Increasing Our Impact: Promising Trends in Training and Practice of

Report
Increasing Our Impact:
Promising Trends in Training
and Practice of Related
Services and Specialized
Adaptive Physical Education
Personnel
Emily Kinsler, CCC-SLP-D
Erin Lundblom, PhD CCC-SLP
Mark Fugate, PhD
Rebecca Lytle, PhD and Robert Arnhold, PhD
Juliann Woods, PhD
The Context
• Personnel in Related Services and Adaptive PE
continue to be critical shortages in many states
nationwide
• Each area has unique expertise to contribute to young
children and students
• However, as education embraces new initiatives, the
roles/responsibilities of related service and adaptive
PE personnel can be challenged by the shifts to find
their place as members of the team
Our Goals
Presenters will illustrate examples of:
1) Coordinated University and LEA personnel
preparation
2) Integrated clinical and academic models
3) Use of data to drive practice
4) Strategies for infusing systems change content into
personnel preparation
Format
• Emily will set the stage for us from an LEA perspective
• Each OSEP funded project will share a brief synopsis
of their approach to implementation
• Q&A
• Large group idea exchange addressing challenges
CHANGING PRACTICES
OF SLPS IN SCHOOL
SETTINGS
Emily Kinsler, CCC/SLP.D.
Howard County, Maryland
Public School System
Unique Roles of an SLP
• Provide appropriate assessment and
treatment of students in all educational
settings ranging from pre-kindergarten
through high school, including transitional
programs.
6
Different Perspective
7
Current Trends
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Integration of services
Inclusive practices
Data driven decision-making
Accountability
Collaboration
Evidence Based Practices
RTI
My Kids…Your Kids…Our Kids
Educational Reform and SLPs
• Closing the gap
• Changing demographics
• Improving educational outcomes for diverse
learners
• College and Career Ready
Presuming Competence
“
”
--Douglas Biklen
“
”
~Helen Keller
Seven Tenets
the mindset for all providers
•
•
•
•
•
PRESUMED COMPETENCE
ONLY AS SPECIAL AS NECESSARY
QUESTION EVERYTHING
PROVIDE ACADEMIC CHALLENGE TO ALL
PRACTICE RADICAL AND RELENTLESS ROLE
SHARING
• BURN THE CHAIR
• SEE INCLUSION AS A PROCESS NOT A PLACE
21st Century Skills for Service Providers
in Public Schools
• What are we looking for in our Clinical
Fellows?
• What skills and experiences would be
beneficial for them in their preparatory
programs?
COLLABORATIVE SERVICE DELIVERY:
FROM INSTRUCTION TO
IMPLEMENTATION
Erin E.G. Lundblom, Ph.D. CCC-SLP
Associate In
Florida State University
[email protected]
Mismatch?
• IDEA encourages new approaches.
• Need for collaboration and classroom based services to support RTI.
• Service delivery models have not changed.
•
Primary model continues to be PULL-OUT
• ASHA survey reports from the 1990s and 2000s
Average (Mean) Hours Spent by ASHA-Certified, School-Based SLPs per Week Using Models of Service, 2000, 2006,
and 2008 (Not reported 2010)
Model of Service
2000
2006
2008
Classroom-based
3.5
3.8
4.7
Collaborative consultation
2.8
2.3
2.7
RTI
*
2.4
1.6
Resource room
0.7
0.9
1.0
Self-contained
1.1
3.5
3.7
Traditional pull-out
21.3
21.4
21.9
How do we change practice?
• Implementation: a specified set of activities designed to put into
practice an activity or program
• Missing link between research and practice.
• Stages of Implementation
• Implementation Drivers
• Competency
• Training
• Coaching
• Organization
• Purposes and Outcomes of Implementation
• Paper
• Process
• Performance
• Fully-accredited part-time master’s degree program online for
Florida students seeking speech-language pathology certification.
• 38 students participated.
• All received funding from a personnel preparation grant.
• Course-work and practica occurred “on the job.”
• Number completing a school based practicum: 14
• Number employed in a school setting: 24
• A unique advantage exists with practicing SLPs concurrently enrolled
in graduate training programs.
• Learners bring the educational content they are learning to their
workplaces (Kazmer & Haythornthwaite, 2001; Kazmer, 2005).
DL graduate student demographics
Number completing both questionnaires
38 (73.1%)
Number completing a school based practicum
14 (36.8%)
Number employed in a school setting
24 (63.2%)
Years of related experience in the field
School setting
Caseload Size
0-1 years
14 (36.8%)
2-4 years
20 (52.6%)
5-10 years
4 (10.5%)
Elementary
35 (92.1%)
Middle School
3 (7.9%)
1-20
4 (10.5%)
20-40
6 (15.8%)
40-50
7 (18.4%)
50-60
6 (15.8%)
>60
15 (39.5%)
“How to…” facilitate change
Semester 1 – coursework with practicum
• 4 online learning modules
•
•
•
•
Evidence-based practice
Collaboration and service delivery
Problem-solving and response to intervention
Embedding communicative skills in the curriculum
• Each module = two course weeks
• Approximately equal in time requirements (i.e. 6 hours weekly; 12 total
hours)
• Structure based upon the R2D2 model proposed by Bonk and Zhang
(2006).
• Reading/listening (4 hours)
• Reflecting/writing (4 hours)
• Displaying (2 hours) and Doing (2 hours)
“How to…” facilitate change
Semester 2 – practicum with coursework
• A classroom-based intervention to meet the individualized communicative needs
of a student.
• Identified a student with communication needs.
• Children’s Communication Checklist-2 (CCC-2; Bishop, 2006)
• Classroom observation
• Teacher input
• Developed 2 communicative goals based on Common Core Standards.
• Created an intervention plan for classroom implementation.
• Features of the action research project.
• Multiple baseline design
• Generalization probes
• Fidelity checklist
• Social validity measure
What we learned…
1. Content knowledge improved.
2. Graduate students applied course content during the
course.
• 2 communicative goals aligned with the Common Core Standards
were identified for implementation by 29 graduate student (71%).
• 35 graduate students (85%) provided intervention for a minimum of
1 communicative goal aligned with the Common Core Standards.
• 34 of 41 projects(83%) were implemented in the classroom.
• 38 of 41 projects(92%) maintained a fidelity protocol.
• 33 of 41 projects(92%) had positive outcome measures of social
validity
What the students learned…
• The mean ratings from an initial to final questionnaire were higher
for each of the following items indicating that differences were
captured on the questionnaire following application of the course
content.
M
October
2010
I am familiar with the Common Core
Standards.
I examine curriculum materials when
designing interventions.
I am able to write instructional objectives.
I know how to plan lessons.
I know how to plan for different academic
levels.
I can embed communicative goals in the
classroom.
I can implement communicative goals in
the classroom.
M
April
2011
df
t
p
d
3.53
4.03
37
3.24
.003**
.46
3.47
3.87
37
2.66
.012*
.39
3.61
4.00
37
2.75
.009**
.46
3.89
4.21
37
2.09
.04*
.26
3.68
4.08
36
2.85
.007**
.45
3.76
4.13
37
2.89
.006**
.41
3.82
4.13
37
2.51
.016*
.39
Changes in practice?
How many hours do you spend in
collaboration with teachers per week?
October 2010 1.22
January 2012 2.64
Figure 2: Mean weekly hours reported by graduate students across service delivery models.
Performance Implementation
Describe how you collaborate.
Graduate Students
School Personnel
• discussion
• discussion of student
needs
• discussion
• discussion of student
needs
Talk to them about students that we
have in common.
We meet together about student
concerns as needed.
• discussion of
therapeutic intervention
• c. discussion of
therapeutic intervention
Discuss lesson plans, child progress, and
goals for the week.
Discussion regarding needs and
interventions.
What’s next for SLP personnel preparation…
• Curriculum modifications
• Provide instruction on collaboration and fundamental skills.
• Practicum modifications
• Provision of intervention within the classroom
Training School Psychologists to Participate in
Multi-Tiered Educational Systems
Mark Fugate Ph.D.
Division of Counseling and School Psychology
Alfred University
Similarity and Variability in
School Psychology Training
• NASP approved school psychology training programs
must provide training across 10/11 domains of practice
(http://www.nasponline.org/standards/2010standards1_Graduate_Preparation.pdf).
• All school psychology students receive some level of
training in skills necessary to successfully participate in
multi-tiered service delivery.
• However, the emphasis on skill development across the
domains is quite variable among individual training
programs
RtI Grant & Schools
• OSEP Personnel
Preparation Grant:
Training School
Psychologists to
Facilitate Response
to Intervention in
Schools
• Provides PreService Training
for 12 School
Psychologists
• Implementing RtI in
5 partner schools
Partner
School District
Partner
School District
Partner
School District
Partner
School District
Partner
School District
Alfred
University
Elements of the RTI Model
Benchmark
Phase
Tier 1:
Core
Instruction
Universal
Screening
Evidence-based
Core Curriculum
Collaborative Problem Solving
& Consultation
Tier 2:
Strategic
Intervention
Screening; Progress Monitoring;
Program Evaluation; & FBA
Targeted
Intervention
Phase
Tier 3:
Intensive
Intervention
Core Competencies
Effective instruction & Intervention
Tier 3:
More
Restrictive
Environment
Frequent (Weekly)
Progress Monitor
Ongoing
Support
Phase
RTI Activities
Monthly
Prg. Mon.
RTI Tier
Individually
Focused Intvn.
RTI Phase
Standard
Protocol Intvn.
Social & Behavioral
Mathematics
Reading
Student
Skills
Key Components of Training
• Effective Instruction/Modification
– Identifying elements of effective instruction; Evidencebased academic interventions; Evidence-based behavioral
interventions
• Data-Based Decision Making
– Screening, Diagnostic, and Progressing Monitoring
Assessments; Functional Academic Assessment; Functional
Behavior Assessment; Using Data for Individual Decisions
and Program Evaluation
• Consultation & Collaboration
– General Processes and Specific Strategies for
Administrators, Teacher, and Related Services
The Role of Practica and Internship
• It is not enough to teach skills in isolation
• Students need to learn to apply skills within the
socio-political matrix of real world educational
settings
• Practica and internships need to:
–
–
–
–
be of sufficient length and intensity
provide structured/prescribed learning opportunities
provide appropriate levels of supervision and feedback
occur in educational sites that support best practices
The AU School Psychology
Practica/Internship Model
• All AU School Psychology Students
– Students participate in off campus field experiences and
class related practica during each of the 4 semesters of
training prior to internship
– Field placement site supervisors are typically AU grads who
have had substantial positive influence on school culture
and practices
– Students meet as a group with AU faculty at least 1 hour
per week for group supervision
– AU field experience visit training sites a minimum of once
per semester
– Site supervisors come to campus annually
The AU School Psychology
Practica/Internship Model
• RTI Grant AU School Psychology Students
– Have additional elective coursework (1st year) and practica
(2nd year) focusing on advanced learning and application of
key RTI elements
– 2nd Year practica occur in a partner school committed to
RTI implementation with direct supervision from AU
faculty
– 3rd year internships occur in the remaining RTI partner
schools.
– In addition to typical school psychology internship
activities, RTI grant students spend a minimum of 20% of
their time working within the school to improve RTI
implementation
Building School System Support
• While we have more control over the choice of field
placement sites during on campus training,
influencing the quality of 3rd year internship sites is a
challenge
• All AU internship sites
– Students have substantial flexibility in choosing sites
– All internship sites need to be approved by AU internship
coordinator
– Use of portfolio to structure internship activities
– AU intern supervisors make a minimum of one site visit to
ensure quality of internship experience
Building School System Support/Change
• RTI grant partner school internship sites
– Meet the typical AU internship site requirements
• Additional steps to facilitate quality RTI
implementation in the partner school districts
–
–
–
–
–
–
Work with broad-based RTI teams
Establish best practices framework
Teams evaluate the quality of RTI implementation (RIMS)
Teams set annual implementation goals and action plans
RTI grant faculty assist schools in implementing plans
Evaluation and planning process occurs annually
ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Personnel Preparation Programs Developing
Highly Qualified Practitioners
Rebecca Lytle, University of California – Chico
Robert Arnhold, Slippery Rock University of PA
Objectives
 Clarify definitions of Special Education and Physical Education.
 Describe the coordinated multi-tiered school-based approach for
service delivery of adapted physical education.
 Describe adapted physical education personnel preparation and
evidence-based practices for students with disabilities.
 Multidisciplinary practice of APE with Related Services.
 Building highly qualified capacity of scholars in adapted
physical education.
Physical Education defined in Special Education
The term ‘special education’ means specially designed
instruction, at no cost to parents, to meet the unique
needs of a child with a disability, including –
(A)
instruction conducted in the classroom, in
the home, in hospitals, and institutions,
and in other settings; and
(B)
instruction in physical education.
20 U.S.C. 1401(29)
Definition of Physical Education Services
34CFR 300.108 Physical Education:
(a) General. Physical education services, specially
designed if necessary, must be made available to
every child with a disability receiving FAPE.
Coordinated, Multi-tiered Service Delivery Model

Assessment of students with disabilities by
highly qualified APE personnel;

Partner with related service personnel;

Educational placement through continuum of
physical education services;

Considering needs of LEAs.
The Need for Highly Qualified
Adapted Physical Education Specialists
 Increased incidence of overweight/obesity among
students with disabilities.
 Increased secondary health risks, reduced quality
of life.
 Lack of highly qualified APE specialists in the
schools.
Goals and Outcomes of APE in the Schools
 Prepare highly qualified APE specialists to work in
multidisciplinary service delivery model.
 Prepare highly qualified APE specialists to increase
physical activity and health outcomes of students
with disabilities.
Communicating the Need to
LEA Personnel
 Translating the role of APE personnel to the
cognitive, health, and wellness of students with
disabilities.
 Development of transition skills including
independence, health, fitness, social,
communication, job-skills, and quality of life to
students with disabilities.
Evidence-based Practices in
Adapted Physical Education Service Delivery
 APE teaches and implements Universal Design for
Learning (UDL) principles;
 APE is beginning to implement Response to
Intervention (RTI) strategies.
Criteria for Highly Qualified APE Personnel
 17 states with certification
 Adapted Physical Education National Standards
Examination leading to Certified Adapted Physical
Education Specialist (CAPE).
 Many state report general physical education teachers
as highly qualified because of lack of certification.
 Needs to be addressed.
Cross-disciplinary Coordination
 APE works collaboratively with:
 Physical therapists
 Occupational therapists
 Speech/language therapists
 Transportation
 Psychology, and other related service personnel

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