Changes and Challenges in Japanese Language Education

Report
Japanese language education in
Australia: an overview of the
current environment
オーストラリアにおける日本語教育の
環境と現状
Robyn Spence-Brown
Monash University
Australian Education system
オーストラリアの教育制度
• Australia is a federation of 6 States and 2 Territories.
• School education
– controlled mainly by State Governments
– Federal Government funds provides extra funding and
programs
– New national curriculum (Australian Curriculum) in some
subject areas, but States decide how to implement
• 3 school systems: Government (66%), Independent
(14%), Catholic (20%)
• Universities
– Most are public universities
– Controlled and (partially) funded by Federal Government
The Australian School system
オーストラリアの学校制度
教育機関
小学校 Primary
高校(ハイ・スクール)
Secondary (セコンダリー)
(シニアセカンダリー)
大学、TAFE、専門学校
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レベル
K: Foundation/Prep
Year 1 (小学1年)
Year 2 (小学2年)
Year 3 (小学3年)
Year 4 (小学4年)
Year 5 (小学5年)
Year 6 (小学6年)
Year 7 (中学1年)
Year 8 (中学2年)
Year 9 (中学3年)
Year 10 (高校1年)
Year 11 (高校2年)
Year 12 (高校3年)
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Languages in Schools
初等、中等教育の外国語教育
• Foreign languages are taught in both primary and
secondary schools, but period varies across
states
• Less than 15% of students study a language in
final two years of high school
• Main languages taught (secondary):
Japanese, French, Italian, Indonesian, German, Chinese,
Spanish.
Languages at the tertiary level
高等教育の外国語教育
• Percentage of students studying a language is
low.
• Languages are usually located in the
Arts/Humanities faculty.
• However, language can be taken as an elective by
students from other Faculties.
• A Diploma in Languages is available to be taken
at the same time as the main degree in some
universities.
The history of JLE: Early years
日本語教育の歴史:初期
Japanese has been taught for
100 years
• 1906: Melbourne (Stotts
College)
• 1917 University of Sydney
• 1918 Fort St school in
Sydney
• Coincided with growth in
Japan’s strategic and
economic importance
– Trade with Japan (wool etc.)
– Strategic factors: Japan was a
threat but also an ally
– Missionaries
– Cultural interest
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World War II
第二次世界大戦
• 1941 Australia was at war with
Japan
• Military schools taught Japanese
for intelligence gathering etc
• Australians were part of the
occupation force in Japan, and
participated in War Crimes trials
• Some war-time language experts
became teachers in the post-war
period
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1960s A new beginning
新しい出発
• Japanese introduced/reintroduced into major
universities
• 1962 ANU
• 1965 University of
Queensland, Melbourne
University
• 1967 Monash University,
Curtin University (WAIT)
in WA
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1970s Japanese appears in schools
日本語が学校教育に取り入られる
• By 1976, Japanese
taught at 13 Universities
and 100 schools
• 1977- Alfonso textbooks
produced for teaching in
schools
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1980s-1990s The boom years
日本語ブーム
• 1987 National Policy on
Languages
• Language Japanese introduced
widely in primary schools in
1990s
• NALSAS funding 1994-2002
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2000-2010 統合と収縮
Consolidation and contraction
• At beginning of 21st century, Japanese
was the most widely taught language in
Australia
– studied by more than 10% of all school
students K-12 (2008)
– largest language at tertiary level
• Decreased by 16% at school level
between 2000 and 2008 – biggest
decrease in primary school
• Reasons:
– Institutional factors affecting all
languages
– Decreased government funding
– Japan’s economic problems
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Student numbers 学習者数
Year 年
Students studying Japanese
日本語の学習者数
1970 (初、中、高等教育)
2,745
1979/80 (初、中、高)
7,535
1990 (初、中、高)
62,023
2000 (初、中のみ)
419,488
(小284,058+中135,430)
2008 (初、中のみ)
351,579
(小224,831+中126,748)12
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Distribution by state (2008)
州別の学習者数
Japanese students
Number of students of Japanese
school
students
OverallTotal
number
of school
students,
by State/Territory
Tasmania
TAS
SA
SA
WA
WA
Queensland
QLD
Victoria
VIC
NSW
NSW
• Students of Japanese
0
100000
0
Number of Japanese students
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500000 1000000 1500000
Total students
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Recent trends 最近の傾向
• Japan Foundation report for 2012 shows increase
since 2009
– 13.3% ↑ Primary
– 1.4% ↑ Secondary
– 1.3% ↑ Tertiary
• Increases in some states balance decreases in others
• Causes
– Extra funding (NLSSP) 2006-2012
– Many states expanding primary language ed in
preparation for introduction of Australian curriculum
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Year 12 student numbers
12年生の日本語学習者数
2000
1800
1600
1400
ACT
NSW
1200
SA
NT
1000
QLD
TAS
800
VIC
WA
600
400
200
0
2000
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2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
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2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
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Tertiary level 高等教育
• 2009: 27 universities offered Japanese (ASAA).
– On the basis of this survey and other data, there were
probably between 7000-8000 university students.
– Two popular programs hadiscontinued.
• Japan Foundation survey (included a wider range of
post-secondary institutions)
– 2009: 8,520 students in 35 institutions.
– 2012: 9,682 students
• Uneven patterns: big rises in some institutions, falls
in others
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Tertiary level 高等教育
• Many university students take Japanese as an
elective, and do not continue after first or second
year.
• Many students are overseas students (mainly
from Asia).
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Factors affecting JLE
日本語教育に影響がある要素
The activity of JLE
日本語教育・学習の活動
Teachers,
students,
policy makers…
Resources/
technology,
curriculum
GOALS
Activity of
JLE
Local/ global
environment
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Education
structures
Community、
learners and
teachers
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Global and local factors impacting JLE
日本語教育に影響する国内、国外要因
Globalisation,
rise of China,
growth in ICT
Australia-Japan
relationship
Cultural and
Institutional factors
in Australia
Language ed policy
Individual motivation
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Factors affecting JLE today
日本語教育に影響する要素
• Strategic, economic and cultural factors
– Japan, and its place in the world
– Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries
– The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities
for travel
• Australian community views about language learning
– Perceptions of the role and importance of language learning
• Policy and institutions
– Language policy, curriculum
– Broader education policy
– Structure and organisation of schools, universities
• People
– Students
– Teachers
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Australia’s Relationship With
Japan 日豪関係
• Political/strategic
– Military threat
– Ally
• Economic
– Trade
– Tourism, investment
• Cultural
– Food, art, popular
culture etc
• Personal ties (business,
tourism, exchange)
http://nsnbc.me/2014/04/09/australia-japan-fta-finalised-long-gestation/
Strategic, economic factors
戦略的、経済的要因
• Strategic and economic factors were the basis of
past growth in JLE.
• They still dominate government language
education policy.
• These factors are also important for perceived
‘usefulness’ of Japanese for careers and student
and parent choices of language to study
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Strategic, economic factors
戦略的、経済的要因
Current situation
• ‘Japan as number 2’? Or 3?
– New free trade agreement shows that Japan-Australia relationship is
still strong.
– Japanese is viewed as a ‘successful’ language, but Chinese and
Indonesian have serious problems
BUT
– Growing importance of China, India, Indonesia in trade, tourism,
education etc.
→Funding and attention is focussed on Chinese and Indonesian
• Economic importance alone does not provide a strong enough
narrative for why JLE is still relevant and important.
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Cultural factors
文化的要素
Appeal of Japanese culture
• Appeal of traditional culture, food, art, martial
arts etc
• Influence of Japanese pop culture and image of
‘cool Japan’ – particularly important for Asian
background students: Asian identity
BUT
Negative factors also exist (e.g. whaling)
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Social connections
人間関係
Personal contacts
• Sister school and exchange programs are very
influential in supporting JLE
• Travel is a major motivation for students
• Evidence from recent research shows that ICT
makes continuation of networks easier nowadays
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The impact of changes in ICT on language teaching
ICTの普及による影響
Tools and resources
•
New channels for communication and access to information,
•
Resources to aid learning and understanding- both target and tools for learning
•
Communities
•
Access to new people and communities
•
New ways of communicating in existing communities
– Participants may be located anywhere
Geography no longer defines community
•
Nature of literacy is changing
– goals of learning and teaching must change
– Roles of students and teachers are also changing
‘We are no longer the arbiters of access to the culture and language we teach.’
Larson (2003)
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Factors affecting JLE today
日本語教育に影響する要素
• Strategic, economic and cultural factors
– Japan, and its place in the world
– Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries
– The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities for travel
• Australian community views about
language learning
– Perceptions of the role and importance of language
learning
• Policy and institutions
– Language policy, curriculum
– Broader education policy
– Structure and organisation of schools, universities
• People
– Students
– Teachers
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Community factors: Australia’s ‘monolingual mindset’
コミュニティの要素:単一言語の考え方
• Scepticism about the value of foreign languages in a
world dominated by English
• Disappointment with outcomes of past programs
• Perceptions of a crowded curriculum
• Lack of support for languages as a key curriculum
component
• These issues feed directly into structural problems –
lack of ‘room’ for languages in Australian education
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The role of foreign language learning in Australian
society 外国語教育の意義、目的に関する問題
Dilemmas for English-speaking countries
• WHY teach language: How to justify learning
other languages in an English-speaking world?
– Practical communication value is not enough!
• WHICH language(s) to teach?
– Inward and outward looking views
– Education for a multicultural Australia: community
languages
– Education for a globalised world: international
languages
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Factors affecting JLE today
日本語教育に影響する要素
• Strategic, economic and cultural factors
– Japan, and its place in the world
– Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries
– The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities for travel
• Australian community views about language learning
– Perceptions of the role and importance of language learning
• Policy and institutions
– Language policy, curriculum
– Broader education policy
– Structure and organisation of schools,
universities
• People
– Students
– Teachers
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The recent policy environment
近年の政策の環境
• 2007-2013 Rudd/Gillard
government supported
Asian languages
• NALSSP program (A$64
million over 3 years)
finished 2012
– NALSSP funding had a
recognisable impact on
numbers.
– No new major funding
initiatives have been
announced.
• White paper: Australia in
the Asian Century (2012)
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Australia in the Asian century White Paper
「アジアの世紀におけるオーストラリア」白書
• Sets out policies for Australia’s engagement with
the growing Asian region for the period until
2025
• Australia-Japan relationship is acknowledge as
very important, multi-dimensional and strong
• However main emphasis seems to have shifted
to China, India
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Policies on language education in the White Paper:
白書による言語教育政策
• Emphasised the importance of Asian language
competence AND Asia literacy
• Reaffirmed Japanese as one of 4 (later 5) Asian
languages to be taught in schools.
• Stated that all students should have the opportunity
to study sequentially
• Universities also to be assisted to promote study of
Asian languages and specialised skills
• Emphasis on role of technology (National broadband
network) and opportunities for interaction
• All schools to have a sister school in Asia
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Policies of the new government
新政権の政策
Positive rhetoric, but little funding (focus on
reducing budget deficit)
• Continued emphasis on Asian languages
• Continued focus on Asia literacy, study abroad,
technology
• Tony Abbott has reaffirmed goal of 40% of year
12 students to study language ‘within a decade’
– Currently around 11%
– Acknowledged as unlikely to be achieved
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Policies of the new government
新政権の政策
Funding
• Study abroad: $100 million “New Colombo Plan”
– scholarships and mobility grants to undergraduate
students for study and internships or mentorships in the
Asia-Pacific region.
• Early Learning Languages Australia (ELLA) with $9.8
million provided for a one-year trial of online foreign
language learning for children in preschool
programmes (40 schools)
• Focus on teacher supply, within wider programs
(teacher training review, ‘Teach for Australia’)
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Structural factors: Primary
構造的な問題:小学校
Basic problems:
• Primary education based on a generalist model
(classroom teacher covers whole curriculum)
→Teaching of specialist areas is a problem
(funding, staffing)
• Curriculum guidelines have been vague
• Textbooks not used
• Proficiency goals are unclear
• Future for students in high school unclear
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Structural factors: Primary
構造的な問題:小学校
As a result:
• Place in curriculum, time allocation, funding unclear
• Teachers focus on ‘fun’
• Employment conditions for teachers are bad
– Fixed-term, part-time positions
– Teachers are isolated – from support, and from influence
in the school
– No career path
• Evidence that some programs are of low quality,
have low expectations
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Structural factors: Transition issues
構造的な問題:小学校から高校への継続
• Primary students may not be able to continue
with Japanese in high school
• High school year 7 classes mix students who
studied in primary school and beginners
• Diversity of outcomes of primary programs
makes transition problems worse
• Lack of acknowledgement of prior learning at
secondary level leads to
– Primary teachers not having standards to aim for
– Boredom and frustration for students
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Structural factors: Secondary
構造的な問題:中等教育
•
•
•
•
Beginners and continuing students combined
Timetabling and time allocation
Unwillingness to support small classes
Year 12 issues
– Narrowing of subject choices at year 12 in some
states
– Scaling and fairness issues (real or perceived)
demotivate students
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Year 12 issues
12年生の問題
• Number of subjects studied at year 12 has decreased in
some states
– 5-6 in Queensland, Victoria
– 4-5 in South Australia and Northern Territory
• Increasingly competitive university entrance leads to
subject choices dominated by need to maximise marks
• Perception that Japanese is difficult, and requires more
work than other subjects to obtain a good mark
• Perceptions of unfairness of mark
– Problems with standardisation in some states
– Perception that presence of more advantaged students make
it hard to get a good mark
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Structural factors: Tertiary
構造的な要因:大学
Student numbers have grown in some universities,
decreased in others
Factors leading to decreases
• University funding cuts and rationalisation
– Full programs and individual subjects have been cut
Factors leading to increases
• University course restructure which supports
languages
– e.g. ‘Melbourne model’ at Melbourne University
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Structural factors – summary
構造的な要因:概括
• Structural factors are often not directly
associated with language teaching.
• However, general policies often make a more
significant impact on language learning than
‘language policies’.
• In a crowded curriculum, language study is not
given priority, or resources
• The fundamental problem is lack of ‘space’ and
resources for languages in Australian education
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Curriculum
カリキュラム、教授法
• Curriculum is controlled at state/territory level (8
different curriculums)
• Schools and individual teachers have considerable
freedom, within broad curriculum guidelines
• Primary schools:
– Curriculum and standards vary widely
– Cross-disciplinary learning is encouraged: potential for
content-based approaches (CLIL, Immersion)
• Secondary schools: Commonly used textbooks and year
12 exams provide curriculum structure
• Technology is increasingly available and influential
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The Australian Curriculum
全国統一カリキュラム
• First ‘national’ curriculum
– English, history, mathematics and science in process
of being implemented
– 14 languages to be developed, based on common
principles
– Italian, French, Chinese and Indonesian curriculum
released June 2014
• Unclear how states will implement
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Rationale for languages in the Australian curriculum
統一カリキュラム:言語教育の論拠、根拠
General education, intercultural understanding,
literacy
The study of languages contributes to the general
education of all students…. Learning to communicate
in two or more languages is a rich, challenging
experience of engaging with and participating in the
linguistic and cultural diversity of our interconnected
world. …
Language learning builds upon students intercultural
understanding and sense of identity…
Learning languages also develops students overall
literacy…transferrable across learning areas.
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Changing aims and objectives
言語教育の目標の変革
• Continuing demand for
– Communicative competence, linguistic skills, cultural
knowledge
• Growing focus on
– Intercultural knowledge, skills
– Language awareness, literacy (including online literacy)
– General educational skills and personal development
• ‘essential learning’: thinking, academic skills, technological skills,
interpersonal skills
• It is challenging to add new dimensions while still
covering the linguistic skills traditionally focused on.
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Content-based approaches
内容重視言語教育
• History of immersion education, particularly in
Victoria
• Recent developments:
– Robina High School – Queensland
– Primary immersion in NSW, Queensland
– Victoria: CLIL initiatives (Content and Language
Integrated Learning)
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Factors affecting JLE today
日本語教育に影響する要素
• Strategic, economic and cultural factors
– Japan, and its place in the world
– Australia’s relations with Japan and other countries
– The shrinking globe: globalisation, impact of ICT, opportunities for
travel
• Australian community views about language learning
– Perceptions of the role and importance of language learning
• Policy and institutions
– Language policy, curriculum
– Broader education policy
– Structure and organisation of schools, universities
• People
–Students
–Teachers
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Students: Increasing diversity
学習者の多様化
Students with diverse backgrounds study together
• Students who have studied Japanese at Primary
school and those who have not
• Students who have been to Japan, and those who
have not
• Students from kanji backgrounds and English
speaking backgrounds
• Students who are exposed to Japanese outside the
classroom and those who are not
Diversity provides both challenges and opportunities
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Students:motivation
学生のモチベーション
• Affective factors are more important than
instrumental factors
• Liking Japanese, interest in Japanese culture,
desire to travel to Japan are important
motivations at all levels
• Usefulness for employment is less important
factor at school level, more important at
University level
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Teachers of Japanese in schools
• Teacher supply issues – not just quantity, but
quality
• Teacher skills and qualifications
– Increasing skills levels (?)
– Increase in the number of NS teachers
• Language assistants
• Changes in the role of the teacher
• Problems in the position of the Japanese teacher
in the school, career paths, working conditions
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Challenges for policy and practice
政策と実践ににおける課題
Repositioning Japanese (goals and ‘branding’)
• Reaffirming the relevance of Japan to Australians
• Reaffirming why Japanese is an ideal foreign
language for Australians
• Emphasizing broader skills
– Japanese as a gateway to Asia
– Japanese as a passport to wider intercultural and
literacy skills
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Challenges for policy and practice
政策と実践ににおける課題
Reforming structural problems
• Making space in the curriculum for language
teaching in primary school, secondary school,
universities
• Providing adequate resources
• Solving fairness issues at senior secondary level
• Creative solutions to transition issues
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Challenges for policy and practice
政策と実践ににおける課題
Renewing goals, curriculum, teaching methods
• Making Japanese less ‘difficult’, but more ‘interesting’
• Integrating cultures, communities and intercultural skills
• Agreeing on goals and approaches for the primary years
• Catering for individual difference
– Differences in background, objectives
• Communication and learning skills for an ICT-rich world
• Connections between what students do outside of class
and inside
• Approaches which integrate content and language
– CLIL etc
– Japanese cultural content/intercultural content
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