Faith and Science James E. Johnson, M. D. Outline • Relationship between faith and science • The source and importance of faith • Compatibility of science and faith • The origin of the universe and life From PBS Definition of Postmodernism Postmodernism is "post" because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody - a characteristic of the so-called "modern" mind. The paradox of the postmodern position is that, in placing all principles under the scrutiny of its skepticism, it must realize that even its own principles are not beyond questioning http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/ postm-body.html March 3, 2014 Let us not assume that the freedom to believe anything that pleases us will make the thing that we believe true. Outline • Relationship between faith and science • The source and importance of faith • Compatibility of science and faith • The origin of the universe and life Faith Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen. Heb 11:1 (KJV) Science and the Scientific Method 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Observation Review background material State the problem Form a hypothesis Design and perform an experiment Collect and analyze the data Draw conclusions http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/plantgrowth/reference /Scientific_Method.html 3/1/2010 Science Visible Faith “Not Seen” Invisible Relates to the Visible Visible Invisible Gift Grace Pardon Mercy Sacrifice Love The Present The Future & The Past Creator Creation Outline • Relationship between faith and science • The source and importance of faith • Compatibility of science and faith • The origin of the universe and life Source of Faith And you will seek Me, and find Me, when you search for Me with all your heart. Jeremiah 29:13 (NASB) For by grace you have been saved through faith; and that not of yourselves, it is the gift of God; not as a result of works, so that no one may boast. Eph 2:8-9 (NASB) Source of Faith 19 because that which is known about God is evident within them; for God made it evident to them. 20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly seen, being understood through what has been made, so that they are without excuse. Romans 1:19-20 (NASB) 17 So then faith comes by hearing, and hearing by the word of God. Romans 10:17 (NKJV) Pascal’s Wager Correct Incorrect Faith Heaven Nothing Unbelief Nothing Hell Pascal, Blaise, Pensees, Chapter 7, 1658 Outline • Relationship between faith and science • The source and importance of faith • Compatibility of science and faith • The origin of the universe and life Compatibility of Faith and Science 17 He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together. Col 1:17 (NASB) Outline • Relationship between faith and science • The source and importance of faith • Compatibility of science and faith • The origin of the universe and life Origins—The Challenges Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? Tell Me, if you have understanding, Job 38:4 The Bible was not written as a science book; avoid adding things that are not there. Is the study of origins a science in the same sense as that chemistry or physiology are sciences? The Issue of Origins (the Universe and Life) Scripture Deductive Creation in 7 days in specific order ? Naturalistic Theory of Origins 1. Big Bang 2. Spontaneous Generation Of Life 3. Evolution of Species Inductive Various observations God Guided by God had created in Unsure God no part present form 2012 2010 2008 2007 2006 2004 2001 1999 1997 1993 1982 % % % % 32 38 36 38 36 38 37 40 39 35 38 15 16 14 14 13 13 12 9 10 11 9 46 40 44 43 46 45 45 47 44 47 44 7 6 5 4 5 4 5 4 7 7 9 Gallup Polls "Which of the following statements comes closest to your views on the origin and development of human beings?” http://www.pollingreport.com/science.htm March 3, 2014 Creationism, Evolution & Scripture Interpretation Creationism New Earth Literal Old Earth Evolution Theistic Figurative Scripture Interpretation Naturalistic Central Difference in the Two Views • Naturalistic Theory puts the unknown into one unexplainable event (“Big Bang”) • Bible has a series of unexplainable, supernatural events Alan Guth (MIT)—Cosmic Inflation • Expansion of the universe to 100 million light years in the first 1/10(^32) sec • Theoretical support comes from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) http://web.mit.edu/physics/facultyandstaff/faculty/alan_guth.html Discrepancies in the Two Views • Time • Order of events • Mechanism of formation of life Creationism and Time • 1. Young Earth Creationism—various forms of this with the idea that the universe looks older than by some dating methods than it actually is. This may be because starting conditions were different from current conditions (for example, faster speed of light, different rate of radioactive decay). • 2. Old Earth Creationism—The Earth really is very old. For this to be compatible with literal interpretation of scripture, the term “day” in Genesis means a time interval, but not necessarily what we call a 24 hour day now. Time and Relativity • Theory of General Relativity—Time is affected by gravitational field • Theory of Special Relativity—Time is affected by velocity Relativity of Time in Scripture For a thousand years in Your sight Are like yesterday when it passes by, Or as a watch in the night. Psalm 90:4 But do not let this one fact escape your notice, beloved, that with the Lord one day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years like one day. II Peter 3:8 Universe & Life Origin Discrepancies • Time • Order of events • Mechanism of formation of life Order of Creation/Appearance Genesis • Heavens and Earth (day 1) • Light, day, night (day 1) • Separation of waters (2) • Dry land, plants (3) • Sun, moon, stars (4) • Sea and flying animals (5) • Other animals (6) • Man (6) • • • • • • • Naturalistic Evolution Stars and planets Single and multicellular life (including plants) Fish and some land plants Insects, Amphibians Reptiles, gymnosperm plants Mammals, angiosperm plants Man Comparison Secular theory to Old Earth Creationism • Universe began as intensely hot, very small particle of pure energy at time zero • 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was formless and void, and darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters. Gen 1:1-2 (NASB) Schroeder GL, Genesis and the Big Bang, Bantam Books, 1990 Comparison Secular theory to Old Earth Creationism The particle expanded rapidly, cooling as it did; became cool enough for visible light to be possible* 3 Then God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light. Gen 1:3 (NASB) *Visible light is generated by electrons moving between orbitals. At extremely high temperatures, electrons are not in orbitals. Schroeder GL, Genesis and the Big Bang, Bantam Books, 1990 Comparison Secular theory to Old Earth Creationism With cooling of the expanding matter, hydrogen and helium formed, gravitation caused formation of stars where heavier elements were formed and are released by supernova allowing formation of planets. Rotation of earth produced day and night. 5 God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. Gen 1:5 (NASB) Schroeder GL, Genesis and the Big Bang, Bantam Books, 1990 Comparison Secular theory to Old Earth Creationism Appearance of life on earth. Day 2 Separation of waters, Day 3 creation of plants specifically mentioned. 11 Then God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation , plants yielding seed, and fruit trees on the earth bearing fruit after their kind with seed in them"; and it was so. Gen 1:11 Schroeder GL, Genesis and the Big Bang, Bantam Books, 1990 Comparison Secular theory to Old Earth Creationism Could it be that metabolism of life forms reduced a thick canopy allowing the sun, moon and stars to become visible? 14 Then God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the expanse of the heavens to give light on the earth"; and it was so. Gen 1:14-15 (NASB) Schroeder GL, Genesis and the Big Bang, Bantam Books, 1990 Comparison Secular theory to Old Earth Creationism • Creation of large animals and man (order is the same in both) Universe & Life Origin Discrepancies • Time • Order of events • Mechanism of formation of life The Issue of Origins (the Universe and Life) Scripture Deductive Creation in 7 days in Specific order ? Naturalistic Theory of Origins 1. Big Bang 2. Spontaneous Generation Of Life 3. Evolution of Species Inductive Various Observations Human Insulin Irreducible Complexity Example • Number of combinations of protein such as insulin with 51 amino acid positions and 20 possible amino acids (20 X 20 X 20… for 51 times comes out to be about 1 X 1068). • Number of seconds in 13 billion years = 1018 • So, attempting to make insulin once per second for 13 billion years will get through a very small fraction of the possibilities (1 over 1050) Chance of producing insulin by chance With one attempt per second for 13 billion years= 1/100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 The Issue of Origins (the Universe and Life) Scripture Deductive Creation in 7 days in Specific order ? Naturalistic Theory of Origins 1. Big Bang 2. Spontaneous Generation Of Life 3. Evolution of Species Inductive Various Observations Evolutionary Possibilities • 1. Allows adaptations that preserve a species (antibiotic and insecticide resistance) • 2. Possible explanation of variations within a species • 3. Possible cause of change of one species to another • 4. Possible explanation for the origin of all species Cambrian Explosion dated at about 530 million years ago Rapid appearance of most major groups of complex animals Problems with Proving Evolution as Mechanism of Origin for All Species • 1. All steps have to be adaptive or the intermediate form will not have a survival advantage • 2. Relative lack of intermediate forms in the fossil record (“punctuated equilibrium”) • 3. Homology and embryology as arguments for and against • 4. Lack of observation of new species formation in rapidly dividing species Homo habilis http://www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/oh24.html 3/21/06 Timeline • 2,000,000 years ago with 20 years per generation = 100,000 generations • Bacteria with 20 minutes per generation, have 100,000 generations in 2,000,000 minutes • 365 X 24 X 60 minutes per year = ½ million minutes per year. • In 4 years, some bacteria can have 100,000 generations. • Staphylococcus aureas was first named in 1881. It was a gram positive, catalase positive, nonmotile, ubiquitous organism then and now. Conclusions • 1. Faith and Science have separate but overlapping domains. • 2. The origin of the universe and life cannot be reproduced, so scientific elucidation is limited and indirect. • 3. Young Earth and Old Earth Creationism are models that attempt to explain origins from the standpoint of faith. • 4. Old Earth Creationism has the greatest compatibility with current secular theories. • 5. Attempting to explain origins without invoking a designer outside the system has its own set of problems and improbabilities.