SUBORDINATE CLAUSE • Is an add-on to a sentence that already exists • Has extra information that relates to the main sentence • Creates a NEW INFO + KNOWN INFO situation • KNOWN = main sentence; NEW = subordinate clause NEW AND KNOWN ORDER • Order is important and has punctuation rules • 1. KNOWN INFO followed by NEW INFO needs no punctuation. This is the usual way we write. • Ex: My brother actually drove the family car for about a block when he was four years old. • 2. NEW INFO introducing KNOWN info must have a comma at the end of the NEW INFO. • Ex: When he was only four years old, my brother actually drove the family car about a block. WHY MOVE/CHANGE THE ORDER? • To create tension and make the reader wait for the key idea. • To create a transition from previous sentence or paragraph • To make the reader notice. If you interrupt the usual order, the change adds stress and details to the idea you want to reinforce. • What is the impact on the subject brother when you move the subordinate clause? AWUBIS PHRASES A sentence opener or closer (dependent clause) beginning with an AWUBIS word (subordinating conjunction). An AWUBIS phrase is NOT a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. It must always be paired with a real sentence (complete thought) and will add more details to the original sentence. MEET AWUBIS KEY Catch phrase Letter A W U After Although As (just) as When Whenever Where Unless Until As if As long as As soon as As though Whereas Wherever While KEY letter Catch Phrase B Because Before I If If only S Since So So that in case in order to/that THE WHEN AND WHY OF AWUBIS Time: Concession: When, whenever, after, as, before, once, since, till, until, now that, while, as long as, as soon as Contingency: Though, although, even though, is, while Condition: If, once Reason: If, in case, as long as, unless, provided that, because, since as long as Result: So, so that Comparison: As, just as, as if Contrast: While, whereas AWUBIS IN ACTION Complex sentence: After I finish my homework, I plan to spend the evening relaxing. Complex/compound sentence: Because I stayed up so late, I’m extremely tired this morning, and I feel grumpy. PUNCTUATING AWUBIS When AWUBIS is a sentence opener, use comma after the dependent clause. Ex: Because I stayed up so late, I’m extremely tired this morning, and I feel grumpy. You will not usually need a comma when the AWUBIS follows the main sentence. Ex: I’m extremely tired this morning because I stayed up so late last night.