### Adding constants to random variables, multiplying random variables

```Arithmetic of random
variables:
variables, multiplying
random variables by
random variables together
AP Statistics B
pp. 373-74
1
Pp. 373-74 are just plain hard
• I don’t like the way they are written
• They give you the conclusion, but don’t
give you a sense of WHY the rule is
what it is
• This lecture gives you the derivation of
the rules
• You do not have to memorize the
derivations, but if you understand
them, you will understand why the
rules are what they are
2
Outline for lecture
• 3 basic ideas:
– Adding a constant to a random variable (X+c)
– Multiplying a random variable by a constant (aX)
– Adding two random variables together (X+Y)
• Being able to add two random variables is
extremely important for the rest of the
course, so you need to know the rules
• Once you can apply the rules for μX+Y and
σX+Y, we will reintroduce the normal model
and add normal random variables together
(go z-tables!)
3
Remember!
• It may be useful to take notes, but this
PowerPoint with the narration will be
posted on the Garfield web site.
• So will a version that does not have
narration if you want a smaller file.
• Different learning: classes like this that
make the lectures available on line
require different skills than classes
where your notes are all you have.
4
Beginning concepts
• Let’s look at the algebra behind adding,
subtracting, and multiplying/dividing
random variables.
• Here, we will only examine addition and
multiplication
– Subtraction is simply adding the negative of the
– Division is simply multiplying by the reciprocal of the
divisor
5
Adding a constant to a random
variable
• The first thing we’ll try is adding a
constant c to a random variable.
• We will first calculate the mean, and
then look at the variance
• Remember that given the variance,
we can always take its square root
and obtain the standard deviation.
6
• E(X+c)=E(X)+c, where c=some real
number
For the next slides, we’re going to be
expanding the series being summed,
and then regrouping the variables
and simplifying.
7
Expanding the series
• Let’s expand without the sigma
algebra neater.
8
Rewriting the equation
• We can rewrite this as a series of
individual fractions, since
• Thus,
9
Regrouping the equation
• Now, collect like terms:
• Note that c/n in parenthesis appears n
times
• Now, rewrite this as a sum:
10
Var(X+c)
• Var(X+c)=VarX.
variation (VarX):
• If we have add a constant c on to
random variable X, we have Xi+c
replacing Xi
• Remember, the new mean is μX+c.
11
Substitute and rewrite the
equation
• So we substitute Xi-c for Xi, and μX+c
for μX, to get:
• Let’s again deal only with the
numerator and expand the square:
12
Quite a mess, right?
• Look at this:
• You wanna simplify THAT?????
• So let’s simplify it by NOT expanding
the square.
• Instead, what is (Xi+c)-(μX+c) equal
to BEFORE we square it?
13
Simple, simple, simple
• Distribute the subtraction operator
over μX+c, and we should get:
Xi+c-μX-c=Xi-μX
• If we substitute Xi-μX into the
numerator, we get our original
definition of variation, i.e.,
14
deviation?
• The fact that the VARIANCE does not
change means the STANDARD DEVIATION
does not change, either.
• How come? Remember that
• Since VAR does not change, the standard
deviation also does not change when a
constant is added to the random variable
15
What have we proven so far?
• We have looked at the effect of
adding a constant to a random
variable X, i.e., using X+c
• We have 3 conclusions for X+c:
μX+c=μX+c
σX+c=σX
Var(X+c)=Var(X)
16
Multiplying a random variable
by a constant
• Now let’s see what happens when we
MULTIPLY the random variable X by
some constant a
• Let’s look at the mean first: μaX.
• We will substitute aX for X in the
definition of the mean:
17
Expand and analyze
• Again, let’s expand the Xi terms
without the sigma:
18
Variance when the random
variable is multiplied
• Seeing what happens with the
variance upon multiplication is
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standard deviation?
• This derivation also explains why,
when we multiply a random variable
by a, the standard deviation is a
multiple a of the standard deviation
of the random variable.
• Recall the definition of the standard
deviation:
20
Standard deviation: substitute
and solve
• Substitute “aX” for X, and we get
21
Recap of conclusion for aX
(multiplying the random
variable by a constant
• Once again, three conclusions:
22
random variables together
• Let’s substitute in X+Y into our
formulae to find out how they
change
– (Remember that X-Y can be recast as an addition
problem X+(-Y), so we do not need a separate
derivation for X-Y)
23
Calculating the mean when
definition of the mean, except that
we substitute “X+Y” for X:
• Once again, calculating the mean is
easy peasy.
24
Calculating the variance
• The variance, of course, will be
harder and messier. In fact, the
derivation is so bad that you’ll have
to accept this one on faith:
Var(X±Y)=Var(X)+Var(Y)
25
deviations?
• First, let’s derive them from the Var
formula
• Since
• Therefore:
,
26