The Gilded Age in American History 1865-1896 What impact did the Gilded Age have upon the History of the United States? Gild Pronunciation: gild Function: Transition verb Etymology: Middle English, from Old English gyldan; akin to Old English gold gold 1: to overlay with or as if with a thin covering of gold 2a: to give money to b: to given an attractive but often deceptive appearance to c archaic: to make bloody Gild-ed adjective Why would an era be referred to as “Gilded?” The Gilded Age A Tale of Today Book gave name to the era Time of gaudy excess and a new class of wealth, political corruption and conquest of the West By Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner Washington Square North, New York City by Fernand Lungren The Gilded Age Railroad building Reconstruction of the South Industrialization of the United States Settling of Western Frontier Immigration (the “New Immigrants”) Rise of large urban centers (big cities) Political Corruption Era of the Railroads Transcontinental Railroad completed on May 10, 1869. Railroad building triggered the industrial revolution Railroad building required steel, oil and other resources provided by industry. Railroads connected the ent nation and eased travel Aided the economic growth of West Railroad building provided employment for new immigran Railroads Railroads were built by using cheap immigrant labor Irish Chinese Railroads were built across Native American ancestral lands The Industrialization of America United States becomes a world industrial power Rise of dominant railroad, steel and o industries. Rise of Titans of Industry Andrew Carnegie Leland Stanford John D. Rockefeller Cornelius Vanderbilt Dynamic era of new inventions and commercial products Light bulb, Kodak camera, typewriter etc Thomas Edison The Standard Oil Octopus John D. Rockefeller’s company becomes a monopoly by destroying all competition and gaining favorable government policies. Industrialization Corrupt business practices Monopolies destroy competition Workers wages low Dangerous working conditions. Child labor, no restrictions. Labor Unions emerging, but lacked strength and viewed as radical Knights of Labor American Federation of Labor Activity Primary Source Analysis Within your group, analyze the documents. Fill out the corresponding sheets. Review of Primary Sourc Mullin New Immigration Millions of Europeans and Asians immigrate from 1860s to early 1920s. Immigrants come to escape poverty, old social orders and religious persecution and to find freedom and opportunity in America. New immigrants come from regions that had not supplied past immigrants, new cultural traditions added. America becomes the “Great Melting Pot” The New Immigrants Settled in ethnic Ghettos and slums in American cities. Lived in overpopulated tenement houses. New immigrants worked jobs that paid the lowest wages and did the toughest work. Nativism reemerged in greater force in America Nativism The belief that NATIVE born Americans are superior to foreigners. Racist and xenophobic. Does this still exist today? The Growth of the Cities Cities became centers of American industry New York Boston Detroit Chicago St. Louis Kansas City America boasted some of the largest cities in the world Cities became cultural centers. Urbanization Cities were overcrowded People lived in slums Tenement houses were overcrowded Unsanitary living conditions Disease rampant Crime rampant Political bosses controlled city politics City governments were corrupt and mismanaged Cities were dirty, filthy and trash-infested Photographs by Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant who became a reformer through journalism & photojournalism Thesis Statement What was the Industrial Revolution’s impact on society and their working conditions? GIVE THREE EXAMPLES OF YOUR IDENTIFIED IMPACT. Due in file by end of class. Graded. The Rise of Industry Mullin Vocabulary Key Content Terms: Bessemer process, horizontal integration, vertical integration, laissezfaire, social Darwinism, Sherman Antitrust Act Social Studies Terms: capitalism, capital, corporation, patents monopoly, trust, entrepreneur, philanthropist Bessemer Process The first inexpensive industria l process for the mass-production of steel. Named after its inventor. Horizontal Integration v Vertical Integration Horizontal Integration: The combining of many firms engaged in the same type of business into one large corporation Vertical Integratio A single company owns and controls the entire process from raw materials the manufacture an sale of the finished product Laissez-faire A policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering. Social Darwinism Philosophy stated that only the strongest and the fittest would survive and flourish in society, while the weak and unfit should be allowed to die. Sherman Antitrust Act First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trustbusting A Trust is an entity created to hold assets for the benefit of certain persons or entities, with a trustee managing the trust (and often holding title on behalf of the trust). Capitalism vs. Capital Capitalism: an economic system in which individuals and corporations, not the government, own production and profit. Strict noninterference of the government in business affairs. Capital: buildings, machinery, tools, and other goods that create products or services for the people. Patents vs. Monopolies Patent: set of exclusive rights granted by the gov to an inventor for a limited period of time in exchange for a the production of that good. Monopolies: the exclusive possession or control of the supply or trade in a commodity or service Entrepreneur vs. Philanthropist Entrepreneur: a person who organizes and operates a business or businesses, taking on greater than normal financial risks in order to do so. Philanthropist: a person who seeks to promote the welfare of others, especially by the generous donation of money to good causes. Graph Analysis Working with a partner, graph all the data on your worksheet. Answer the corresponding questions. Due at the end of class. PUT IN BINDERS! New Growth Mullin Settlement of the West Railroad building conn farmers in West with E markets Land availability on the Great Plains for farmin Cattle ranching and mi industries thrive in the Growth of Western citi Golden Age of the Cow Homestead Act A special act of Congress (1862) that made public lands in the West available to settlers without payment, usually in lots of 160 acres, to be used as farm Dawes Act adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey Ameri Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separ from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship. “Move On!” Has the native American no rights that the naturalized American is bound to respect? Conquering the Western Frontier Seizing lands from Native Americans; Forcing Indians onto reservations; Indian Wars Railroad scheme to possess the best available lands; Railroads take advantage of farmers & set high shipping rates. Conquering the Western Frontier. Farmers took large acreages of land to produce enough crop to make a profit; Lands of Great Plains difficult t farm; farmers interests not addressed by the government. Conflict between farmers and ranchers over land use. Lawlessness throughout. Cattle & Mining boom towns Introductory Paragraph How did Western Expansion destroy Indian tribal life? Due at the end of class. MAKE THESIS STATEMENT SPECIFIC INCLUDE SPECIFIC FACTS/REFEREN CES. Conclusion of the Gilded Age Mullin Politics in the Gilded Age Age of Republican presidents One Democrat, twice removed. Grover Cleveland. Political promise for African Americans Civil Service Reform Pendleton Act Farmers seeking a voice in the political system National Grange & Populists Government aid to railroad and industrial growth Key issues were monetary system, the tariff and civil service reform. The “forgettable” presidents & political corruption Ineffective presidential leadership Political corruption and scandals Era of Good Stealings Government ties to big business No regulation of business practices Kickbacks to political officials Failure to secure goals of reconstruction Treatment of Native Americans Farm protest from South and West fail to unite Emergence and end of Populism Impact of the Gilded Age on United States History Prepared the United States for its future as an imperial power. Settlement of the West and the closing of the frontier, turned the attention of the nation to newer frontiers- overseas territories. Influx of new immigrants added new ingredients into American culture. The descendants of these new immigrants would be future leaders and major personalities in the United States. The growth of American industry would help make the United States a global industrial power and further the engine of economic progress of the 20th century. The corrupt business and political practices of the era called for reform. The discrimination against African Americans, Native Americans, new immigrants, and women lead to a greater call for civil rights protections. The Gilded Age set the stage for the Emergence of Modern America. The Gilded Age laid the foundation for the United States of the 20th Century, a SUPERPOWER! Activity and Essay List the pros and cons of the Gilded Age. Essay: Was the development of the Gilded Age good for the United States? Explain why/why not. 4 PARAGRAPHS. GIVE SPECIFIC EVIDENCE Use your notes.