Portable Fire Extinguishers

Report
FVCC Fire Rescue
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
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2-5.1
Identify the classification and types
of fire by symbols, pictures, and color-coding
as they relate to portable extinguishers
(3-3.15)
2-5.2
Identify the portable fire
extinguisher rating system (3-3.15)
2-5.3
Identify the appropriate
extinguishers and the application procedures
for the various classes of fires when given a
selection of extinguishers commonly carried
on fire apparatus. (3-3.15)
OBJECTIVES
2-5.4
Identify the operations on all
commonly available fire extinguishers and
agents. (3-3.15)
 2-5.5
Identify common defects found
during a visual inspection of fire
extinguishers (3-3.15)

OBJECTIVES
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2-5.6
Demonstrate extinguishing the
following classes of fires using the
appropriate portable fire extinguishers:
(3-3.15(b))
◦ 2-5.6.1 Class A
◦ 2-5.6.2 Class B
 IFSTA, Essentials, 4th ed, Chapter 5
 Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, 2000, Chapter 8
OBJECTIVES
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NFPA 10 Standard for Portable Fire
Extinguishers
Excellent to use on incipient fires.
Can extinguish a small fire in much
less than it would take to deploy a
hoseline.
Firefighters should not rely on
extinguishers found in occupancies.
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Fire Extinguishers may be located at fixed
positions in an occupancy or mounted on
the apparatus

NFPA 1901, Standard for Automotive Fire Apparatus
Requires a pumping apparatus to have 2 approved portable fire
extinguishers with mounting brackets.
These most be suitable for Class B and C fires.
Stated Minimum size requirement:
Dry Chemical Extinguishers: 80 B:C
CO2: 10 B:C
Also requires a 2 ½ gallon or larger water extinguisher with a mounting
bracket for use on Class A fires. (Water extinguishers should be protected
against freezing which would temperatures lower than 40* F). (Freeze
protection maybe be provided adding anti-freeze to the water or storage
of extinguisher in warm areas).
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

Class, color, symbol, picture
◦ Class A
 Class: Ordinary combustibles
◦ Wood, paper and clothing
 Color – Green
 Symbol – Triangle
 Picture – Trash can and campfire
CLASSIFICATIONS & TYPES OF
FIRES
◦ Class B
 Class: Flammable liquids
◦ Gasoline, kerosene, alcohol
 Color – Red
 Symbol – Square
 Picture – Gasoline can
CLASSIFICATIONS & TYPES OF
FIRES
◦ Class C
 Class: Energized electrical
equipment
◦ Any type of electrical
equipment that is energized
 Color – Blue
 Symbol – Circle
 Picture – Plug and socket
CLASSIFICATIONS & TYPES OF
FIRES
◦ Class D
 Class: Combustible metals
◦ Magnesium, sodium chloride,
lithium
 Color – Yellow
 Symbol – Star
 Picture – none
CLASSIFICATIONS & TYPES OF
FIRES

Class A
◦ Rated 1-A through 40-A
◦ 1-A requires 1 ¼ gallons of
water
◦ Rating based on tests
conducted by:
 Underwriters Laboratories Inc (UL)
 Underwriters Laboratories Inc of
Canada (ULC)
◦ Tests determine extinguishing
capability
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHER
RATING SYSTEM

Class B
◦ Rated 1-B through 640-B
◦ Rating based on square foot
area that a non-expert
operator can extinguish
◦ Non-expert expected to
extinguish 1 square foot for
each numerical
CLASSIFICATIONS & TYPES OF
FIRES

Class C
◦ No fire test conducted
◦ Tested only for nonconductivity
◦ Receives only the letter
rating
CLASSIFICATIONS & TYPES OF
FIRES

Class D
◦ No numerical rating given
◦ Considerations for rating:
 Reaction between metal and
agent
 Toxicity of agent
 Toxicity of the fumes produced
and the products of combustion
 Time to allow metal to burn out
without fire suppression efforts
versus time to extinguish
◦ Cannot be given a
multipurpose rating
CLASSIFICATIONS & TYPES OF
FIRES

Water (pump tank) Class A
extinguisher
◦ Sizes from 1 ½ to 5 gallons
◦ Range – 30-40 feet
◦ Discharge time – 45 seconds to 3
minutes
◦ Agent discharged by pumping action of
operator
◦ Needs freeze protection
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
Intended for use on small
Class A fires.
 Several kinds, all of which
operate in a similar
manner.
 Equipped with a doubleacting pump.

Pump Tank
Water Extinguishers

Stored pressure water
extinguisher (air
pressurized water) (APW)
Class A extinguisher
◦ Sizes from 1 ¼ to 2 ½ gallons
◦ Range – 30-40 feet
◦ Discharge time – 30 to 60
seconds
◦ Agent discharged by compressed
air stored in tank
◦ Needs freeze protection
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
Often used for
extinguishing hot spots
during overall operations,
as well as chimney flue
fires.
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Aqueous film foaming foam
(AFFF) Class A and B
extinguisher
◦
◦
◦
◦
Most 2 ½ gallons
Range – 20-25 feet
Discharge time – 50 seconds
Agent discharged by compressed
air (or Nitrogen) stored in tank.
◦ Needs freeze protection
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
Class A foam concentrate acts as a
wetting agent that aids in extinguishing
deep seated fires, vehicle fires and
wildland fires.
 Ineffective on Class B Polar Solvents
(water soluble) Ex: Alcohol & Acetone

Aqueous Film Forming Foam
(AFFF) Class A and B extinguisher
Aqueous Film Forming Foam
(AFFF) Class A and B extinguisher
The film of AFFF floats ahead of the foam blanket.
Two ways in which AFFF can be applied.

Dry chemical (hand carried)
ratings
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
Ordinary – Class B/C
Multipurpose – Class A, B and C
Sizes from 2 ½ to 30 pounds
Range – 5 to 20 feet
Discharge time – 10 to 25 seconds
Agent discharged by:
 Stored pressure
 Cartridge
◦ Does not need freeze protection
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
◦ Ordinary agents
 Sodium bicarbonate
 Potassium bicarbonate
 Ammonium phosphate
 Potassium chloride
◦ Multi-purpose agents
 Mono-ammonium
phosphate
 Barium sulfate
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Wheeled Units:
Similar to handheld units
Class A,B,C rating depending
upon dry chemical
components.
 Extinguishing agent kept in
one tank; pressurized gas is
stored in a separate cylinder.
 Hose should be stretched out
completely.


Caution: The top of the extinguishers
should be pointed away from the
firefighter or other personnel when
pressurizing the unit. Because of size
of nozzle, the firefighter should be
prepared for a significant nozzle
reaction when it is opened.
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Carbon dioxide (hand carried)
◦ Class B/C extinguisher Sizes 2 to
20 pounds
◦ Range: 3 to 6 feet
◦ Discharge time: 8 to 30 seconds
◦ Agent discharged by its own stored
pressure
 Avoid contact with skin
 Large horn, no gauge
CO2 “snow” formed with moisture in the air.
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Wheeled Units:

Class B & C
Commonly used in airports and industrial
facilitates.
Hose (usually less than 15 ft long) must be
deployed or unwound from unit before use.
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EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
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Halon: Halogenated Hydrocarbons
Montreal Protocol on the Substances that Deplete the Ozone
Layer: International agreement requires complete phase out of
the production of halogens by 2000.
Exception allowed for essential uses where no suitable
alternatives are available.
Two most common are Halon 1211 and Halon 1301
Vapor is nonconductive and is effective in extinguishing surface
fires in flammable & combustible liquids and electrical equipment.
Not effective on fires in self-oxidizing fuels.
Primary modern application is for the protection of sensitive
electronic equipment like computers.
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
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Halon 1211:
Research suggests that Halon 1211
interrupts the chain reaction of the
combustion process.
Primarily used for Class B:C Fires
Large wheeled units are found up
to 150 lb. In size.
Stored in extinguisher as a
liquefied compressed gas, but
Nitrogen is added to the tank to
increase discharge pressure &
stream reach.
Stream may be affected by wind
when operated outdoors.
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
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Halon 1301:
Normally not used by itself in
portable extinguishers because the
agent is discharged as a nearly
invisible gas that is highly
susceptible to being affected by the
wind.
In confined space (Computer Room)
Halon 1301’s volatility allows it to
disperse faster than Halon 1211.
Reason why Halon 1301 is agent of
choice in most total flooding systems
using halogenated hydrocarbons.
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
 Warning:
When halon is used to extinguish a fire, it
decomposes and liberates toxic
components, so these agents should not
be used in unventilated, confined spaces.
Halon
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Dry Powder Agents:
Special Extinguishing Agents and
Techniques.
No single agent will control or extinguish
metal fires.
Some agents can be applied by portable
extinguishers.
Other agents must be applied by either
shovel or a scoop.
Agent must be applied in a sufficient depth
to completely cover the area that is burning
to create a smothering blanket.
Gentle application so as to not break the
“crust” that may form over the burning
material. If crust is broken may cause fire
to flare up again.
Care should be given as to not spread the
burning metal.
EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES

Dry Powder Agents:
(cont.)
If burning material is on a
combustible surface, the fire
should be covered with power
first.
 Then a 1-2” layer of powder
should be spread nearby and the
burning metal shoveled onto this
layer with more powder as
needed.
 After extinguishing the fire, the
material should be left
undisturbed.
 Disposal should not be
attempted until the mass has
cooled completely.

EXTINGUISHERS AND
APPLICATION PROCEDURES
P.A.S.S.
 P- Pull
 A- Aim

OPERATION OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS
P.A.S.S. (cont.)
 S- Squeeze
 S- Sweep

OPERATION OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS

Water (pump tank)
◦ Determine if unit is
full
◦ Carry tank to fire
◦ Unfold foot pad
◦ Pump with one hand
and direct stream
with other hand
◦ Sweep nozzle over
entire area
◦ Move in and
complete
extinguishment
OPERATION OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS

Stored pressure
extinguishers – water,
halon, dry chemical,
carbon dioxide (CO2)
◦ Select appropriate
extinguisher
◦ Pull pin, breaking
plastic or wire seal
OPERATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
◦ Point the nozzle or horn in safe
direction and discharge to
ensure proper operation
◦ Carry extinguisher to fire
OPERATION OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS
◦ Aim nozzle or horn
toward fire
◦ Squeeze the carrying
handle
◦ Sweep nozzle at
base of fire
◦ Check that fire is out
◦ Back away from fire
area
OPERATION OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS

Cartridge-operated
extinguishers – dry
chemical, dry
powder
◦ Select appropriate
extinguisher
◦ Remove hose from stored
position
◦ Position to one side and
depress activation
plunger
OPERATION OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS

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Cartridge-operated
extinguishers – dry
chemical, dry powder
Point the nozzle or horn to safe
direction and discharge to ensure
proper operation
Carry extinguisher to fire
Aim nozzle or horn toward fire
OPERATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
◦ Squeeze the discharge
◦ Sweep nozzle starting
near edge of fire
◦ Check that fire is out
◦ Back away from fire area
OPERATION OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS
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Corroded or damaged shells
Obstructed hoses, horn or nozzles
Illegible labels and instructions
Depleted or incorrect stored pressure
Unit not completely full
Damaged nozzles, hose and fittings
Tampering of lock pins and tamper seals
Inspection tag out of date
Leaking hoses, gaskets, nozzles and loose
labels
COMMON DEFECTS

Class A 2-5.6.1 Class A Fire (pump tank)
◦
◦
◦
◦
Checks to see if extinguisher is full
Carries to fire from windward side, if possible
Unfolds and steps on foot pad
Pumps with one hand and directs stream with
other hand
◦ Sweeps nozzle over entire area
◦ Moves in and completes extinguishment
EXTINGUISHING FIRES WITH
EXTINGUISHERS

Class B and C (Carbon dioxide) For Class C
fires, turn off energized electrical
equipment
◦ Selects appropriate extinguisher
◦ Pulls pin
◦ Points nozzle in safe direction and discharges to
ensure proper operation
◦ Carries extinguisher to fire from windward side, if
possible
◦ Aims nozzle toward fire
◦ Squeezes carrying handle
◦ Sweeps at base of fire
◦ Checks fire is out
◦ Backs away from fire
EXTINGUISHING FIRES WITH
EXTINGUISHERS
HOMEWORK
1.____
2.____
a. Stored-pressure water
c. AFFF
3.____
4.____
b. Dry chemical (stored-pressure)
d. Dry chemical (cartridge-operated)
HOMEWORK
5.____
6.____
a. Pump-tank water
c. Backpack pump-tank water
7.____
8.____
b. Halon
d. Carbon dioxide
HOMEWORK
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___ 13. If the capacity of a Class 1-A extinguisher is 1.25
gallons of water, what is the capacity of an extinguisher rated
15-A?
a. 12 gallons
b. 19 gallons c. 15 gallons d. 14 gallons
___ 14. Firefighter A says that Class D agents cannot be given
a multipurpose rating to be used on other classes of fires.
Firefighter B says that no numerical rating is applied to Class
D extinguishers.
Who is right?
a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
___15. A multipurpose extinguisher rated 4-A, 20-B:C should
extinguish a Class A fire that is ___ times larger than a 1-A
fire.
a. 2 b. 4 c. 6 d. 8
___ 16. What capacity Class B fire should the extinguisher in
Question “g” be capable of extinguishing?
a. 20 times as much as a 1-B extinguisher
b. 20 times as much as a B-C extinguisher
c. 20 times as much as a Class C extinguisher
d. 20 times as much as a 4-A extinguisher
HOMEWORK
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___ 17. What size flammable liquid fire should the extinguisher in
Question “g” be able to extinguish?
a. 20 ft2 b. 4 ft2 (0.37 m2) c. 40 ft2 d. 12 ft2 (1.12 m2)
___ 18. Firefighter A says that Class C fires are essentially Class A
or Class B fires involving energized electrical equipment.
Firefighter B says that the Class C designation just confirms that
the extinguishing agent is nonconductive.
Who is right?
a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
___ 19. Which of the following is not a factor considered when
testing extinguishing agents and portable extinguishers for Class D
fires?
a. Toxicity of the agent
b. Toxicity of the fumes produced and the products of combustion
c. Reactions between the burning metal and the agent
d. Reactions between the extinguisher metal and the agent
20. Firefighter A says that an extinguisher that is not marked with
its class rating should be used only on Class A fires.
Firefighter B says that extinguishers can be rated B-C but cannot
be rated A-C.
Who is right?
a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
HOMEWORK
___ 21. Extinguishers suitable for Class C fires should be
identified by a ___ containing the
letter C.
a. Square b. Triangle c. Circle d. Star
___ 22. What water capacity is required for an
extinguisher to receive a 1-A classification?
 a. ½ gallon
b. 1¼ gallons c. 1 gallon d. 1½ gallons
___ 23. What is the number of the NFPA Standard for
Portable Fire Extinguishers?
a. 10 b. 20 c. 30
d. 40
___ 24. Which of the following classes of extinguishers
receive a numerical rating in addition to a letter
classification?
a. B and C b. C and D c. A and C d. A and B
HOMEWORK
___ 25. Firefighter A says that when an extinguishing
agent is determined to be safe and effective for use on
combustible metal, it is assigned a Star 1 – 5 rating.
 Firefighter B says that no numerical rating is given to
Class D extinguishers.
 Who is right?

a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
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___ 26. Upon what are Class B ratings based?
a. The approximate square-foot area of a flammable liquid fire
that a non expert can extinguish
B. The amount of extinguishing agent and duration and range
of discharge used in extinguishing test fires
c. The conductivity of the extinguishing agent
d. The area of the fire and the type and flammability of the
fuel
HOMEWORK
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Match extinguisher symbol shapes to fire classification
letters. Write the correct letters on the blanks.
a.
A
b.
B
c.
C
d.
D

_____ 27.
_____ 29.
_____ 28.
_____ 30.

HOMEWORK

Match extinguisher pictographs to the extinguisher's
intended applications. Write
the correct letters in the blanks.
a.
 b.
 c.
d.
e.
ab.
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_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
Class A and Class B fires but not Class C
Flammable liquids
Class B and Class C fires but not Class A
Ordinary combustibles
Class A fires but not Class B and Class C
Electrical equipment
HOMEWORK
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Select facts about fire extinguisher inspection, damage, and
obsolescence. Write the correct letters in the blanks.
___ 37. Firefighter A says that fire inspectors should include
extinguisher inspections in their building inspection and preincident planning programs.
Firefighter B says that the servicing of portable fire
extinguishers is the responsibility of the property owner or
building occupant.
Who is right?
a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
___ 38. Which organization/standard requires and explains
the procedures for hydrostatic testing of extinguisher
cylinders?
a. OSHA 29 CFR 1910.157
c. IFSTA 1982
b. HAZWOPPER 10.19
d. NFPA 10
___ 39. Firefighter A says that hydrostatic test results must
be recorded on the extinguisher cylinder.
Firefighter B says that hydrostatic test results on high- and
low-pressure extinguishers are recorded differently.
Who is right?
a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B
HOMEWORK
___ 40. Firefighter A says that damaged shells or
cylinders should be discarded or returned to the
manufacturer for repair or replacement.
 Firefighter B says that if an extinguisher shows only
slight damage or corrosion, it should be given a
hydrostatic test by the manufacturer or a qualified
testing agency.
 Who is right?
 a. Firefighter A
b. Firefighter B
c. Both A and B
d. Neither A nor B
___ 41.
Which of the following is not a method of
determining whether an extinguisher is full and
pressurized?
 a. Check the pressure gauge.
b. Inspect the agent level.
 c. Weigh the extinguisher.
d. Briefly squeeze the
handle.
___ 42.
What is not a reason for removing an
extinguisher from service?
 a. Out-of-date inspection tag
b. Two or more years old
 c. Deficient in weight by 10 percent
 d. Illegible operating instructions on nameplate
HOMEWORK
___ 43. When did American manufacturers stop making
inverting type fire extinguishers?
 a. 1982
b. 1980
c. 1976
d. 1969
____ 44. Which of the following types of fire
extinguishers is obsolete?
 a. Internal cartridge-operated water
b. Sodium chloride
 c. Carbon dioxide
d. Stored-pressure dry chemical
___ 45. If an occupant asks firefighters to dispose of an
extinguisher, what should they do?
 a. Dispose of the extinguisher in accordance with department
policies and procedures.
 b. Refer the occupant to the local factory-authorized
extinguisher disposal location.
 c. Explain that it is the occupant’s legal responsibility to
dispose of the extinguisher.
 d. Instruct the occupant to return the extinguisher to its
manufacturer
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