Art and culture for wellbeing * Introduction to the field

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ART AND CULTURE FOR
WELL-BEING
Introduction to the field
Anu Laukkanen, PhD
University of Turku
S T RU C T U R E O F T H E L E C T U R E
1. Orientation
2. The role of art and culture in society
3. Mapping the field
1. ORIENTATION
”Art and culture is good for you”
”Art and culture creates well-being”
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2. THE ROLE OF ART
AND CULTURE IN
SOCIETY
DIFFERENT APPROACHES
 Art as an autonomous field of creativity and artistry
• art is valuable an sich
• focus on artists and their works
• rather new approach
 Art and society always engaged
• art is always social and political: art in politics, education, religion
• instrumental approach
• transformational approach
H OW A RT O R C U LT U R E WO R K S ?
 Instrumental view: art as a tool or method
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causality
evaluation or evidence-based research
indicators, measuring, quantitative studies
natural or medical sciences as the model for evaluation
• E.g. how listening to music after a brain stroke effects the cognitive
rehabilitation? (Särkämö et al)
• What can be measured? How?
• Health? Well-being? Objective, experienced, individual, social?
• Art? Culture? Too complex phenomena to be measured? E.g. music
H OW A RT O R C U LT U R E WO R K S ?
 Transformative power of art and culture
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Imagination, intuition, creativity, expressions, experiences
Sharing, bringing people together
Communicating, dialogue
Feeling of belonging, identity work, empowerment
• increasing self-esteem
• identity politics
• social change
ART AS TRANSFORMATIVE
• How to show what art does?
• Qualitative approach
• Artistic research
• Understanding and describing
• Research in humanities and social sciences
• Kirsi Heimonen, community dancer, researcher
• working with people with dementia and the staff of
elderly care homes
• surprise and wonder in encounters
• art can reveal, confuse, open new perspectives to
one’s life, work etc.
”It is not arts activity alone that provides
health gain – rather how it is delivered; and
the environment and the conversations
around the activity provide the intermediate
indicators of perceived benefit.”
(McNaughton et al. 2005, 336.)
Jane Macnaughton, Mike White, Rosie Stacy, (2005) "Researching the benefits of arts in health", Health Education 105: 5,
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=1519895&show=abstract#sthash.T8ZZST7I.dpuf
3. MAPPING THE FIELD
W H AT ’ S G O I N G O N I N O U R
SOCIETY?
 Cultural politics: funding of arts, culture – art for art’s sake or art as an
instrument for something else?
 Welfare and well-being politics: how welfare services are organised in the future?
• privatization, third sector and enterpreneurs
 Changes in the working life
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employment of the artists and cultural workers
new professions
multi-professionalism
project-based work
emotional labour
F I N L A N D : A R T S A N D C U LT U R E F O R
H E A LT H A N D W E L L - B E I N G
Network since 1992 & many projects
Arts and Culture for Health and Well-being
Programme 2010-2014, priority areas:
1) culture in promoting social inclusion, capacity building,
networking and participation in daily life and living environments
2) art and culture as part of social welfare and health promotion
3) art and culture in support of well-being and health at work
A R T A N D C U LT U R E F O R
WELL-BEING PROGRAMME
2010-2014
 18 proposals for actions geared to promote health and well-being
through art and culture relating to
1) legislation, administration and funding
2) cooperation between the public, private and third sectors
3) research and the knowledge base
4) education and training
5) information
A RT F O R S O C I A L I N C LU S I O N
 El Sistema – Venezuela since 1975
• Art for social inclusion
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=276oR_tEmbs
 Cirkus Tværs, Denmark: http://vimeo.com/45894792
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Immigrant children
EVERYDAY CULTURE
 Art and culture as a hobby creates social capital and well-being
 Nature and built environment, ”everyday aesthetics”
 handicrafts, cooking etc.
ARTS IN HOSPITALS
 initiative of the World Decade for Cultural Development of the UN and Unesco in
1990
 18 member states, including Finland
 research by Hanna-Leena Liikanen 2003
 art provides artistic sensation and meaningful aesthetic experiences
 people in contact with art usually express a better self-rated health and feel they are
leading a more satisfactory life
 artistic activities create communality and networks, giving one better control over one´s
life – agency, humanizing effect
 art makes living and working surroundings more enjoyable and attractive
CAREMUSIC
 Musique et Santé, France:
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xba4yw_projet-europeenmusique-a-l-hopital_music
A R T A N D C U LT U R E I N S O C I A L A N D
H E A LT H C A R E S E T T I N G S
 art as therapy: art therapy, music therapy, dance and
movement therapy, dramatherapy, literature therapy
 compare: therapeutic art
• or art MAY have therapeutic effects
• E.g. PhotoTherapy and empowering photography
A RT, WO R K A N D W E L L - B E I N G
 well-being at work
 creativity and innovations
 arts in management
 arts & well-being as business, enterpreneurship
 new professions & multiprofessional work
 artists’ health & well-being
A R T S F O R H E A LT H A N D W E L L - B E I N G
C A S E : T H E AT R E
 Theatre – Applied theatre – Theatre-based methods (Pekka Korhonen 2012)
 community theatre; participatory theatre, applied theatre; popular theatre;
theatre of the oppressed; forum theatre; theatre for development etc.
 Democratisation of the art: art for everyone
 Art for democracy, social and political change
 Sociocultural animation
• Post-war France; later Latin America
• Brazil: Paolo Freire 1968: Pedagogy of the oppressed
• Brazil & Europe: Augusto Boal 1960s: theatre of the oppressed – forum
theatre
THEATRE FOR WELL-BEING
CASE: Finnish National Theatre/Touring Stage
 Theatre for all: care homes, prisons, reception centres
 Engaging audiences: Soviet Union project
 All levels: theatre, applied theater and theatre-based
methods
A RT S A N D C U LT U R E F O R
H E A LT A N D W E L L - B E I N G
 Is a large field, some areas are more developed, established & researched than
others
 There are good results of the effects of the work
 In general the field lacks stable funding and position in the social and health
settings – WHY? Politics…
 What works or creates well-being? Some answers to a future professional:
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Know the context of your work as well as you can.
Be ready to be surprised and learn.
Be ready to cross boundaries.
Know your role as a professional and give credits to others and their
professional skills.
THANK YOU
Anu Laukkanen
Culture, health and well-being
School of History, Culture and Arts Studies
University of Turku
http://www.hum.utu.fi/laitokset/hkt/tutkimus/hyvinvointi/
[email protected]

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