4. Web – Wolsey – Government – Foreign Policy

Report
RCP + US + 5IMSS + 4(AQE CR) + 2PP + 4(DQE CR) + PP + 5TC = 20
RCP + US + 5IMSS + 2OK + 4(AQE) + 3OK + 2PP + 4(DQE) + 3OK + 2PP + 6TC = 40
TOPIC: Topics and Strategies - Prepare your revision by grouping the topics in these three headings:
Pre - Wolsey:
1) The challenges of Henry VII
2) The legacy of Henry VII
3) Lessons for Henry VIII
4) 1509, the Renaissance King / the Warrior King
Wolsey Era:
1) Reasons for Wolsey’s rise to power 2) Relationship between Wolsey and Henry 3) Wolsey’s domestic policy
4) Wolsey’s foreign policy 5) Who was in charge of foreign policy from 1514 - 1529?
Successes and Failures:
6) Reasons for Wolsey’s fall from power - Great Matter
Cromwell Era:
1) Pre Reformation Church in England
- role of Anti-Clericalism and Anti-Lutherism; Views.
2) Causes of the Break with Rome - only applies in a legal sense through the
legislation of the ‘Reformation Parliament (1529-36), and not an end to
Catholicism in England (even Henry VIII continued to practice as a Catholic)
3) Royal Supremacy
4) Dissolution of the Monasteries
5) Religious changes
TOPIC: The Domestic Policies Wolsey - Justice, Enclosure, Finances, Policy Makers
WARM UP ANSWERS:
1. Keys to good government in the 16th century:
•
Maintaining law and order
•
Upholding the power of the Crown and Church
2. Two necessities for foreign and diplomatic success:
•
Efficient tax collection policies
•
Stable domestic government
•
Both prove your POWER and LEGITIMACY - at home and abroad
TOPIC: The Domestic Policies Wolsey - Justice, Enclosure, Finances, Policy Makers
3. Court of Star Chamber - royal court that could be used by the King’s
subjects to get justice
Court of Chancery - was a court of equity in England and Wales that
followed a set of loose rules to avoid slow change and possible harshness
of the common law. The Court was an administrative body primarily
concerned with conscientious law, and had jurisdiction over Common
Law courts.
Benefice - A clerical position
Civil Law - laws written into a collection, codified, and not (as in common
law) determined by judges. It holds legislation as the primary source of
law, and the court system, composed of specially trained judicial officers,
is unbound by precedent and has limited ability to interpret law.
Common Law - law based on customs, usage, and precedents of court
decisions.
KD:
6. Wolsey’s downfall - three significant events from 1525 to 1529:
• Amicable Grant crisis of 1525 – by 1525 Wolsey met with
violent displeasure when he attempted the Amicable Grant
(non-parliamentary tax in 1525 in order to raise funds for
Henry VIII). ). It was a levy for 1/6 of goods of citizens and 1/3
of those in the clergy, which met incredible widespread
resistance. Rebellions rose up in the south - Suffolk and East
Anglia - causing Henry to lose some confidence in Wolsey.
• Diplomatic Revolution (from Pavia in Feb to Treaty of the More
in Aug 1525)
• Great Matter
KD:
7. Roles in the making of the King’s policy:
• Parliament – not at the heart of Tudor government; powers were
limited and seen as an institution to carry out the wishes of the King
• Policy was devised in the King’s household – Council and Chamber
• Council – made of leading nobles and churchmen that carried out
administrative affairs of the court
• Chamber – saw to the King’s most intimate needs and was made up
of his most trusted friends
Roles of :
• Westminster - Greenwich and Eltham – royal palaces used by young
men to impress the King
`
Significant - 3 Arguments:
a) Wolsey viewed these men as political rivals
b) Wolsey was not paranoid to the point of dismissing rivals; and
c) Wolsey definitely built up resentment to the point of his dismissal
in 1529.
DATE: November 9, 2014
TOPIC: Wolsey’s Attempts at Reforming the Church and his Downfall
OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe how Wolsey lost power and favour by 1529.
REVIEW:
1. SKILLS BUILDER, p. 45 table:
•
Source Q - G.R. Elton - to rule as King … ignore legal and constitutional
traditions … lasted b/c two things - promote himself and keep Henry
satisfied
•
Source R - Peter Gwyn - workload was staggering … tendency to hide
Guistinian’s man of vast ability … turning Wolsey into some kind of
strutting peacock … Wolsey was a man of enormous ability … leading
minister
WARM UP:
1. What type of attention did the Hunne Affair bring to Wolsey? Discuss. p. 47 - 48
2. What did Wolsey do to reform the Church? p. 49
3. How did Henry hope to benefit from Wolsey’s position as Legate a latere? p. 49
TOPIC: Wolsey’s Attempts at Reforming the Church and his Downfall
OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe how Wolsey lost power and favour by 1529.
WARM UP:
1. Attention from the Hunne Affair to Wolsey:
• Hunne was found dead in custody - Dec 4, 1514
• Anti-clerical feelings
• Challenge to benefit of the clergy (provision which clergymen were
outside the jurisdiction of secular courts) led to parliamentary action in
1512 and 1515, which increased tension between Wolsey and Parliament.
• Wolsey had to promise Henry that royal authority was supreme (over
ecclesiastical)
• Resentment - as Legate a latere Wolsey had authority to establish
Ecclesiastical Probate Courts (dealt with wills left by the laity and often
included donations to the Church)
• As Legate a latere, Wolsey was in a strong position to reform the Church
but was criticised for his holding bishoprics in plurality (York, Tournai,
Bath, Wells, Durham and Winchester)
• Wolsey was accused of exploiting the Church for personal financial gain as the Ecclesiastical Council of 1518 at York was perceived as a means for
Wolsey to impress Pope Leo X
TOPIC: Wolsey’s Attempts at Reforming the Church and his Downfall
OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe how Wolsey lost power and favour by 1529
WARM UP:
2. Wolsey’s reform of the Church:
•
Ecclesiastical Council of 1518 at York
•
Legatine visitations - inspected churches and religious houses and
replaced some abbots and monks
•
Proposed the creation of 13 new Episcopal sees (holy seats)
•
Dissolved 30 religious houses (training for Thomas Cromwell)
•
But Wolsey was criticised for acting out of self interests (financial and
papal)
3. Henry’s benefit from Wolsey’s position as Legate a latere:
•
1st - Tax collected from the Clergy (not the papal subsidy) that was
even greater than the avaricious (greedy) Henry 7th.
•
2nd - Influence in Rome - the King’s Great Matter
•
Ultimately Wolsey tried to defend clerical privileges but weakened the
Church by increasing royal control over it - the 1530s are a testament to
that weakening
Benefit of the Clergy - allowed members of the Clergy to have criminal cases
against them heard in ecclesiastical courts rather than secular courts, where it
was assumed that they would gain a more lenient hearing
Ecclesiastical - of or relating to the Christian Church or its clergy
Probate Courts - ecclesiastical courts dealing with wills left by the laity that
often included donations to the Church
Pluralism - holding positions of authority in the Church simultaneously - ie.
bishoprics
or
view which holds that one's religion is not the sole and exclusive source of
truth, and thus that at least some truths and true values exist in other religions.
Simony - the crime of paying for sacraments, holy offices or positions in the church
Nepotism - favoritism granted to relatives or friends regardless of merit.
Avaricious - (av a·ri cious ) - immoderately desirous of wealth or gain; greedy
TOPIC: Wolsey’s Attempts at Reforming the Church and his Downfall
OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe how Wolsey lost power and favour by 1529.
2. Read pages 51 - 57.
 Consider this question: Why did Wolsey fall from power in 1529?

Focus on these headings: Domestic Policies (p. 41 - 50), Conspiracy
(p. 52 - 53), Henry’s Dissatisfaction (alliance shift in 1525 and the
Great Matter) (p. 53 - 56)
TOPIC: Assessing Wolsey
OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe how Wolsey lost power and favour by 1529.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
1. Traditional and Revisionist Views of Wolsey and the Nobility:
•
The Traditional View is that Wolsey manipulated Henry and therefore was a target
of noble conspirators that eventually brought Wolsey down.
•
The Revisionist View is that Wolsey was too skillful to antagonise the nobility, and
in the end it was opportunist factions (Norfolk and Suffolk) that acted over the
Great Matter.
2. Resentment of Wolsey among nobles:
•
Wolsey’s position of power
•
Presumption that Wolsey restricted access (by courtiers) to the King
•
The procedure of policy making (lip service) was done first then debated with
nobility.
•
Wolsey’s close partnership with Henry created envy and resentment.
3. Study sources X and Y, pages 52 - 53. Do these sources explain why Wolsey
was resented? Explain. QTS.
TOPIC: Assessing Wolsey
OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe how Wolsey lost power and favour by 1529.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
4. What are the two main reasons Henry VIII lost faith in Wolsey? p. 53
•
Henry’s government was becoming increasing unpopular Anglo-French alliance disrupted trade with the Low Countries.
•
Wolsey’s failure to solve the Great Matter - his rise through
the ranks was intended to garner royal influence over the
Church.
TOPIC: Assessing Wolsey
OBJECTIVE: 10. Describe how Wolsey lost power and favour by 1529.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
5. What prevented Wolsey from securing Henry VIII’s divorce? p. 54 - 55
•
As Legate a latere Wolsey could annul the marriage ONLY with Papal
confirmation.
•
Catherine opposed the annulment or divorce and used her influence
(in Rome and with nephew, Charles V) to thwart any proceedings.
•
Pope Clement VII was taken prisoner in 1527 after Charles V sacked
Rome.
•
The College of Cardinals were reluctant to take action in Avignon.
•
Cardinal Campeggio was instructed to delay proceedings.
•
Court open at Blackfriars on March 31, 1529 and closes July 23rd no decision.
•
On October 9, 1529 Wolsey is charged with praemunire and died on
Nov 24, 1530.
Low Countries - Flanders, Brabant and Holland
praemunire (pre-me-a-nar-e) - The offense under English law of appealing to or obeying
a foreign court or authority, thus challenging the supremacy of the Crown.
PLENARY ACTIVITY:
Read and discuss the handout - 1530, The Fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey
A quick summary of Wolsey’s rise and fall:
http://history.wisc.edu/sommerville/361/361-06.htm
http://englishhistory.net/tudor/priwols1.html
In October 1527, Henry broached the matter of his
marriage to Thomas More at Hampton Court. He laid the
Bible before him and read out conflicting texts from
Leviticus and Deuteronomy.
‘If a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an impurity.
He hath uncovered his brother's nakedness; they shall
be childless.’ (Leviticus, 20:21)
‘When brethren dwell together, and one of them dieth
without children, the wife of the deceased shall not
marry to another; but his brother shall take her, and
raise up seed for his brother.’ (Deuteronomy, 25:5)
In May 1527, Wolsey summoned Henry to appear before a legatine court at York
Palace to answer matters affecting the 'tranquillity of consciences' and the salvation
of the royal soul. Quickly adjourned, these stage-managed proceedings enabled
Wolsey to start a debate and to argue that there was a 'sufficient' case for the king to
answer. However, as soon as Wolsey had departed for Amiens in July on the embassy
to ratify the Anglo-French alliance, Henry alone took command of his divorce
campaign. Although he and Wolsey initially worked together to identify the canonists
and theologians who would offer the best support for the king's position, once
Wolsey had left for France the king personally directed his divorce policy and never
again relinquished control of it. In particular, he conscripted to his side Richard
Wakefield, the reader in Hebrew at Oxford, whose reputation for learning ran far and
wide, and who was summoned to give his opinion on the interpretations of key
passages from the Old Testament books of Leviticus and Deuteronomy and to debate
the matter with Bishop John Fisher, who opposed the divorce. In October 1527,
Henry broached the matter of his marriage to Thomas More at Hampton Court. He
laid the Bible before him and read out conflicting texts from Leviticus and
Deuteronomy.
‘If a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an impurity. He hath uncovered his
brother's nakedness; they shall be childless.’ (Leviticus, 20:21)
‘When brethren dwell together, and one of them dieth without children, the wife of
the deceased shall not marry to another; but his brother shall take her, and raise up
seed for his brother.’ (Deuteronomy, 25:5)
These were just two of several passages which, despite apparent mutual contradiction, proved, as
Henry always maintained, that his marriage was against divine law, which no pope can dispense.
Henry had married Catherine by virtue of Julius II's dispensation of the impediment of affinity which
her former marriage to Henry's deceased brother, Arthur, had created between them. But this
dispensation, according to Henry, was invalid. His marriage was against the Levitical law, which the
king held to be divine. Henry was living in sin, because the affinity between himself and Catherine
'could in no wise by the Church be dispensable'. Henry could resolve the apparent conflict between
Leviticus and Deuteronomy because he held that, unlike the law of Leviticus, the 'law' of
Deuteronomy was not divine but merely a practice of Jewish society -- a social habit or custom -- and
thus not binding on Christians. Again, Henry had to explain that he really was 'childless' in accordance
with the text of Leviticus. This is where Wakefield came in, since he supported the king's thesis that
'childless' meant 'male childless' and not 'female childless' on the basis of the Hebrew texts. He also
held that Leviticus condemned not so much illicit sexual intercourse as irregular marriage; that the law
of Leviticus was binding on Christians; and that Leviticus applied as much to the wives of dead
relatives as to the wives of the living. This was exactly what Henry required! In addition, Henry VIII
increasingly maintained that marriage to a brother's wife was an unnatural act. It was akin to incest or
sodomy or other sexual crimes. All of this considerably livened up the king's proceedings! When Henry
finally presented in person his libellus (i.e. the summary of his side of the case) to Wolsey's legatine
court at Blackfriars in the spring of 1529, it fascinated all who heard it. When, a little later, it was
printed in defence of the king's cause, Henry was quickly complaining that his private affairs were the
gossip of every alehouse!
http://www.tudors.org/asa2-level/62-wolseys-fall.html
Background to Henry VIII Foreign Policy:
• The primary counselors whom Henry VIII inherited from his father, Bishop Fox
and William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, were cautious and
conservative, advising the King to be a careful administrator like his father.
• Henry soon appointed to his Privy Council individuals more sympathetic to his
views and inclinations. ("privy" means "private" or "secret"; is a body of close
advisors that give confidential advice to the head of state of a nation on how to
exercise their executive authority. In non-monarchical nations, the equivalent
body is the cabinet.)
• Until 1511, Wolsey was adamantly anti-war; however, when the King
expressed his enthusiasm for an invasion of France, Wolsey was able to adapt
to the King's mindset and gave persuasive speeches to the Privy Council in
favour of war. Warham and Fox, who failed to share the King’s enthusiasm for
the French war, fell from power and Wolsey took over as the King's most
trusted advisor and administrator.
• In 1515, Warham resigned as Lord Chancellor, probably under pressure from
the King and Wolsey, and Henry appointed Wolsey in his place.
Background to Henry VIII Foreign Policy:
• Wolsey was careful to try to destroy or neutralise the influence of
other courtiers (he was blamed for the fall of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke
of Buckingham in 1521 and prosecuted Henry's close friend William
Compton and Henry's ex-mistress Anne Stafford through the
ecclesiastical courts for adultery, in 1527).
• In the case of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, Wolsey attempted to
win his favour instead, by his actions after the Duke secretly married
Henry’s sister Mary Tudor, Queen of France, much to the King’s
displeasure. Wolsey advised the King not to execute the newlyweds, but
to embrace them.
• Wolsey's rise to a position of great secular power was accompanied by
increased responsibilities in the Church. He became Canon of Windsor,
Berkshire in 1511, the same year in which he became a member of the
Privy Council. In 1514 he was made Bishop of Lincoln, and then
Archbishop of York. Pope Leo X made him a cardinal in 1515.
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/map16rel.gif
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
KD:
1. Henry VIII so far:
2. Timeline on pages 58 - 59. Recognise / Key words:
•
•
•
Alliance(s) / Agreement
Battle / Declare War
Peace / Treaty
3. Source A on page 59.
Meeting - very formal, tense, much good cheer, superlative pleasure
Henry - He was lively and fun, but didn’t like losing: “anxious moment”
4. ‘Key Players’ in 16th century Europe:
•
France - Louis XII of France ruled from 1498 - 1515; Francis I ruled from
1515 - 1547
•
Spain - Charles I ruled from 1516 - 1556, and Charles V 1519 - 1556
•
The Holy Roman Empire (HRE) - Maximilian I ruled from 1493 - 1519 and
was succeeded by Charles I / Charles V
 The Papacy (Pope) - Julius II (1503 – 1513), Leo X (1513-21),
Adrian VI (1522-23), Clement VII (1523-34), Paul III (1534-49).
Children of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York:
1st - Arthur, Prince of Wales (20 Sep 1486 – 2 April 1502) – On Nov 9, 1501 Catherine
arrived in London. Marriage ceremony took place on Nov 14, 1501 at Saint Paul's
Cathedral. In March 1502, Arthur and Catherine were afflicted by an unknown illness.
Catherine recovered but Arthur died on April 2, 1502 at Ludlow Castle, six months short
of his sixteenth birthday.
2nd - Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541), was the elder of the two
surviving daughters of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York, and the elder sister of
Henry VIII. In 1503, she married James IV, King of Scots. James died in 1513, and their son
became King James V of Scotland (9 September 1513 – 14 December 1542).
3rd - Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547)
4th - Elizabeth Tudor (2 July 1492 – 14 September 1495) was a Princess, the second
daughter and fourth child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York
Children of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York:
5th - Mary Tudor (18 March 1496 – 25 June 1533) Through a negotiated peace treaty with
France, and on 9 October 1514, at the age of 18, Mary married 52-year-old King Louis XII.
Louis XII died in Jan 1, 1515 and two months later Mary married Charles Brandon, 1st
Duke of Suffolk. The marriage, which was performed secretly in France, took place
without her brother Henry's consent. This necessitated the intervention of Thomas
Wolsey and the couple were eventually pardoned by King Henry, although they were
forced to pay a large fine.
6th - Edmund Tudor, Duke of Somerset (21 February 1499 – 19 June 1500) was the sixth
child of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York.
7th - Katherine Tudor (2 February 1503 – 10 February 1503) was the seventh and last child
of King Henry VII of England and Queen Elizabeth of York. She was born at the Tower of
London and died shortly after her birth. Her mother did not survive long after Katherine's
death. Elizabeth succumbed to a post-pregnancy infection on 11 February 1503, her
thirty-seventh birthday.
Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12
January 1519), was King of the
Romans (also known as King of the
Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman
Emperor (HRE) from 1508 until his
death in 1519, though he was never in
fact crowned by the Pope, the journey
to Rome always being too risky. He
had ruled jointly with his father for the
last ten years of his father's reign.
Louis XII of France - 27 June 1462 – 1 January
1515), called "the Father of the People"
Although he came late (and unexpectedly) to power,
Louis acted with vigour, reforming the French legal
system, reducing taxes and improving government,
much like his contemporary Henry VII did in England.
He was also skilled in managing his nobility, including
the powerful Bourbon faction, which greatly
contributed to the stability of French government.
From 1499 to 1510, he extended the powers of royal
judges and made efforts to curb corruption in the
law. Highly complex French customary law was to be
codified and ratified by royal proclamation. Louis
married Mary Tudor, the sister of Henry VIII of
England on 9 October 1514. This was a final attempt
to produce an heir to his throne, for despite two
previous marriages the king had no living sons. Louis
died on 1 January 1515, less than three months after
he married Mary, reputedly worn out by his exertions
in the bedchamber.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII_of_France
Francis I of France
12 September 1494 – 31 March
1547), was king of France from 1515
until his death.
Francis I is considered to be France's
first Renaissance monarch. His reign
saw France make immense cultural
advances. He was a contemporary of
Suleiman the Magnificent of the
Ottoman Empire, with whom he was
allied in a Franco-Ottoman alliance,
as well as of Henry VIII of England
and of Holy Roman Emperor Charles
V, his great rivals.
http://www.william1.co.uk/Francis%20I%20of%20France.JPG
Charles V - (24 February 1500 — 21
September 1558) was ruler of the Holy
Roman Empire from 1519 and, as
Charles I of Spain, of the Spanish realms
from 1516 until his abdication in 1556.
On the eve of his death in 1558, his
realm, which has been described as one
in which the sun never sets, spanned
almost 4 million square kilometers.
As the heir of three of Europe's leading
dynasties – the Habsburgs of the
Archduchy of Austria, the Valois of the
Duchy of Burgundy and the Trastamara
of the Crown of Castile and the Crown of
Aragon – he ruled over extensive
domains in Central, Western, and
Southern Europe, as well as the various
Castilian (Spanish) colonies in the
Americas.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_V,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
Pope Julius II – (5 Dec, 1443 –
21 Feb, 1513). He was the
head of the Catholic Church
from Nov 1, 1503 to his death
in 1513. Julius II was called the
‘warrior pope’ because his
reign was marked by an
aggressive foreign policy,
ambitious building projects,
and patronage for the arts.
http://italophiles.com/images/raf_juliusII.jpg
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
OBJECTIVES:
11. Identify the key players in 16th century Europe.
12. Determine whether Henry’s early foreign policy can be considered a success.
13. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
KD:
4. ‘Key Playas’ in 16th century Europe:
•
France - Louis XII of France ruled from 1498 - 1515; Francis I ruled
from 1515 - 1547
•
Spain - Charles I ruled from 1516 - 1556, and Charles V 1519 - 1556
•
The Holy Roman Empire (HRE) - Maximilian I ruled from 1493 - 1519
and was succeeded by Charles I / Charles V
•
The Papacy (Pope)
 Julius II ruled from 1503 - 1513
 Leo X (1513-21)
 Adrian VI (1522-23)
 Clement VII (1523-34)
 Paul III (1534-49).
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
OBJECTIVES:
11. Identify the key players in 16th century Europe.
12. Determine whether Henry’s early foreign policy can be considered a success.
13. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
4. ‘Key Players’ in 16th century Europe:
•
France - Louis XII of France ruled from 1498 - 1515; Francis I ruled
from 1515 - 1547
 Largest kingdom in Europe - 16 million people and 460,000 sq. km
 By 1520s - Governmental revenue of £350,000 per year (England’s
population was 2.75 M and revenue of £110,000)
 It had the largest and most professional army.
 Financially strong.
 Francis I was determined to uphold French honour abroad (Italy)
•


Spain - Charles I ruled from 1516 - 1556, and Charles V 1519 - 1556
Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella, and of Maximilian I (HRE ruler
from 1493 - 1519
Diverse kingdom with 6.8 million people and devoutly Catholic.
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
OBJECTIVES:
11. Identify the key players in 16th century Europe.
12. Determine whether Henry’s early foreign policy can be considered a success.
13. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
4. ‘Key Players’ in 16th century Europe:
•





The Holy Roman Empire (HRE) - Maximilian I ruled from 1493 - 1519
and was succeeded by his grandson, Charles I / Charles V
By 1520s - Population of 23 million and governmental revenue of
£560,000 per year (England’s population was 2.75 M and revenue of
£110,000)
Ruled by an Emperor with 400 semi-autonomous states (central
Europe)
Each state ruled by a Prince with the political power.
The emperor was elected but the Habsburgs made it a hereditary.
Charles V / Charles I - had major problems (Italy, Turks, Reformation)
4. ‘Key Players’ in 16th century Europe:
• The Papacy (Pope) - Julius II ruled from 1503 - 1513
 Defended Catholic interests in Europe
 Held great political and governmental power in Europe
 Major landowners
 Had to choose allies carefully - couldn’t match the power of other
European powers; limited army of Swiss
 Italy existed as a collection of wealthy and competing states, the
principal ones being - Milan, Venice, Florence, Naples and the Papal
States.
5. Henry VIII hopes to use the Anglo-Spanish alliance:
• England was considered a ‘second division’ side in the early 1500s.
• Married Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella).
• Henry realised that England’s military capabilities were limited in
comparison to other Powers in Europe and sought Spanish help.
• Later on, under Charles I / Charles V, the Habsburg monarchy united
Spain and the HRE.
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
BACKGROUND: Use pages 174 - 175 of Green book
Henry had a number of aims in foreign policy:
1. To be ‘the most goodliest prince that ever reigned over the realm of England’.

To replace the legendary Henry V
2. Pursuing an ambitious and aggressive policy towards the French.

All English Kings since Edward the III (1327 - 1377 ) claimed the title of King of France
The Treaty of Troyes on May 21, 1420 gave English kings more incentive to attack France.
This was an agreement that Henry V of England and his heirs would inherit the throne of France
upon the death of King Charles VI of France (which occurred on October 21, 1422).
3. Honour and glory.

Henry had a mindset of achieving honour and glory through war - Warrior King.
4. Maintaining links with the Netherlands / Low countries (Flanders, Brabant and Holland).

England’s cloth trade depended heavily on Antwerp - and on an alliance with HRE.

Loyalty and support from English nobles required friendship with the Low countries.
5. Peacemaker of Europe - Arbiter of Peace.
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
BACKGROUND: Use pages 174 - 175 of Green book
Henry had a number of aims in foreign policy:
6. Securing his dynasty.

Henry pulled all the punches in an attempt to have a male heir, and to marry off his sister
(Mary) and his daughter (Mary) to gain favour.
7. Collecting his pension.


Both Henry’s (VII and VIII) received pensions for English lands lost in France.
War turned out to be expensive and the pension was, in the end, a good option.
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
BACKGROUND: Use pages 174 - 175 of Green book
Look at source 11G on page 175:





1488 - 92 Henry VII’s war with France
1512 - 14 Henry VIII’s First French war
1522 - 25 Henry VIII’s Second French War
1542 - 46 Henry VIII’s Third French War
Total costs of these wars -
£108,000
£892,000
£401,000
£2,144,765
£3,545,765
Look at source 11H on page 175:








1475 - Pension started when Louis XI agreed to pay Edward IV
1492 - Charles VIII agreed to pay Henry VII
1512 - Pension stopped b/c of the First French War
1518 - Pension increased
1525 - Pension increased
1527 - Henry VIII to receive
1542 - Pension arrears
Total paid by the French in Henry VIII’s reign -
£10,000
£892,000
£00.00
£21,316
£205,379
£730,379
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
War against France 1512-13
1. What tension was there between Henry’s ministers and his ambitions? p. 62
2. How did Pope Julius II hope to use the Holy League by 1511? p. 62
3. Why do you think Henry was excited about the Holy League in November 1511?
4. How did Henry’s first serious continental campaign fare?
The Battle of the Spurs, 1513
5. Henry learned to act independently from ‘so called’ allies to meet his goals for
England. What was accomplished at the Battle of the Spurs? p. 62 - 63
The Battle of Flodden, 1513
6. What was the importance of the Battle of Flodden in Sept 1513? p. 64
7. Henry sought glory and prestige. He attacked France, in part, to begin
his foreign policy aspirations. Was he successful by 1514? p. 64 - 65
(refer back to Objective #2: Determine whether Henry’s early foreign
policy can be considered a success.)
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
War against France 1512-13
1. Tension between Henry’s ministers and his ambitions:
•
Archbishop Warham and Bishop Fox stressed the advantages of avoiding
war, preserving English security and using neutrality.
•
Their approach was pragmatic (practical), conservative and a continuation
of Henry VII’s policies.
2. Pope Julius II hopes to use the Holy League - November 1511:
•
Hoped to drive France out of northern Italy.
•
The League consisted of Spain, Venice, Swiss, HRE and England
3. Henry was excited about the Holy League:
•
He portrayed the war as a papal one in defense of the Church.
•
This was Henry’s chance to gain glory and prestige, but he needed to
convince the Parliament and Great Council to support his venture.
•
Parliament granted the funds in April 1512 and an expeditionary force of
12,000 was sent to gain control of Aquitaine in SW France.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
War against France 1512-13
4. Henry’s first serious continental campaign:
•
Very disappointing
•
In June 1512 English troops attacked Aquitaine, SW France,
intending to capture Guienne (g yen) - it turned out to be disastrous.
•
Henry felt used by Ferdinand of Spain (his father-in-law).
•
English forces waited for Spanish troop reinforcements and fell
victim to drunkenness and dysentery
 Ferdinand recaptured Navarre from the French
•
Naval defeat at Brest (April 1513) capped an ignominious (not
respectable) first entry into European affairs.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
War against France 1512-13
The Battle of the Spurs (also called Battle of Guinegate), 16 Aug 1513 –
Named for the speed of French retreat
5. Henry acts independently - accomplished at the Battle of the Spurs:
•
The failure made Henry more determined to gain glory.
•
He personally led 30,000 men to Calais in June 1513.
•
Captures French towns of Therouanne and Tournai, with little resistance
(Therouanne was a French fortress which threatened Maximilian's
Burgundian territories, whilst Tournai was a French enclave in Burgundy).
(The Battle of Guinegate or Battle of the Spurs took place on 16 August
1513. As part of the Holy League under the on-going Italian Wars, English
and Imperial troops under Henry VIII and Maximilian I surprised and routed
a body of French cavalry under Jacques de La Palice. Therouanne was given
over to Maximilian I).
•
English propaganda made the battle into a GLORIOUS VICTORY.
•
Some French nobles were captured and sent to England, to enhance
prestige. Their presence was a win-win for Henry.
Cavalry and pike men
Assembled at Therouanne
in 1513 for the meeting
between Henry VIII
and the Emperor
Maximilian I.
http://www.google.com/images?q=Therouanne%20
given%20to%20Maximilian%20I&rls=com.microsoft
:en-us&oe=UTF8&startIndex=&startPage=1&um=1&ie=UTF8&source=og&sa=N&hl=en&tab=wi&biw=1003&bih
=564
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
The Battle of Flodden, 1513
6. Importance of the Battle of Flodden in Sept 1513:
The Battle of Flodden was fought in the county of Northumberland in
northern England on September 9, 1513 between an invading Scots
army under King James IV and an English army commanded by Thomas
Howard, Earl of Surrey.
•
•
•
•
•
Discuss source B, and the SKILLS BUILDER, p. 63.
Removed the Scottish threat from England - northern border was
secure
King James IV of Scotland invaded England and was defeated by the
Earl of Surrey.
With Scottish nobility dead, Henry’s sister Margaret was regent in
charge of Scotland (because James V was only a boy).
It allowed Henry the freedom to focus on continental Europe.
TOPIC: Henry VIII and the Quest for International Influence
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
7. Was Henry VIII successful by 1514? Can Henry’s early foreign policy be considered a
success?
•
He waged war - an important goal
•
He announced his presence to other European powers - he was NOT his father
•
One sister (Margaret) was regent of Scotland, one (Mary) became Queen of France
and Louis XII was elderly and ill.
•
He laid claim to his inherited title in France - as an ambitious monarch should
•
He had trust and confidence in Thomas Wolsey - logistics of organising and
supplying Henry’s army in France
•
Anglo-French Treaty of 1514 - England was given Tournai, Louis XII agreed to pay
arrears (late payments - owed to Hen VII) to Henry VIII, and an alliance with France
was made with the marriage of Mary (age 18) and Louis XII (age 52) (Oct 9, 1514).
HOWEVER:
•
Henry was deserted by Ferdinand - wasn’t taken seriously
•
He exaggerated the successes in France - Therouanne, Tournai and Spurs
•
Costs of campaigns was expensive - ‘second division’ (spent £892,000)
•
Forced to make peace with France in 1514 (Anglo-French Treaty) b/c Ferdinand,
Maximilian and Pope Leo X favoured peace (w/o Henry)
http://www.s-cool.co.uk/assets/2007-10-03_134910.gif
Thomas Wolsey - 1471 – 30 November 1530
He was an English statesman and a cardinal of
the Roman Catholic Church. When Henry VIII
became king of England in 1509, Wolsey
became the King's almoner. Wolsey's affairs
prospered and by 1514 he had become the
controlling figure in all matters of state and
extremely powerful within the Church. The
highest political position he attained was Lord
Chancellor, the King's chief adviser, enjoying
great freedom and often depicted as an alter
rex (other king). Within the Church he became
Archbishop of York, the second most
important seat in England, and then was made
a cardinal in 1515. In 1518, after orchestrating
the Treaty of London (Christian alliance against
the Turks) he was commissioned by Leo X as
Legate a latere - Pope’s rep in England in 1518,
above Archbishop Warham.
KEY QUESTION – page 65:
How far did Wolsey achieve his aims in foreign policy in the years 1514 - 1529?
1. What views are presented for Wolsey’s policies?
•
a) Traditional View - He pursued a policy that maintained the balance of
power (BoP) in Europe. (Don’t confuse this with the political relationship he
had with Henry as Puppet master)
•
b) G.R. Elton - Wolsey often aligned England with the Stronger Power
•
c) A.F. Pollard - Wolsey was guided by his desire to follow Papal Policy and
defend the interests of the curia (governing body of the Church), and in turn achieve
personal ambition of becoming Pope
•
d) J.J. Scarisbrick - points out that the Papacy Policy was unrealistic. The
fact that England and the Papacy shared common goals or enemies is a
coincidence. He argues that England sided with stronger powers in an
attempt to force weaker nations to seek a settlement.
•
e) Steven Gunn’s Revisionist View - argues that Wolsey’s policy was a
flexible one b/c the political climate (diplomacy) was constantly shifting
(marriages and alliances, death, war). Wolsey was forced to adapt policies.
TOPIC: Wolsey and Foreign Policy Aims - 1514 - 1521
OBJECTIVES: 3. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
1. Read page 66. Francis I became King of France in January 1515. He and
Henry VIII had some similarities about what they wanted to accomplish
as Renaissance kings.
What impression did Francis I make early in his reign? Explain.
•
•
•
•
•
Ambitious and callous!
He had money and resources.
He jeopardises the Anglo-French peace made between Henry VIII and Louis
XII in 1514 - successfully sent the duke of Albany to overthrow the Scottish
Regent, Margaret.
He won a victory over the Swiss in September 1515 at the Battle of
Marignano, which gave him control of Milan and much of northern Italy.
Negotiated the Concordat of Bologna with Leo X in 1516 - gave French
kings the right to appoint bishops to bishop offices in France.
TOPIC: Wolsey and Foreign Policy Aims - 1514 - 1521
OBJECTIVES: 3. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
2. Read page 66.
How did Henry VIII and Wolsey react to Francis’ I early triumphs?
•
•
•
•
•
With envy.
Furious over Scotland.
Wolsey wanted to avoid the expense of a full-scale invasion.
Agreed to a secret subsidy to Emperor Maximilian to halt French advance
into northern Italy - Max took money but sided with French.
Wolsey tried to form an anti-French league (w/ Rome, Venice, Spain and
the HRE) - ran into difficulties.
 Charles I took over Spain in 1516 and made peace with France at Noyon
in August 1516.
 Max joined Charles in the Peace of Cambrai (Northern France) in 1517 with
Spain and France.
 England was isolated and humiliated - ‘second division’.
TOPIC: Wolsey and Foreign Policy Aims - 1514 - 1521
OBJECTIVES: 3. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
3. Read page 67 and use sources 11.1 - 11.3 on p. 153 of Green Book.
Finally, October 1518 !
Why was October 1518 a promising time for Wolsey and Henry VIII?
•
•
•
•
Moral, political and diplomatic success … with Premiership! Signed by over 20
rulers.
Wolsey arranged a Christian peace settlement with France, the Papacy, Spain
and the HRE to take action against Turk moves into Europe.
Additionally, it:
 was a non-aggression pact among members.
 designed collective security for members.
 brought prestige to Henry.
 ended threat of English isolation
 led to another Anglo-French treaty (Tournai, pensions, Mary and Dauphin
(son of Francis I), Duke of Albany kept out of Scotland)
Wolsey - was clever to take Leo X’s original plan. It gave him personal
admiration and political claim (Legate a latere - Pope’s rep in England in 1518 he had been appointed cardinal in 1515).
3. Sources 11.1 - 11.3 on p. 153 of Green Book. QTS
Why was October 1518 a promising time for Wolsey and Henry VIII?
Source 11.1 - P.S. Crowson:
•
“To Henry VIII, Wolsey offered the enormous prestige of leading Europe
towards humanistic peace …”
•
“Wolsey shifted the emphasis … to organising all European nations into a
self-sustaining truce …’
Source 11.2 - J.J. Scarsbrick:
•
“This was a master document, committing Europe to a new principle of …
collective security.”
•
“Europe … had never seen an attempt to create a treaty of universal peace
…“
Source 11.3 - T.A. Morris:
•
“If the prominence and prestige of the crown [England] were the primary
aims of foreign policy, then that policy reached its highest point in the
Treaty of London.”
TOPIC: Wolsey and Foreign Policy Aims - 1514 - 1521
OBJECTIVES: 13. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
1. Wolsey’s successes and failures. Discuss.
2. Dismantling of Wolsey’s triumph with the Treaty of London: p. 67
•
Max died in January 1519.
•
Power struggle between Charles V and Francis I over HRE.
•
The seven electors chose Charles by June 1519 (The Emperor had to be a man of
good character over 18 years. All four of his grandparents were expected to be of noble blood. No law required him to be a
Catholic, though imperial law assumed that he was. He did not need to be a German. By the 17th century candidates
generally possessed estates within the Empire.)


A Habsburg-Valois conflict appeared inevitable.
England has opportunity to be ‘arbiter of peace’
3. Importance of the Field of the Cloth of Gold:
•
Splendor of the occasion but little Diplomatic value.
•
More noted as a jousting tournament, the glitz and glamour, and the poor
weather (winds, dust storms and rain).
 3,000 notables on each side (6,000 to look after Henry).
 It cost England a year’s amount of revenue.
The Field of Cloth of Gold, also known as the Field of Golden Cloth
is the name given to a place in France, near Calais. It was the site of a
meeting that took place from 7 June to 24 June 1520, between King Henry VIII
of England and King Francis I of France. The meeting was arranged to
increase the bond of friendship between the two kings following the AngloFrench treaty of 1514.
Two great powers were emerging in continental Europe at this time:
France, under Francis I, and the Habsburg Empire, under Charles V, Holy
Roman Emperor. The Kingdom of England, still a lesser power, was being
courted as an ally by the two major powers.
Both Henry and Francis wished to be seen as Renaissance Kings.
Renaissance thinking held that a strong prince could choose peace from a
place of strength. The meeting was designed to show how magnificent
each court was and how this could be a basis for mutual respect and
peace between nations who were traditional enemies. Henry and Francis
were also similar figures of similar age and dashing reputations, so there
was almost certainly a mutual curiosity.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_of_the_Cloth_of_Gold
Field of the Cloth of Gold
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Field_of_the_cloth_of_gold.jpg
TOPIC: Wolsey and Foreign Policy Aims - 1514 - 1521
OBJECTIVES: 13. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT:
4. Charles met with Wolsey and Henry in May and again in July, 1520. Did
he need to make an alliance with England AGAINST France? p. 68 (Red)
and p. 156 - 157 (Green)
•
•
•
The simple answer: No.
Charles basically wanted assurances that England would NOT join France in
an alliance.
England wouldn’t for simple reasons:
 Traditional hostility between England and France.
 Henry resented the early success of Francis I.
 England had important trade links with the Low countries (Flanders,
Brabant and Holland), which were controlled by Charles of the
Habsburgs.
 England wanted to maintain friendship with the papacy, which was
anti-French at the time.
TOPIC: Wolsey and Foreign Policy Aims - 1514 - 1521
OBJECTIVES: 13. Argue how far Wolsey achieved his foreign policy aims in the period 1514 - 29.
REVIEW:
1. Learned so far:
2. Skills you need to be successful:
•
Analyse (messages) and evaluate (bias & context) an appropriate range of
sources with discrimination (reliability & usefulness).
•
Operate as historians - go beyond the content of a source to discover what
can be inferred from it.
•
Provenance - nature, origin and purpose
•
Cross-referencing
•
•
•
Use the sources as a set (group) - assessing reliability and quality.
Recall, select and communicate historical knowledge.
Analyse and evaluate, in relation to the historical context of how aspects of
the past have been interpreted and represented.
SEE NEXT SLIDES FOR WRITING STRUCTURE.
•

similar documents