY IN EXISTANCE BEFORE THE BIRTH OF BARDHAMANA OR MAHAVIRA .PARSWANATH WAS HIS PREDECESSOR 23RD TIRTHANKAR. .1ST TIRTHANKAR WAS RISHABHDEV. MAHAVIRA, (C. 599-527 BC) WAS 24TH AND MOST RECENT TIRTHANKARA (“FORDMAKER” OR FORD BUILDER) MAHAVIR’S EARLY LIFE? .CHILDHOOD NAME - VARDHAMANA, .BIRTH DATE- 599 BCE. .BIRTH PLACE- KUNDAGRAM,VAISHALI (MUJAFFARNAGAR,BIHAR) . FATHER’S NAME-SIDDHARTHA .MOTHER’S NAME - TRISHALA .WIFE’S NAME - YASHODA .DAUGHTER’S NAME- PRIYADARSHNI. . AT 30 RENOUNCED HIS FAMILY AND POSITION TO BECOME A WANDERING, NAKED ASCETIC. THROUGH TWELVE AND A HALF YEARS OF SEVERE ASCETIC PRACTICE AND ABSOLUTE NONVIOLENCE. .HE GOT THAN KAVALYA AND BEGAN TO BE CALLED AS JIN, ARHAT, NIGRNTHA & MAHAVIRA. • . HE THEN WENT TO MAGADHA, MAHILA, CHAMPA & KOSH LA. • HE PASSED AWAY IN PAWAPURI IN 468 BCE MEANING OF HIS NAMES? JIN- CONQUEROR ARHAT-VENERABLE NIGRANTHA- FREE FROM FETTERS KAVELIN-OMNISCIENT MAHAVIR- THE SUPREME HERO NO BELIEF IN THE EXISTENCE OF GOD(ATHEISM) ATTAINMENT OF SALVATION RIGHT FAITH RIGHT KNOWLEDGE RIGHT CONDUCT THEORY OF KARMA NIRVANA FIVE VOWS:SATYA (NOT TELLING A LIE ) AHIMSA (NON-VIOLENCE) ASTEYA(NOT TO TAKE ANYTHING WHICH IS NOT FREELY GIVEN) APARIGRAHA(NON-ATTACHMENT) BRAHMACHARYA(SELF CONTROL SHOULD BE PRACTISED) PUNCHAMAHAVRATA Jain hand is the emblem of the Jainism, which symbolizes Ahimsa, nonviolence, the wheel in the center is the wheel of Samsara, the word in the center of the wheel reads “stop.” THEORY OF KARMA . THE CYCLE OF REBIRTH IS ASSOCIATED WITH KARMA .IT CAN BE FREE FROM IT THROUGH-PUNCHAMAHABRAAT .ASECTISM .PENNANCE .MONASTIC EXISTENCE QUESTIONS • NAME THE 23RD TIRTHANKAR. • WHAT ARE THE MAIN TEACHINGS OF JAIN TIRTHANKARAS? • WHO WAS THE 1ST TIRTHANKARA? • WHO WAS THE 24TH TIRTHANKARA? ASSIGNMENT •WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF JAINISM ON INDIAN SOCIETY? Internal God/Soul versus External God Jainsim Soul Western Schools: Soul __ QUALITIES OF SOUL • QUALITIES Omniscience Sentience Everlasting Liberation Liberation Life span Status Body Obstructive View Deluding Sensation Omniscience Knowledge Covering Intuition Covering Choice: Circle of Life or Moksha Moksha Circle of Life and “Death” Karma & Reincarnation western schools: linearity of life cycle eastern schools: cycle of life/death - nirvana heaven nirvana cycle of life/death birth: pure state death hell enlightenment elimination of karmic bondage Different Core Western Schools: Eastern Schools: External god controls you God is the soul – within you Religion/philosophy/science separate Religion and philosophy are intertwined Linear nature of life/death As you sow so you reap on judgement day Cyclic nature of life/death nirvana Karma determine your next life Help Each Other • Parasparopgraho Jivänäm – – Tattvärtha Sutra All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence (If one does not care for nature one does not care for oneself) – Refreshingly contemporary in its premise and in its promise. – Forms the basis of the modern day science of ecology. Why are Jains vegetarians? Non-vegetarian Living - Cruelty to Animals: • Animals Killed per Day in USA Cattle - 130,000 Calves - 7,000 Hogs - 360,000 Chickens - 24,000,000 Why are Jains Vegetarians (cont.)? Non-vegetarian Living - Impact on Ecology • Greenhouse effect – World's 1.3 billion cows annually produce 100 million tons of methane – Methane is a powerful greenhouse gas which traps 25 times as much solar heat as CO2 • Water Consumption – Livestock (Cattle, Calves, Hogs, Pigs) production accounts for more than half of all the water consumed in USA. Why are Jains Vegetarians ? Non-vegetarian Living - Impact on Ecology • Land Usage – A third of the surface of North America is devoted to grazing – Half of American croplands grow livestock feed for meat and dairy products – 220 million acres of land in the USA have been deforested for livestock production – 25 million acres in Brazil, and half the forests in Central America For thousands of years, Jains have been practicing vegetarianism Animal Compassion Vegetarianism Meditation For thousands of years, Jains have been practicing Meditation and Yoga Meditation & Yoga NonViolence “Soul - God” – Each living being has a Soul; God is a fully enlightened Soul. Each Soul is capable of becoming God. Jain Symbols • OM (Aum) Om is a religious symbol. In Jainism it means wholeness of Panch Parmeshthi. Om is Aum in Sanskrit. This Aum of Sanskrit is made up of five alphabets - a + a + ā + u + m = Aum 'a' stands for Arihant 'a' stands for Ashariri 'ā' stands for Acharya 'u' stands for Upadhyay ’m' stands for Muni The Jain Flag: Jin-Shaasan Flag has Five colours: White, Red, Orange, Green and Dark Blue (or Black). White represents Arihant Red represents Siddha Orange represents Acharya Green represents Upadhyay Dark Blue (Black) represents Sadhu In the centre of the flag is the Swastik. Swastik represents the four states of existence of life. Respect for Jain Flag is respect for Panch-Parmeshthi. Respect for PanchParmeshthi destroys the sorrow of the four states of existence and finally guides us to our sweet home of infinite bliss and pleasure.