Brown Paper

Report
Brown Paper
Process Mapping
Gemini Skills Workshop
July 1998
Outline of Session
• Purpose of a Brown Paper
• Elements of a Brown Paper
• Building a Brown Paper
• Appendix
– What to include
– Practical hints
– Preparing for presenting at a Brown Paper Fair
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PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER
The Brown Paper helps identify and gain support for
Opportunities
The Brown Paper...
...describes the process as it works today from start to end
...may be used to describe the process as it should be
...shows the big picture
...is high touch, low-tech
...identifies strengths and opportunities
...captures the complexity and disconnects of operational issues
...quantifies elements of timing, volume, resource requirement
...develops enthusiasm and ownership of issues
...builds project momentum
...is self-explanatory
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PURPOSE OF A BROWN PAPER
Why Do We Use Brown Papers?
. . . and the Client
For Gemini...
The Brown Paper map . . .
The Gemini Team . . .
• . . . often has limited time to gather
information
• . . . understands the “generic
process”, but not the process
specific to the client
• . . . has hypotheses of potential
opportunities - based on limited data
and past experience, which need to
be tested
• . . . needs to surface the politics
and emotions involved in the current
situation
• . . . describes the process as they
use it today and identifying who
gets involved, how, and where
• . . . identifies strengths and
opportunities as they see them
• . . . provides the basis for further
data gathering / studies
• . . . helps to mobilise the client and
allows them to focus on the
opportunities without blame
The technique is superb at breaking down hierarchical boundaries and
developing broad client ownership
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER
What Does a Brown Paper Process Map Look Like?
Title
Brown Paper
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Red Flags
Summary
Task
Strength
Link to Another
Live
Highlighting
of
(Typically
Process
Sign-in
Documents
Key Opportunities
Green)
Sheet
Summary Strengths
Decision
of
Opportunity
Clarification
Opportunities
(Typically
(Typically
Pink)
Yellow)
But for every standard there are exceptions — check what’s preferred by the
client or the project manager!
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER
Use the following symbols for activity, decision and
link to another process
•
•
•
Task
Describes activity/task performed
Starts with an action verb
Use few words (less than 5)
– e.g. “Receive order”, “Dispatch sales person”, “Give feedback to
customer” etc.
•
Include organisation unit/person who does the task today
– Both official and daily life names
Yes
xx%
•
Describe decision as a yes/no question
– e.g. “Fault found in local loop?”, “Found OK?”etc
– Write English translation in brackets underneath
“Question”
•
Quantify outcome (volume, percentage)
•
•
Link to another process flow outside this Brown Paper
Describe required input/output
No
xx%
“Process
Name”
• Comments
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER
Use the following symbols for comments and to flag an
opportunity
Comment
•
•
Comment on activity, process flow etc.
Include valuable information, e.g:
–
–
–
–
man-years used for activity
number of iterations (rework)
dwell times
etc.
Flag an
Opportunity
“#”
Name of
IT system
•
•
Highlights an opportunity to improve
Number flag to reference it
•
•
Shows that an information system is involved
Include valuable information, e.g:
–
–
–
–
name of systems
responsible persons
link to other IT support system s
etc.
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER
Connect activities with lines and arrows
• Standard activity connection with flow direction
• Indicates that flow lines cross each other
• Indicates telephone or other electronic
transmission
Draw the lines on the brown paper itself - first with a pencil (draft), then with
a thick black pen
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER
Placement of Panels on Brown Paper
To the far left: introduction to the
BP, who made the BP and sign in
sheet.
To the far right: summary of
findings, strengths and
opportunities
PANELS ATTACHED TO BROWN PAPER
BRO WN PAPER STANDARDS
Findings
Process Name
Start point:
End Point:
Finding one
Assumptions:
Created By:
Organisation/ Unit:
Findings
Finding two
Phone:
Fin…
(Flagged)
…
etc.
Location:
Date:
PROSJEKT ‘98
19:09
20-10-94
PROSJEKT ‘ 98
- 34 -
Tools - (042) Brown Paper Standards
4: 31 am
19/ 10/ 94
T o o ls
-
( 042)
Br o w n
Pa p e r
St a n d a r d s
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PANELS ATTACHED TO BROWN PAPER
BRO WN PAPER STANDARDS
Strengths
What is a Brown Paper?
• Strength one
Brown Papers are used to illustrate process flows in a
high - touch, low - tech way. By incorporating the views
of a broad cross-section of employees who participate
or are affected by the processes, Brown Papers provide
insights into strengths and opportunities, and highlight
focus areas for improvement
• Strength two
• Str…
YOUR PARTICIPATION
Please add your
•
•
•
Red
Green
Yellow
• …
Highlights an opportunity to improve
Highlights a strength to be preserved
Comments on process flow
• etc.
Please sign the list below when you have gone through the Brown Paper
THANKS FOR YOUR HELP!
PROSJEKT ‘98
19:12
20-10-94
Tools - (042) Brown Paper Standards
Strengths
PROSJEKT ‘ 98
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4: 31 am
19/ 10/ 94
T o o ls
-
( 042)
Br o w n
Pa p e r
St a n d a r d s
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BRO WN PAPER STANDARDS
Opportunities
• Opportunity one
• Opps two
• Opp…
• …
• etc.
PROSJEKT ‘ 98
4: 31 am
19/ 10/ 94
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BP process v3.ppt
T o o ls
-
( 042)
Br o w n
Pa p e r
St a n d a r d s
- 15 -
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ELEMENTS OF A BROWN PAPER
Use different coloured “Post-it” notes for comments
Red
Green
Yellow
• To point out an area of improvement
• To point out a strength
• To comment on process flow
– e.g. disagreement with the way the process has been
mapped
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BP process v3.ppt
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BUILDING A BROWN PAPER
The “Brown Paper process” includes more than the
actual mapping of the process flow
Plan
Prepare
• Hypothesize
about todays
process
• Think about
what
information
you need to
validate
hypothesis
Do
Logistics
Build
• Invite the
• Map the “As
“right” people
Is” process
to build the
flow
process flow
• Gather as
• Logistics
much
information
around the
process as
possible
Review
Review
• Invite people
to give
comments to
the Brown
Paper
• Validate the
Brown Paper
with staff and
management
Analyse
• Analyse for
root causes
• Try to
understand
costs, cost
drivers and
key
performance
indicators
• Arrange
Brown Paper
Fairs
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BUILDING A BROWN PAPER
How do I start?
Prepare
• Be clear about the objective and scope
• Hypotheses about the process today
– and about benefits, opportunities, data
• Create a draft of the process
• Decide appropriate level of detail
– given the potential opportunities and time constraints
Set-Up Logistics
• People to make it (owner, credible experts & users, facilitator/helper)
• Prepare materials (cut/taped brown paper, post-it’s, icons)
• Location (wall space, strong wall-paper)
• Time contract
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BUILDING A BROWN PAPER
How do I create a Brown Paper?
Build the Brown Paper
• Reiterate objectives and expectations
• Clarify scope - start and end points, interfaces
• Provide some guidance on level of detail
• “Just-do-it” — it’s easy to course correct, but it’s painful to procrastinate
• Identify where you need further details and arrange next steps to get them
• Capture strengths and opportunities as you progress
• Ask the participants at the end what they think the key opportunities
and concerns are
• Allow time for client to air complaints and frustrations
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BUILDING A BROWN PAPER
What do I do next?
Review
• Follow-up next steps
• Smarten up the paper as necessary
• Capture/review builds from review group(s)
• Highlight and validate key strengths and weaknesses
Analyse
• Design necessary in-depth studies
• Identify “Early Wins”
• Identify root causes
• Look at the process from a customers point of view
• Use the BP as a starting point to understand costs, cost drivers and key
performance indicators
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BP process v3.ppt
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Appendix
– What to include
– Practical hints
– Preparing for a Brown Paper Fair
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BP process v3.ppt
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WHAT TO INCLUDE
The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a
comprehensive evaluation of the process
• Person/function carrying out each activity (who does what)
• How many people involved
• How much time is spent in the process/activity (man years used)
• Volumes, Values of flows
• Backlogs
• Touch times
• Time in system
– elapsed time, cycle time
• Dwell times & reasons
– e.g. “rest” time on a desk before being processed
• Errors
– how often
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WHAT TO INCLUDE
The Brown Papers should include facts to enable a
comprehensive evaluation of the process (cont.)
(Cont:)
• Rework - Nº of iterations
• Checking
– when, by whom, how much time, why
• Approval points & funding gates
• Authority level needed to take decision, sign document etc.
• Interface traffic & hand offs
– mail, telephone, office system, E-mail etc.
• Input/output that are required
• Duplication of work at boundaries
• Information about the IT systems used in the process
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WHAT TO INCLUDE
Get as much written information around the process as
possible
• Attach copies of actual documentation used, e.g. forms
• Obtain copies of all working documents
• Get documents/reports describing process
• Get information on past and present initiatives that address the
process
– Project Plan
– Names, org. unit and phone numbers of key persons involved in the initiative
– Preliminary reports etc.
• IT systems supporting the process should be clearly shown on the
Brown Paper
– indicate along the process where the different IT systems are used (e.g. use different icons for
different systems)
– have a separate section on the Brown Paper describing the different IT systems
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PRACTICAL HINTS
Some practical hints
• Have complete supply kit
– Keep a spare set of icons - you never have enough
• Strengthen the edges of the Brown Paper with tape
• Use yellow or white “Post-it” notes first for each activity/task before
rewriting them on white rectangles
• Make sure hand-written text is easy for others to read
• Draw connections with a soft pencil first, to enable adjustments
• Initially attach papers in a way that they are easy to move around
– Don´t glue down any papers until the Brown Paper has been reviewed
• Make sure you use glue that will last
• Tape “post-its” on with small tape
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BP process v3.ppt
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PRACTICAL HINTS
Some process hints
• Prepare a rough draft (high level flow)
– Based on preliminary discussions and knowledge on a separate sheet and integrate with
content experts
• Clearly define the start and stop points in the process
• Manage the scope
– Do not try to depict a lengthy/complex process Flow in a single session
• Clear objectives
• Get “creators” to do the work while joint team member “facilitates”
– When they get involved they will really feel ownership for the outcome
• Focus on what really happens - not what is supposed to happen
• Keep participants focused on the “As Is” - not the “To Be”
• To maintain continuity try to have a team of people that can be there
for the whole session when constructing the Brown Paper
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PRACTICAL HINTS
Some process hints (cont.)
• Continue probing, what else?, what happens next?, how often?
• Keep them moving; don´t let them deliberate too much (maintain
focus)
• Remember the 80:20 rule when driving the detail
• Integrate “presenting back” what is on paper
– This helps clarify the process and facilitates knowledge transfer
• Never leave the Brown Paper to be done by people who do not have
the proper training
• Always ask: who else should see this, or who else is involved in the
process?
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PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR
How Do I Prepare for a Brown/White Paper Fair
1. Schedule Time(s)
– There will never be a perfect time - be
brave and pick one - with interest, people
will make time
– May need a few events e.g. night shifts;
different sites/offices; management &/or
others
3. Communicate Expectations
& Promote the Event
– Use all available methods of communication
(meeting cascade, E-mail, 1-2-1’s)
– If necessary create concern / intrigue to
ensure participation
– Pre-position key clients to be there
and be interested
– Discuss behavioural norms
2. Plan the Logistics
– Client owner / champion - at /near ‘the top’
– Coordinator with time and
accountability(client & Gemini involvement
needed)
– Agenda
– Room & layout
– Appropriate running order of the papers
– Extraordinary needs - popcorn in America,
Oompah bands in Europe!
– Launch / instructions by a (client) leader
– Hand-out for guidance and to collect
feedback
4. Prepare the Papers
– . . . And prepare the people to ‘man’ them
– Too perfect and people won’t want to
criticise
5. Do It
– Welcome and ‘sign-in’ at entrance
– Keep the atmosphere up beat
– Role-model listening and post-it issues
capture, and coach people to do it
6. Follow-up
– Expect, plan for, and fulfill/manage the
expectations that are generated
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PREPARE FOR A BROWN PAPER FAIR
How do I Present the Brown Paper?
• Define the work process flow:
– Purpose of the flow
– Legend describing brown paper icons
• Describe the client involvement:
– Participation from people in various functions
• Describe the process analyzed:
– Identify the process
– Describe the beginning and end point of the process
– Describe major blocks of activity in the process
• Describe activities and decisions
– Capture vital details (ratio, # of times, etc.)
– Understand decision dynamics
• Made alone/group
• Importance/frequency
• Individuals involved
• Describe overall strengths and opportunities:
– Key comments and anecdotes made by client participants
– Solicit input from the audience
– Summarize strengths and opportunities
Presentation of the process can be anywhere from five minutes to one hour
depending on the objectives of the presentation.
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