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Sesin analog yapısı,
Sesin band genişliği,
Müzik sesi frekanslarının tanımlanması,
Wave ses dosyası özellikleri,
Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) tanımları,
Bilgisayarda ses üretimi,
MIDI sequencer ve editor özellikleri,
MIDI file yapısı, MIDI file üretimi,
Müzik sesi sentezleme yöntemleri
http://www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/handbook/Alphabet_list.html#M_Anchor
http://www.acoustics.salford.ac.uk/acoustics_info/sound_synthesis/
http://sezginalsan.angelfire.com/index.html
ftp://muhogr:[email protected]/
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://ww3.ticaret.edu.tr/salsan/
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://music.arts.uci.edu/dobrian/
University Courses at Cornell
MUSIC 2390 - Hip Hop: Beats, Rhymes and Life (crosslisted)
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://ww2.iticu.edu.tr/ogr/salsan/BilMusic/BilMusic2010.html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Cubase SX 7
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ftp://muhogr:[email protected]/
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Başarı Değerlendirme Ölçütleri 2013
Vize sınavı
%20
(8-12 Nisan 2013 arasında)
Ödev 1
%10
(2-3 Nisan 2013)
Hex editor ile wave dosya incelenmesi
Ödev 2
%10
(21-22 Mayıs 2013)
Midi file yapısı ve Cubase programının uygulaması
Kısa sınav 1
%5
(19-20 Mart 2013)
Kısa sınav 2
%5
(14-15 Mayıs 2013)
Final sınavı
%50
(3 – 14 Haziran 2013)
Derse %70 devam, her ders denetlenecektir.
Ödev formatı : kapak sayfası + 5…10 sayfa konu + 1 sayfa sizin kendi yorumunuz
Ödev sayfaları dosya içine yada poşet içine konulmadan sadece sol orta kenardan
2 adet tel zımba ile birleştirilecektir.
Gecikmelerde -%1/gün uygulanacaktır.
7
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/frequency-pitch-sound.htm
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Müzik
• Sürekli frekans değişimi
• Tanımlı frekanslar
Doğal ses
cisimlerin titreşimi, zil,
düdük, piyano
Ritm
Zaman boyunca değişimler
Ses
titreşim
Elektronik ses
Elektriksel işaretin HP ‘de
sese dönüşmesi
Sanat
Fizik
Elektronik
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
Bilgisayar
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MÜZİK FİZİĞİ
Taylan Şengül
01.04.2007
http://www.bgst.org/temel-muzik-bilgisi/muzik-fizigi
I. Sesin Oluşumu ve Özellikleri 1.1. Ses Nedir?
Bir müzik notası ve genel olarak herhangi bir ses bir kaynaktan
doğar, iletici bir ortam (genellikle hava) içerisinde yayılır ve bir
alıcı (bir kulak veya bir mikrofon) tarafından algılanır. Bu yüzden
kaynak, iletici ortam ve alıcı, akustik biliminin (müzik fiziği) üç
temel öğesini oluşturur.
Öncelikle ses nedir? Sesten bahsederken, genelde havada dolaşan
ve insan kulağı tarafından algılanabilen mekanik titreşimlerden
bahsederiz. Bilim insanları, “sesin”, insan kulağı tarafından
duyulmayacak kadar yüksek ve alçak frekanslara sahip olabilen ve
gaz, sıvı ve katı olmak üzere her türlü maddi ortamda yayılabilen
daha kapsamlı bir tanımını kullanırlar.
İster bir klarnetin sesi, ister çırpılan bir el sesi olsun, sesler her
zaman bir kaynağın titreşimi sonucu oluşur. Çoğu zaman bu
titreşimi fark etmek kolay değildir, özellikle el çırpması gibi sesin
kısa ve keskin çıktığı durumlarda.
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Giriş :P1
Çıkış :P2
dB(0.775 VRMS)
voltage relative to 0.775 volts.
(1mW)
dB (sound pressure level)
for sound in air and other gases,
relative to 20 micropascals
(μPa) = 2×10−5 Pa
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/hearing.html This hearing test measures
http://www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/handbook/Sone.html PHON
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/audio/audiocon.html#c1
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/audio/mic.html#c1
16
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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There are three main types of
microphones:
Shure SM 57
1) Dynamic/Moving Coil
2) Ribbon
Beyer M 160
Types of Microphones
3) Condenser/Capacitor
Audio Technica AT 4033
http://saba.kntu.ac.ir/eecd/ecourses/instrumentation/projects/reports/Poly
%20Acoustics/Acoustic%20Transducers.htm
http://artsites.ucsc.edu/EMS/Music/tech_background/TE-20/teces_20.htm
17 http://artsites.ucsc.edu/EM
http://artsites.ucsc.edu/EMS/Music/
S/facilities.html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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18
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://www.bgst.org/muzik/egitim/muzikfizigi.html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/audio/geowv.html#c1
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http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/jw/sound.spectrum.html
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au//waves-sound/
http://www.phy.ntnu.edu.tw/ntnujava/index.php?topic=17
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Fourier sentezi
Kare dalganın harmonikleri ve sentezi
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
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2.00
DALGA ŞEKLİ ANALİZİ
http://openbookproject.net/electricCircuits/AC/AC_7.html
MIXED-FREQUENCY AC SIGNALS
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Signal Generator
Spectrum Analyser
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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WavePad Sound Editor
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"ADSR" (Attack Decay Sustain Release) envelope
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http://casperelectronics.com/finished-pieces/casio-sa-keyboards
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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DTMF (dual-tone, multi-frequency) system
http://www.polar-electric.com/DTMF/Index.html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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29
There are three major groups of audio file formats:
• Uncompressed audio formats, such as WAV, AIFF, AU or raw headerless PCM;
• Formats with lossless compression, such as FLAC, Monkey's Audio
(filename extension APE), WavPack (filename extension WV), TTA,
ATRAC Advanced Lossless, Apple Lossless (filename extension m4a),
MPEG-4 SLS, MPEG-4 ALS, MPEG-4 DST, Windows Media Audio
Lossless (WMA Lossless), and Shorten (SHN).
• Formats with lossy compression, such as MP3, Vorbis, Musepack,
AAC, ATRAC and Windows Media Audio Lossy (WMA lossy)).
Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/120/lectures/02/tutorial.html
Fundamentals of Computer-Generated Sound
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http://www.leegoeller.com/PBX/ONEPBX12.jpg
Pulse Code Modulation (PCM)
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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WAVE PCM soundfile format
https://ccrma.stanford.edu/courses/422/projects/WaveFormat/
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http://www.atasoyweb.net/blog/ses-isleme-k7s0/wav-formatini-okuma-yazma-y75.html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Nota süreleri
Metronome
Beat Per Minute (BPM)
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Musical Clefs
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http://www.musictheory.net/
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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1,0535
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Bağlama Üzerinde Nota Yerleri
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http://www.phys.u
nsw.edu.au/music/
http://www.phys.un
sw.edu.au/jw/notes.
html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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ENVELOPE
The shape of a sound's AMPLITUDE in time. Graphical representation of
the envelope of a sound object may show distinctive features in its
ATTACK or onset TRANSIENTs, STATIONARY STATE, INTERNAL
DYNAMICS and DECAY.
FOURIER
SYNTHESIS
http://www.sfu.ca/sonicstudio/handbook/Fourier_Theorem.html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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VIBRATO
A periodic fluctuation or OSCILLATION in the FREQUENCY of a tone, thereby
being a type of FREQUENCY MODULATION. It is also usually accompanied by
a pulsation of intensity which affects the TIMBRE or colour of the tone.
Instrumentalists and singers use the effect to enrich their tone, and usually
regulate the speed of the vibrato to the range of seven cycles per second.
http://www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/handbook/Vibrato.html
TREMOLO
A periodic fluctuation or OSCILLATION in the AMPLITUDE of a tone, thereby
being a type of AMPLITUDE MODULATION, and a limited version of a
VIBRATO. It is used in various forms by instrumentalists but the optimum
speed is usually regarded as being seven cycles per second. Tremolo is often
heard with the vibraphone and certain types of electronic organ sounds
http://www.sfu.ca/sonic-studio/handbook/Alphabet_list.html#M_Anchor
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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MIDI (Musical Instrument
Digital Interface)
http://www.midi.org/techspecs/midispec.php
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electronic/serial.html#c4
http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/dt080_1.htm
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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+5V
M-Audio UNO MIDI Interface with
One In/Out (USB)
+5V
+5V
http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/Music_technology/midi/midi_hardw
are.htm
http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/Music_technology/key2midi/key2m
idi.gif
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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MIDI vs RS232
Frame Format
Baud Rate
Driver (loaded)
RS-232
1 start bit
5-8 data bits
1-2 stop bits
optional parity bit
up to 20k
standard rates of 300, 600,...19k2
extended rates of 38k4, 57k6, 115k2
MIDI
1 start bit
8 data bits
1 stop bits
no parity
31250 baud +/- 1%
Voltage:
Logic 0: +5V to +15V
Logic 1: -5V to -15V
+/- 25V maximum
+/- 100mA maximum
3k to 7k ohm
Receiver Sensitivity
Receiver input range
Signal rise/fall speed
Maximum
Minimum
Maximum cable
+/- 3V
+/- 3V to +/-15V
Current:
Logic 0: 5mA
Logic 1: 0mA
Unspecified
Unspecified
Opto-isolator
(otherwise unspecified)
< 5 mA to turn 'on'
Unspecified
30V/us (max) slew-rate
Unspecified
2500pF (approx. 15m)
Unspecified
2 us (max) rise/fall times
15m
Isolation
Unspecified
Handshaking signals
Transmitter: RTS, DTR
Receiver: CTS, DSR, DCD, RI
Opto-isolator on receiver
circuit
None
Physical connector
D25
Driver (open circuit)
Driver (short circuit)
Receiver Load
5-pin DIN (180 degree)
http://www.personal.kent.edu/~sbirch/Music_Production/MP-II/MIDI/midi_physical_layer.htm
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://www.indiana.edu/~emusic/etext/MIDI/chapter3_MIDI.shtml
The table below presents a summary of the MIDI Channel Voice Message codes in binary form.
A MIDI channel voice message consists of a status Byte followed by one or two data Bytes.
Click here for a list of currently assigned MIDI controller numbers.
Status Data Byte Data Byte
Message
Byte
1
2
Legend
1000nnnn
0kkkkkkk
0vvvvvvv
Note Off
n=channel* k=key # 0-127(60=middle C) v=velocity
(0-127)
1001nnnn
0kkkkkkk
0vvvvvvv
Note On
n=channel k=key # 0-127(60=middle C) v=velocity
(0-127)
1010nnnn
0kkkkkkk
0ppppppp
Poly Key
Pressure
n=channel k=key # 0-127(60=middle C) p=pressure
(0-127)
1011nnnn
0ccccccc
0vvvvvvv
Controller
Change
n=channel c=controller v=controller value (0-127)
1100nnnn
0ppppppp
[none]
Program
Change
n=channel p=preset number (0-127)
1101nnnn
0ppppppp
[none]
Channel
Pressure
n=channel p=pressure (0-127)
1110nnnn
0fffffff
0ccccccc
Pitch Bend
n=channel c=coarse f=fine (c+f = 14-bit resolution)
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
Bilgisayarlı Müzik
MIDI Data Format
The majority of MIDI communication consists of multi-byte packets
beginning with a status byte followed by one or two data bytes .Bytes are
packets of 8 bits (0's or 1's). Status bytes begin with a '1' e.g. 1xxx xxxx-this is call 'set.' Data bytes begin with a '0' e.g. 0xxx xxxx--this is called
'reset.' Each byte is surrounded by a start bit and a stop bit, making each
packet 10 bits long. Messages fall into the following five formats:
Channel Voice
Control the instrument's 16 voices (timbres, patches), plays notes,
sends controller data, etc.
Channel Mode
Define instrument's response to Voice messages, sent over instrument's
'basic' channel
System Common
Messages intended to all networked instruments and devices
System Real-Time
Intended for all networked instruments and devices. Contain only status
bytes and is used for syncronization of all devices. essentially a timing
clock
System Exclusive
Originally used for manufacturer-specific codes, such as
editor/librarians, has been expanded to include MIDI Time Code, MIDI
Sample Dump Standard and MIDI Machine Control
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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MIDI serial data flows at the rate of 31.25 kilobits per second and
is organised into 10-bit words. The first bit is called the START bit ( which is always
0 ), the next eight are the desired information, and the last is the STOP bit ( which
is always 1 ). The start and stop bits frame the desired data and provide the
required synchronization but do not carry MIDI information themselves.
http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/Music_technol
ogy/midi/midi_messages.htm
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://www.csie.ntu.edu.tw/~r92092/ref/midi/midi_channel_voice.htm
MIDI Channel Voice Messages
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://www.electronics.dit.ie/staff/tscarff/Music_technology/
midi_projects/projects.htm
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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Examinations:
Music Technology Winter 2005
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7
y5bysWEJHY
http://tomscarff.tripod.com/
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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http://www.acoustics.salford.ac.uk/acoustics_info/sound_synthesis/
Methods of Synthesis
Jeff Pressing in "Synthesizer Performance and Real-Time Techniques" gives
this list of approaches to sound synthesis.
• additive synthesis - combining tones, typically harmonics of varying amplitudes
• subtractive synthesis - filtering of complex sounds to shape harmonic spectrum,
typically starting with geometric waves.
• frequency modulation synthesis - modulating a carrier wave with one or more
operators
• sampling - using recorded sounds as sound sources subject to modification
• composite synthesis - using artificial and sampled sounds to establish resultant
"new" sound
• phase distortion - altering speed of waveforms stored in wavetables during playback
• waveshaping - intentional distortion of a signal to produce a modified result
• resynthesis - modification of digitally sampled sounds before playback
• granular synthesis - combining of several small sound segments into a new sound
• linear predictive coding - technique for speech synthesis
• direct digital synthesis - computer modification of generated waveforms
• wave sequencing - linear combinations of severtal small segments to create a new
sound
• vector synthesis - technique for fading between any number of different sound
sources
• physical modeling - mathematical equations of acoustic characteristics of sound
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/audio/synth.html#c2
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS
There are a number of different technologies or algorithms used to create
sounds in music synthesizers. Three widely used techniques are Subtractive
synthesis, Frequency Modulation (FM) synthesis and Wavetable synthesis.
http://www.electronics.dit.ie/
staff/tscarff/Music_technology
/Synthesis/subtractive/analog
ue_synthesis.htm
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
Bilgisayarlı Müzik
63
Basic components of an analogue
subtractive synthesizer
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Additive synthesis was utilized as
early as on Hammond organ in
1930s.
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Subtractive synthesis is still utilized
on various synths, including virtual
analog synth.
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M synthesis was huge successful
as earliest digital synthesizers.
FM synthesis using 2 operators
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http://support.fender.com/schematics/guitar_amplifiers/GDEC_schematic.pdf
http://www.dz863.com/datasheet-816039663-ATSAM2133B_SoundSynthesis-Low-power-Synthesizer-With-Effects-And-Built-in-Ram/
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Copyright © Cirrus Logic, Inc. 2005
http://www.cirrus.com
CS5361 114 dB, 192 kHz, Multi-Bit Audio A/D Converter
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Bilgisayarlı Müzik
69
Low-cost Keyboard Instrument
ATSAM2133B
Low-power
Synthesizer
with Effects
and
Built-in RAM
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70
DSPB56367PV150 Freescale Semiconductor / Motorola DSP,
DSP56300 Family,Enhanced Dual Harvard Architecture,150MIPS
http://www.datasheetarchive.com/DSPB56367PV150datasheet.html
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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71
ATSAM2133B Features
• Single-chip Synthesizer + Effects, Features include
– High-quality Wavetable Synthesis, Serial MIDI In & Out, MPU-401 (UART)
– Effects: Reverb + Chorus, on MIDI and/or Audio In
– Up to 64-voice Polyphony
– Surround on Two or Four Speakers with Intensity/Delay Control
– Four-band Parametric Equalizer
– Audio-in Processing through Reverb, Chorus, Equalizer, Surround
• Low Chip Count in Applications
– ATSAM2133B Synthesizer, ROM/Flash, DAC
– Built-in (32K x 16) Effects RAM
• Low-power
– 40 mA Typical Operating Current, <1 μA Power-down
– 2.5V and 3.3V Supply
– Built-in Power Switch
• 16-bit Samples, 44.1 KHz Sampling Rate, 24 dB Digital Filter per Voice
• Available Wavetable Firmwares and Sample Sets
– CleanWave8® Low-cost General MIDI 1-MB Firmware + Sample Set
– CleanWave32® Top-quality 4-MB Firmware + Sample Set
– Other Sample Sets Available under special conditions
• Built-in ROM Debugger, Flash Programmer through Dedicated Pins
Prof.Dr.Sezgin ALSAN
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GENELDE MAKAM VE MAKAMIN KURULUŞU
GENELDE MAKAM VE MAKAMIN KURULUŞU Türk Mûsikîsinde Aralıklar 1)
Sistemci Okul (Urmevî-Merâgî Sistemi) A) Safiyüddin Urmevî'de Aralıklar
a) Küçük Aralıklar b) Büyük Aralıklar ve Cinsler B) Abdülkadir Merâgî'de
Aralıklar a) Küçük Aralıklar b) Büyük Aralıklar ve Cinsler C) Sistemci
Okulda Aralıklar a) Ana Makamlar b) Âvâzeler c) Şubeler d) Kantemiroğlu
'nda Makam ve Terkibat e) ...
Kaynak: http://www.yenifrm.com/1-bolum-genelde-makam-vemakamin-kurulusu-t217803p4.html#ixzz1mkgm4Sob
http://www.yenifrm.com/1-bolum-genelde-makam-vet217803p4.html?s=8fb71b585f114492676c424fa0cec54a&amp;s=76e7b
63b18455d3248aecf430a26c7e8&amp;s=1e5afa9f1e6e5a8528d12abd1b
f99c43&amp;s=5ac41330e2de99bfc7acf084f0bf978b&amp;s=fec731d8a
af2f5ef869637ce1272bcb0&amp;s=8330bb010d7a27ffb3b80352837199
51&amp;s=eed65e1a0e59d1595e530f087f468e08&amp;s=5a6cd6aef43
c542399f033a8b0c31df0&amp;s=caa4530fa1625c9d0502fec18b9b2192
&amp;s=52483d314c9fd52da674f013650bea38&amp;s=94f31e677b592
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