Writing Across the Curriculum CARDINALS WORKING TOGETHER FOR STUDENT SUCCESS! Everybody Writes! What types of writing do you do in your class? What is the importance of writing in your class? Writing on the STAAR Test-Reading Test Two short answer questions over the readings: Example: “How are the themes of “Those Winter Sundays” and “All My Babies Are Gone Now” similar? Support your answer with evidence from both selections. What is the importance of citing evidence for all disciplines? Writing on the STAAR Test-Sample Question from Writing Test-Expository Essay Read the information below: Jane Austen (1775–1817) and Franz Kafka (1883–1924) are considered great writers. Their books continue to sell, and they are widely read and studied in schools everywhere. Neither of them, however, received much recognition while they were alive. Should people do things only to be recognized? Think carefully about this question. Write an essay explaining whether a person must always be acknowledged in order to have accomplished something. Be sure to: clearly state your thesis organize and develop your ideas effectively choose your words carefully edit your writing for grammar, mechanics, and spelling . Writing on the STAAR Test-Sample Question from Writing Test-Persuasive Essay Read the following quotation. Authentic patriotism is not about you, what you believe or what you think is right. . . . Authentic patriotism is not an opinion. It is an action. —Stephen Kiernan Think carefully about the following statement. Some people define themselves by what they believe, while others allow their actions to speak for them. Write an essay stating your position on which is more important: what a person thinks or what a person does. Be sure to — state your position clearly use appropriate organization provide specific support for your argument choose your words carefully edit your writing for grammar, mechanics, and spelling APES We encourage our students to use APES: Open Ended Responses/ Short Answer Essays A P E S means: A = Answer the question correctly, carefully, and completely P = Provide textual evidence, preferably a quote or two embedded in sentences. E = Explain/analyze why the evidence proves your answer is correct. S = Summarize your answer and provide some type of “universal” statement, truth, or lesson. Writing Process WRITING PROCESS: STEP 1: Brainstorm . STEP 2: Pre-write STEP 3:– Write Rough draft STEP 4: Peer Review STEP 5: Revise Ideas STEP 6: Edit STEP 7: Publish Types of Essays Narrative Essays In a narrative essay, the writer tells a story about a real-life experience. While telling a story may sound easy to do, the narrative essay challenges students to think and write about themselves. When writing a narrative essay, writers should try to involve the reader by making the story as vivid as possible. The fact that narrative essays are usually written in the first person helps engage the reader. “I” sentences give readers a feeling of being part of the story. A well-crafted narrative essay will also build towards drawing a conclusion or making a personal statement. Types of Essays Descriptive Essays: A cousin of the narrative essay, a descriptive essay paints a picture with words. A writer might describe a person, place, object, or even memory of special significance. However, this type of essay is not description for description’s sake. The descriptive essay strives to communicate a deeper meaning through the description. In a descriptive essay, the writer should show, not tell, through the use of colorful words and sensory details. The best descriptive essays appeal to the reader’s emotions, with a result that is highly evocative. Types of Essays Expository Essays: Just the Facts - STAARS: Will always ask students to “Explain” something The expository essay is an informative piece of writing that presents a balanced analysis of a topic. In an expository essay, the writer explains or defines a topic, using facts, statistics, and examples. Expository writing encompasses a wide range of essay variations, such as the comparison and contrast essay, the cause and effect essay, and the “how to” or process essay. Because expository essays are based on facts and not personal feelings, writers don’t reveal their emotions or write in the first person. Types of Essays Persuasive Essays: Convince Me – STAARS: Will always state “Persuade/Convince” in prompt. While like an expository essay in its presentation of facts, the goal of the persuasive essay is to convince the reader to accept the writer’s point of view or recommendation. The writer must build a case using facts and logic, as well as examples, expert opinion, and sound reasoning. The writer should present all sides of the argument, but must be able to communicate clearly and without equivocation why a certain position is correct. Types of Essays Analytical Essays – Tear it apart An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience Thesis statements Thesis: Topic + Argument/opinion that you are going to prove OR main idea you will present in your paper What Is a Thesis Statement? A “mini argument” A sentence or two that briefly describes the main idea of your paper and the main argument that you are trying to make Offers your readers a quick preview of what your paper is going to be about Makes an argumentative assertion Focuses your paper on a very specific, debatable point Gives your audience guidance about the conclusions you draw in the paper In some kinds of writing, such as narratives or descriptions, a thesis statement is less important, but you may still want to provide some kind of statement that helps to guide your reader through your paper Thesis statements A thesis is an assertion, not a fact or observation. Facts are used within the paper to support your thesis. A thesis takes a stand, meaning it announces your position towards a particular topic. A thesis presents the main idea and explains what you intend to discuss. A thesis answers a specific question and explains how you plan to support your argument. A thesis is debatable. Someone should be able to argue an alternate position, or conversely, support your claims. Thesis: Topic/Bad/ Better Topic: body piercing Bad: Body piercing is popular among kids nowadays. Better: Body piercing among contemporary youth represents the latest form of rebelling against authority that previous generations manifested in smoking, getting tattoos, and wearing mini-skirts. Thesis: Topic/Bad/ Better TOPIC: news coverage of military action Bad: News coverage of military actions undermines their seriousness. Better: By featuring highlights of air strikes and peace-keeping missions on the news, television producers reduce them to the status of popular entertainment and undermine the audiences appreciation of the seriousness of military actions. Research Formats Research Guides: Which one is used in your discipline? MLA APA Chicago Writing Resources Harlingen High School Information Literary Center (ILC): http://www.hcisd.org/domain/517 Secondary Research Process Databases Destiny/ Library Catalog The Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) https://owl.english.purdue.edu/ Everything you want to know about writing!!! Source Validity Valid and Reliable Sources: Library Databases – Harlingen High School ILC Textbooks and other Library Books Major News Websites/Professional Magazines or Newspapers www.ap.org www.bbc.co.uk www.time.com www.reuters.com www.newsweek.com www.nytimes.com www.pbs.org/newshour/ www.washingtonpost.com www.theweek.com Plagiarism Definition of PLAGIARISM : to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own : use (another's production) without crediting the source : to commit literary theft : present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source — pla·gia·riz·er noun Plagiarism Consequences of Plagiarizing: High School – Receive a ZERO on assignment College – Automatically fail class and/or expulsion Work Place – Fines and/or jail Plagiarism Misconceptions about plagiarism: Letting someone copy your work is a form of plagiarism and is just as much a violation. Copying and pasting-even if you cite sources- is still plagiarism. Even if you cite sources, using the author’s exact words, without quotation marks or some other form of identifying your quotes, is still plagiarism. 5 Reasons Why Writing Should Be Used Across the Curriculum 1. Written output is a great way to access student knowledge. 2. Writing is an essential skill students will use need as they enter adult life. 3. Helping students learn to express themselves with confidence in all subject areas can contribute to improvements in behavior and self-esteem. 5 Reasons Why Writing Should Be Used Across the Curriculum 4. Students who write clearly, think clearly. And students who think clearly have a better chance of navigating through the obstacles of adolescence. 5. Writing is power! (Peha) 5 Tips for Using the Writing Process 1. When assigning formal pieces of writing like reports, base the students’ work schedule on the seven stages of writing process. 2. Model Writing Process activites for your students at the appropriate stages. 3. After drafts have been completed, allow time for sharing. 4. During the review process, make the classroom the audience for student work. 5. Make a big deal of the publishing stage. (Peha) Writing and the STAAR test Teacher’s can use writing as a way to prepare students for the STAAR test. A short written answer to a STAAR style question reveals a great deal more than a lucky guess on a multiple choice question. Biology Released test question from the 2011 test: Genetic variation can aid in the survival of a species when the environment changes. Which of the following is the best example of an organism with a genetic variation that could improve survival chances over time? How could this be made into a writing prompt? Physics Released question from the 2011 test: Using a diffraction grating, a student looks at an incandescent lightbulb and a hydrogen-gasdischarge tube. Why does the student see fewer colors from the hydrogen-gas discharge tube than from the incandescent lightbulb? How could this be made into a writing prompt? Chemistry Released question from the 2011 test: A gas was held at a constant temperature in a closed system. The initial pressure of the gas was 1.50 L. What was the final pressure of the gas to the nearest hundredth of an atmosphere? How could this be made into a writing prompt? U.S. History Released question from the 2011 test: After the attacks on September 11, 2001, how did U.S. foreign policy change? How can this be made into a writing prompt? World Geography Released question from the 2011 test: Which of these has been a major development in global trade since the 1990s? How can this be made into a writing prompt? World History Released question from the 2011 test: Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem…shall come into existence….not later than 1 October 1948. - United Nations Resolution 181, 1947. Which of the following occurred in reaction to the resolution excerpted above? How could this be made into a writing prompt? What about P.E. and sports? Possible areas: Exercise journals Explanations of drills and exercise routines/effect of exercise Problem solving Diagrams Game analysis Personal goals What about music? Examples of possible prompts: What parts of this composition echoes sounds made in nature? Why do you think the audience liked our third performance piece best? Music makes a difference in my life because? How is marching band music different from symphonic band? Why is music education important? What about Art? Personal response writing to pieces of art. Comparison/contrast writing about two distinct styles of art. Explaining an artistic process(personal) Explaining an artistic process (technical) Discussing historical period of art “How to” writing What about CATE? Sample Response Sheet for Business Assignment: Introduction Accurately states the issue Signals clear direction and communicates the topic Business Process Uses graphs (charts, formulas, etc.) when needed to assist the reader’s understanding Demonstrates understanding of the issue(s) Employs insightful and efficient (creative, complex, etc.) ideas Suggests a process by giving specific detail What about CATE? Advanced Level: Proposes multiple ways to solve the problem(s) Advanced Level: Recognizes relevant patterns and generalizes to other problems Documentation Specified format style (e.g., MLA, APA) is used correctly Information is used ethically Ideas, graphics, and other sources are credited What about CATE? Business Discourse Business discourse is comprehensive All terminology is used accurately Language is clear Organization Organization guides the reader’s understanding Transitional words (e.g., first, second, next, a final step) guide the reader’s understanding Paragraphing assists reader’s understanding of the content and organization Editing Uses standard grammar and spelling Eliminates punctuation errors. (Fernsten and Fernsen) What about CATE? Resumes! Explaining technical processes. Writing cover letters for jobs. Scripts /interview questions/and proposals for Media Tech. And many more! More Resources Click on Michael Gerleman in the Harlingen High School Staff directory and then on Helpful resources for articles and resources. Works Cited Fernsten, Dr. Linda, and Dr. Linda Fernsten. "Writing and Learning in the Business Classroom: The Workshop Approach." Journal of Applied Research for Business Instruction. 6.3 (2008): n. page. Web. 6 Aug. 2013. Peha, Steve. ""You Want Me to Teaching Writing, Too?"." Teaching That Makes Sense. ttms.org, n.d. Web. 6 Aug 2013.