Review B-RTI_SFUSD Premier_Sept 2014

Report
Review of Key Practices
of Behavioral RTI
Clayton R. Cook, PhD, LP
School Mental Health Assessment, Research,
and Training (SMART) Center
College of Education
University of Washington, Seattle
Ingredients to Promoting Student Social,
Emotional, and Academic Success
2
Ingredients to Promoting Student Social,
Emotional, and Academic Success
 Establish positive relationships so all students feel
sense of trust, connection, and belonging to school
 Create a positive and structured environment
 Teach students skills to manage stress/emotions,
have a sense of purpose in life, and get along well with
others
 Make sure all students receive the supports they
need to be successful (needs-driven model)
3
NEEDS-DRIVEN MODEL
Targeted/
Intensive
(High-risk students)
Individual Interventions
(3-5%)
Tier 3 Menu of Individual Supports for a FEW:
• FBA-based Behavior Intervention Plan
• Replacement Behavior Training
• Cognitive Behavior Therapy
• Home and Community Supports
Selected
(SOME At-risk Students)
Small Group &
Individual Strategies
Tier 2 Menu of Default Supports for SOME:
•Behavioral contracting
•Self monitoring
•School-home note
•Mentor-based program
•Class pass intervention
•Positive peer reporting
(10-25% of students)
Universal
(All Students)
School/classwide, Culturally Relevant
Systems of Support
(75-90% of students)
Tier I Menu of Supports for ALL:
• + relationships w/ ALL
• School-wide PBIS
• SEL curriculum
• Progressive system of
responding to pb. beh.
• 16 proactive classroom
management strategies
Positive Relationships are Necessary to be
an Effective Educator
 Strong teacher-student
relationships is necessary
condition to help students
optimize their learning and
behavior:

Greater motivation

Higher rates of student engagement

Increased cooperation and
compliance

Lower rates of problem behavior
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Strategically Establishing,
Maintaining, and Restoring
Positive Relationships
with ALL Students:
Relationships are a precondition to
being effective with this population.
Most work to establish and maintain
relationships with all students.
Strategically and intentionally ESTABLISHING
positive relationships with ALL students
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 Basics of building a relationship (trust,
understanding, & connection):

Spending individual ‘child time’


Child guided activity, open-ended question, validation/empathy, and
reflective listening
Gather, review, and remember to reference important
information about a student

Special occasions, pets, family members, hobbies, likes/dislikes

Positive greetings

Become an expert about what the kid culture (what it
means to be a kid these days)
MAINTAINING the Relationship:
Not Taken Students for Granted
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 The 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative
interactions with students (the “Magic
Ratio”)

Paying attention to behavior to positively Positive
interactions consist of words, gestures (thumbs
up), or physical contact (pat on the shoulder, high
five) that have a positive quality to them and are
delivered in response to desirable behavior
 Positive notes home
 Second-hand compliments
5:1
Gets the
job done!!!
RESTORING & Repairing the Relationship
After Harm has Been Done
R3 Reconnect, Repair, & Restore:

Schedule time to reconnect with the student

Communicate effectively to repair
Letting go of the previous interaction -‘do-over’(fresh start)
 Ownership for the problem (admitting one’s own mistake)
 Statement indicating care for the student
 Forgive the student and/or ask for forgiveness

 Work to restore the relationship with student
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Steps to Implementing EMR Procedure
What specific practices will all staff engage in with each student to establish a relationship with each
student


Individual ‘child time’ with each student

Gathering information to reference about students in the context



Sentence completion forms
Surveys completed by parents about interests, pets, family,
Home visitations
What specific practices will staff implement during the maintenance phase to sustain the quality of the
relationship


5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative interactions

Positive greetings at the door

Random, special activities with each student that occur periodically
What specific methods will staff use intentionally to reconnect, repair, and restore when harm has
occurred to the relationship


Meet with the student privately

Engage in effective communication




Take ownership for the situation
Apologize
Discuss how you will let the previous incident go
Tell the student you care for them and know they can be successful
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All Humans Thrive within Positive Environments—Climate
Critical
Attention to negative
Reactive, punitive
Rejecting students
Unstructured
Can’t you do better
“You’re not doing it right!”
“You better or else!”
Compassionate
Attention to positive
Proactive, supportive
Structured, organized
Encouraging
“You’re doing great!”
“You’re a great kid!”
School-wide PBIS:
Teaching, Modeling, Cueing and
Reinforcing Common
Behavioral Expectations to
Create Positive School Culture
& Climate
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Don’t smile until Christmas!
It’s not my job to teach and
manage his behavior
13
School-Wide PBS:
Step 1: Establish Common Expectations
 Establish 3 to 5 behavioral
expectations (e.g., safe, respect,
responsible)
Teachable
Positively stated (Dos not
Don’ts)
Memorable

14
School-Wide PBS:
Step 2: Create a Behavioral Expectation by
Setting Matrix
15
School-Wide PBIS:
Teach, model, cue, and reinforce
behavioral expectations
 Teaching expectations on a regular
basis in all settings (small group,
recess, lunch, etc.)
 Model (i.e., show) examples and
non-examples of behavioral
expectations

Showing students what to do and
what not to do
 Practice and feedback (i.e., role
play)

Create situations and allow students to
practice the behavioral expectations
16
School-Wide PBS:
Teach, model, cue, and reinforce behavioral
expectations
 Cue expectations by providing visual signals or nonverbal
prompts

Everyone can benefit from a prompt or a cue now and then to remind
them of the expected behavior

Helps bring the expectations to the forefront of the students mind during
a particular activity
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Class-Wide PBS:
Teach, model, cue, and reinforce
behavioral expectations
 Reinforcement of students when
they exhibit behavioral expectations
(catch students behaving good)
Praise & positive recognition
 Earn rewards (stickers, pencils, toys)
 Privileges (first in line, extra free time, class
helper, preferred seat, etc.)
 Obtain currency that can be exchanged for
desirable experiences

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Steps to Implementing PBIS
Identify 3 to 5 behavioral expectations (positively stated, teachable behaviors that fall
under each behavioral expectation, and memorable by students)


For example, Safe, Respectful and Responsible
Develop a schedule for teaching and reviewing the behavioral expectation


Assembly to teach the expectations to all students, quarterly rotational teaching, and
weekly/monthly classroom teaching of expectations
Creating an effective cueing system


Develop posters, identify signals that prompt students

Staff model the expected behaviors for the students

Pay close attention to students exhibiting the behavioral expectations and reinforce
them for doing so


Specific contingent praise

Delivery of class-based currency
Integrate into the points and levels system
 Points become the currency to reinforce the desired behavior
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20
#5
Proactive Classroom
Management Strategies:
A host of proactive strategies
that teachers can implement to
prevent the occurrence of
problem behaviors and create a
classroom environment that is
conducive to learning
16 Proactive Classroom
Management Strategies
Relationship Strategies
1. Strategically and intentionally
establishing positive
relationships with all students in
the class
2. 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative
interactions (Magic ratio)
3. Smiling and being nice
4. Positive greetings at the door to
precorrect and establish a
positive climate
5. Communicating competently w/
students
Procedural Strategies
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Organizing a productive classroom
Providing numerous opportunities to respond
Classroom rules/expectations and procedures
are visible and known by every student
Teach, model, and reinforce social-emotional
skills
Transitions are managed well
Independent seatwork is managed and used
when needed
Teacher proximity and mobility
Motivation system to reward desirable behavior
Goal setting and performance feedback
Visual schedule of classroom activities
Effective cuing systems to release and regain
attention
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Steps to Implementing PCM
 Identify approximately 5 to 7 school-wide non-negotiable

(1) Opportunities to respond, (2) positive greetings at the door, (3) cueing system
to gain attention from students, (4) smiling/being nice, (5) 5 to 1 ratio of positive
to negative, (6) motivation system to reward, and (7) organizing a productive
classroom
 Have teachers create a proactive classroom management plan that
articulates how they will implement these strategies
 Pair teachers together and have them perform observations on one
another to look for the implementation of the PCM

Hold a feedback session once completed
 PLC discussion regarding proactive versus reactive classroom
management

Structured discussion exchanging ideas about how to implement evidence-based
PCM strategies
 Administrative walk-throughs to reinforce teachers who are doing well
and coach teachers who need assistance
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Progressive Method of
Responding to Problem
Behavior:
Method of systematically
responding to problem behavior
that corrects behavior yet
preserves relationship with the
child
The Foundation:
• Strong Positive Relationships
• Proactive Classroom Management
• Communicating effectively
• Cultural Competence
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Progressive Response
Proximity control
Redirection strategy
Ongoing Monitoring
Prompt expected behavior
Teaching interaction
#1 warning of consequence with “Think Time’
#2 delivery in-class disciplinary consequence
#3 request for officel support process
Reconnect,
Repair, &
Restore
Relationship
7 STEP TEACHING
INTERACTION
1.
Empathy statement

2.
“Seems like you’re bored out of your mind. I’d hate to feel that way. Here’s the deal…”
Label the inappropriate behavior

3.
“Right now you are talking out loud and distracting other students.”
Describe the appropriate alternative behavior

4.
“Instead of talking out loud, you should be working quietly on the assigned work.”
Provide a rationale for appropriate behavior

5.
“When you work quietly on your work, you and the other students can get your work done,
which will help you get a better grade.”
Check for understanding

6.
“Do you understand what you are supposed to do.”
Deliver consequence

7.
“Because you needed a few reminders to work quietly, you do not get to have lunch on your
own.”
Deliver feedback or praise

“Since you accepted your consequence without arguing or getting upset, you only have to
spend half of your lunch with the supervisor.”
Social Emotional Learning
 Curriculum devoted to teach children and adolescents how to be
engaged life-long learners who are self-aware, emotionally in
control, caring and connected to others, and responsible in their
decision-making
 SEL skills taught include:
• Recognize and manage emotions
• Care about and respect others
• Develop positive relationships
• Make good decisions
• Develop optimistic thinking
• Future orientation
MENU of Evidencebased Supports
Targeted/
Intensive
(High-risk students)
Individual Interventions
(3-5%)
Selected
(At-risk Students)
Small Group or
Individual Strategies
(10-25% of students)
Universal
(All Students)
School/classwide, Culturally Relevant
Systems of Support
(75-90% of students)
Tier 2 Menu:
•Behavioral contract
•Self monitoring
•School-home note
•Mentor-based program
•Class Pass Intervention
•Small group social-emotional skiills
AIM2
Tier 2 Process from Beginning to End
 Assess to select intervention & establish
baseline
 Implement intervention with fidelity
 Monitor progress and fidelity
 Meet to review and make a data-based decision
Assess to Select the Intervention
Student Intervention Matching Form
Assess to Establish Baseline
Selecting the Progress Monitoring Tool
 Existing data behavioral data (class removals, office
referral, suspension, attendance record, etc.)
 Direct behavior rating
 Point sheet
 Brief behavior rating scale
Implementation the Intervention
Active Ingredients
 Just like a good cooking recipe, Tier 2
interventions involve certain ingredients that must
be present in order to achieve successful behavior
change
Monitor Progress and Fidelity
1. Gather data on a weekly basis and input it into a
data management system
2. Collect data for at-least 4 weeks and a minimum
of 3 to 4 data points while the intervention was
implemented
3. Prepare graph of the data for the next step to
enable a data-based decision
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Meet to Make a Data-based
Decision
Increase Fidelity of
Implementation
Maintain Current
Supports
(the intervention is not broken so don’t fix it)
Modify Current Supports
(intervention isn’t working so modify or alter
intervention within current tier)
Intensify Supports or
Bump Up
(student was non-responsive to intervention
and modifications were unsuccessful)
Lessen Supports or
Lower Down
(student responded well to the intervention
and has sustained the progress)
Thank You!
Feel free to email me:
Clayton R. Cook
[email protected]
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