Assessing Behavior and Social Competence

Report
ASSESSING BEHAVIOR AND
SOCIAL COMPETENCE
West Chester University, Adapted Physical Education
KIN 582: Assessment and Development of Individualized Programs
Melissa Ewerth
Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/4nbPNa_COHU
Text: Developmental and Adapted Physical Activity Assessment
OBJECTIVES
Adaptive and Maladaptive Behavior
 Traditional versus Functional assessment of
behavior problems
 The concept of social competence and the
importance of assessing social competence
 Importance of self-concept and various
assessment methods
 Importance of play and how to assess play
behaviors
 Understand the importance of attitudes and how
to assess and develop positive attitudes
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ASSESSING CHILDREN WITH
CHALLENGING BEHAVIORS
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Students displaying difficult behaviors can be the
most challenging students in both general and
adapted physical education settings.
Difficult behaviors include
Physical violence toward others
 Verbal outbursts
 Destroying equipment
 Passive-aggressive behaviors
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Before an IEP team can determine an appropriate
behavior, the team must determine the following.
Types of displayed behaviors
 Intensity of behaviors
 Possible causes of behaviors
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ASSESSING CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING
BEHAVIORS: ADAPTED BEHAVIOR
Adaptive Behavior: Behavior the demonstrates
one’s ability to meet expectations of personal
independence, physical needs, and interpersonal
relationships.
 Adaptive behavior related to physical education
includes:
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Following directions
 Getting along with peers
 Proper use of equipment
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Adaptive behavior allows for student success,
independence, and acceptance.
ASSESSING CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING
BEHAVIORS: MALADAPTED BEHAVIOR
Maladaptive Behavior: Behavior that is
undesirable, unacceptable, and interferes with
everyday activity. Also called problem behaviors.
 Maladaptive behavior limits student
independence. Limited independence leads to
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Restrictions
 Extra supervision
 Segregated placement
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ASSESSING CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING
BEHAVIORS: BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS
The first step of a behavioral assessment is
identifying the behavior and the extent of
occurrence of the behavior.
 The assessment of the behavior must be based on
an accurate observation and precise
measurement.
 Examine antecedents and consequences.

Antecedent: Things that happened before behavior
that could have caused the behavior.
 Consequence: Things that happen after behavior that
could possibly reinforce the behavior.

ASSESSING CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING
BEHAVIORS: BEHAVIORAL TESTS
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Frequency
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Response Rate
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Number of responses divided by the time in an
interval
Intervals
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Number of behaviors during designated time
Behaviors during a certain time period
Time sampling

Observations during different time periods rather
than one large block of time
ASSESSING CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING
BEHAVIORS: BEHAVIORAL TESTS
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Duration
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Latency
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Time lapse between the cue and the response
Categorization
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The amount of time the behavior is observed
Classification of responses
Group

Number of individuals who perform the behavior as
opposed to just one individual response
BEHAVIORAL TESTS
University of Virginia Adapted Physical
Education Program (UVA-APE) Initial
Observation and Referral Form
 Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R)
 Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS)
 AAMR Adaptive Behavior Scale-School
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UVA-APE INITIAL OBSERVATION AND
REFERRAL FORM
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Easy to use tool designed to determine significance of
child’s behavioral problems in PE.
Five main categories
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Scored on a three-point scale
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Transition to and from PE
Responding to teacher
Relating to peers and equipment
Effort and self-acceptance
Cognitive abilities
Adequate, needs improvement, significantly inadequate.
No reports of validity or reliability
Results can be used for programming and
recommending formal behavioral assessment
SCALES OF INDEPENDENT BEHAVIORREVISED (SIB-R)

Comprehensive norm-referenced assessment of
adaptive and maladaptive behavior.
Adaptive: 14 areas
 Maladaptive: 8 areas

Test appropriate for infants through older adults
 Test administration

Short form: 15-20 minutes
 Full scale: 40-60 minutes
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Assessment uses a scale of 0-3.
VINELAND ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR SCALES
(VABS)
Measures social competence of children with and
without disabilities from birth to 19 years old.
 Classroom edition contains 224 items that are
completed by IEP team or lead teacher.
 Interview edition has two forms completed by
parent.

Survey form: 297
 Expanded form: 577 items

Measured on a 3-point scale
 Measures behavior in four domains
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Communication, daily living skills, socialization,
motor skills
AAMR ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR SCALESCHOOL (ABS-S:2)
Measures adaptive and maladaptive behaviors
 Adaptive behavior measurements
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Independent functioning
Physical development
Economic activity
Self-direction
Language development
Numbers and time
Prevocational and vocational activity
Responsibility
Socialization
AAMR ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR SCALESCHOOL (ABS-S:2)
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Maladaptive behavior measurements
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Social behavior
Conformity
Trustworthiness
Stereotyped and hyperactive behavior
Self-abusive behavior
Social engagement
Disturbing interpersonal behavior
Range: 3-18 years
 Testing time: 15 to 30 minutes
 Measurement: Likert Scale of 0 to 3 or “yes” or
“no” response.

FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT
Step 1: Clear objective description of behavior
including type, frequency, intensity, and duration
 Step 2: Cause of behavior
 Step 3: Observation consequences after behavior
 Step 4: Determining the reason for the behavior
 Step 5: Creating the hypothesis

*See Figure 9.2 on page 166.
SOCIAL COMPETENCE
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Social competence includes a variety of subareas:
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Basic classroom skills
Basic interaction skills
Getting-along skills
Making-friend skills
Coping skills
Assessing social skills allows the physical
education teacher to determine student strengths
and weaknesses, set goals for social competence,
and identify student progress in relation to set
goals toward social competence.
SOCIAL COMPETENCE: SOCIAL SKILLS
TESTS
Walker-McConnell Scale
 University of Virginia Adapted Education
Program Social Skills Inventory
 Matrix to Target Social Skills Deficits
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WALTER MCCONNELL SCALE (WMS)
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Rates social behaviors by focusing on behaviors that
can be easily observed during the school day.
Elementary-aged students(K-6)
Teacher-preferred social behavior
 Peer-preferred social behavior
 School adjustment
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Adolescent students (7-12)
Self-control
 Peer relations
 School adjustment
 Empathy
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Information gained from this test can be used to
design a social skills improvement plan for the
student.
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA ADAPTED
PHYSICAL EDUCATION SKILLS INVENTORY
Easy to use tool to measure the social competence
of children with disabilities.
 Inventory is divided into 10 sub-categories
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Accepting authority
Coping with conflict
Gaining attention
Greeting others
Helping others
Making conversation
Organized play
Positive attitude towards others
Informal play
Care of property
UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA ADAPTED
PHYSICAL EDUCATION SKILLS INVENTORY
Although test validity and reliability has not
been tested, it is useful for identifying basic
competencies of children with disabilities in
physical education.
 Administration of the assessment requires
teacher observation that may take several
observations.
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MATRIX TO TARGET SOCIAL SKILLS
DEFICITS
Similar to the UVA-APE Social Skills Inventory.
 Behaviors are listed on the left and given a score
from 1 to 5.
 The matrix can be used for individuals or for the
class as a whole.
 The UVA-APE Social Skills Inventory is
preferred as it is more relevant to the physical
education setting.
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SELF-CONCEPT
Positive self-concept is important for all students
to stay motivated to try their best in all areas of
school.
 Self-Esteem: general positive self-regard, selfworth, or overall good feeling about oneself
 Perceived Competence: The competence one feels
in particular activities or pursuits.
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School, sports, friendships, appearance, romantic
appeal, social acceptance, behavioral conduct
SELF-CONCEPT: MEASUREMENT SCALES
Harter’s Self-Perception Profile of Adolescents
(SPPA)
 Ulrich’s Pictorial Scale of Perceived Physical
Competence (PSPPC)
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HARTER’S SELF-PERCEPTION PROFILE FOR
ADOLESCENTS (SPPA)
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Measures self-perceptions in several domains
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Global self-worth
Scholastic competence
Social acceptance
Athletic competence
Physical appearance
Behavioral conduct
Friendship
Romantic appeal
Job competence
Format encourages students to respond based on how
they feel and not what they believe to be the desired
response.
Figure 9.5 is a section that relates to physical
education specifically in relation to athletic
competence.
ULRICH’S PICTORIAL SCALE OF PERCEIVED
PHYSICAL COMPETENCE (PSPPC)
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Pictorial scale designed to assess self-perceptions of
motor skill competence of elementary students and
students with mild mental retardation.
Measures fundamental gross motor skills
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Swinging
Running
Jumping
Catching
Climbing on a jungle gym
Bouncing a ball
Kicking
Skipping
Jumping rope
Throwing
ULRICH’S PICTORIAL SCALE OF PERCEIVED
PHYSICAL COMPETENCE (PSPPC)
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Measures sport-specific skills
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Baseball
Batting
 Throwing
 Catching
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Basketball
Dribbling
 Shooting
 Passing
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Soccer
Dribbling
 Kicking
 Throw-ins
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ULRICH’S PICTORIAL SCALE OF PERCEIVED
PHYSICAL COMPETENCE (PSPPC)
Students are shown two pictures for each skill.
The student indicates whether the person in the
picture is really good, pretty good, sort of good, or
not very good at the skill. The student then
indicates which person he is most like.
 Follow up questions listed below are
recommended to help the examiner better
understand the response of the student.
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Have you ever done this skill?
When did you do it?
How many times have you done it?
Who taught you?
Do you enjoy it?
PLAY BEHAVIORS
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Social play allows children to
Learn from peers
 Learn to take turns and cooperate with peers
 Learn appropriate ways to play with peers and toys
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Learning to play prevents students with
disabilities from being rejected and avoided by
peers.
 Children with disabilities do not always have
developmentally appropriate play skills,
specifically children with autism.
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PLAY BEHAVIORS: SHERRILL-UVA-APE
SOCIAL PLAY BEHAVIOR INVENTORY
Easy to use social play behavior inventory to
measure current behaviors in play and ongoing
improvement.
 Divided into five developmental levels and
assessed on a scale of 1-4.
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Autistic/Unoccupied
Solitary/Exploratory
Parallel
Associative/Interactive
Cooperative
Reliability is gained through multiple
observations.
ATTITUDES
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Attitudes specify one’s preference to either avoid
or approach someone or something.
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Attitudes are directly connected to intentions which
are connected to behaviors.
Physical educators should measure how nondisabled students feel about including students
with disabilities.
Conduct assessments early in the year to allow for
disability awareness and acceptance activities
 Continue assessments throughout the year.
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ATTITUDES
Children’s Attitudes Toward Integrated Physical
Education-Revised Inventory
 Siperstein’s Adjective Checklist
 Siperstein’s Friendship Activity Scale
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ATTITUDES: CHILDREN’S ATTITUDES TOWARD
INTEGRATED PHYSICAL EDUCATION-REVISED
INVENTORY
Designed to determine the attitudes of students
without disabilities to the students with
disabilities and the modifications that would be
present in an inclusive setting.
 A scenario is given to which students must
respond using a 4-point Likert scale.
 Results are analyzed by totaling each subscale
and dividing to get a score of 1-4.
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Score of 1-2 indicates negative attitudes
 Score of 3-4 indicates positive attitudes
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ATTITUDES: SIPERSTEIN’S ADJECTIVE
CHECKLIST
Designed to measure student attitudes towards
peers with disabilities.
 Children are asked to choose words that describe
how they feel about a certain student or certain
disability.
 Results should be examined and discussed with
the class
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ATTITUDES: SIPERSTEIN’S FRIENDSHIP
ACTIVITY SCALE
Designed to measure friendship intentions.
 Students are given a prompt and then asked to
answer questions based on what they have read
or has been read to them.
 Results should be examined and then discussed
with the class.
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CLASS ACTIVITY
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Please think about the following questions and be
prepared to share your answers during our Skype
session.
Have you ever used any of these assessments? What
were your thoughts?
 After viewing this presentation do you plan on using
any of these assessments? Why or why not? If so,
which one will you use?
 Would you be against using any of the assessments
discussed in the presentation? How could you modify
them?
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SUMMARY
Adaptive and maladaptive behavior
 Social competence
 Self-concept, self-esteem, and perceived
competence
 Play behaviors
 Attitudes towards students with disabilities
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RESOURCES
Block, M.E. (2000). A teacher’s guide to including
students with disabilities in general physical
education (2nd edition). Baltimore: Brookes.
 Block, M.E., Horvat, M., & Kelly, L.E. (2007).
Developmental and adapted physical activity
assessment. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics
 Janney, R., & Snell, M.E. (2000). Behavioral
support. Baltimore: Brookes.
 Tripp, A., & Sherrill, C. (2004). Inclusion, social
competence, and attitude change. In C. Sherrill
(Ed.), Adapted physical activity, recreation, and
sport (6th ed.) (pp. 240-260). Madison, WI:
McGraw-Hill.
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