est insula. Italia

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Lesson I
Roma et Italia
aqua, aquae
(feminine)
water
īnsula, īnsulae
(feminine)
island
silva, silvae
(feminine)
forest, woods
via, viae
(feminine)
road, way, street
est
is
sunt
are
nōn
not
et
and
sed
but
Roma est in Italia. Italia est in Europa.
Britannia est in Europa. Britannia est insula.
Italia non est insula. Italia paene (almost)
est insula. Italia “paeninsula” est.
Sicilia et Sardinia sunt insulae. Insulae in
aqua sunt. Australia insula est, sed Asia non
est insula.
Sunt viae et silvae in paeninsula Italiae.
Viae et silvae et paeninsulae in Europa
sunt. Italia et Graecia et Hispania
paeninsulae sunt. Roma non
in Graecia sed in Italia est. Est Graecia in
Europa?
Est aqua in Antarctica, sed non sunt
silvae in Antarctica. Silvae in Germania
sunt.
Est America insula?
Using your vocabulary words and this passage on p. 15
as a model, make up 3 additional Latin sentences.
You may also use other –a words like Florida, Bermuda,
India, Arabia, Virginia, Philadelphia, etc.
Nouns are the names of
persons
places
or
things.
Latin Nouns Have 4 Features
• Case---how a noun works in its sentence.
• Number---whether a noun is singular or
plural (singular=one, plural=more than one)
• Gender---whether a noun is masculine,
feminine, or neuter.
• Declension---each noun belongs to one of
the 5 declensions (groups of nouns that share
the same pattern of endings)
1st Declension Nouns
• 1st declension nouns end in –a in the vocabulary
list.
• Most 1st declension nouns are feminine.
• Let’s learn how to write a 1st declension noun on
its “declension chart.”
• A declension chart shows the noun in all its cases
(spellings).
• We’ll learn about how cases work later. For now,
let’s just learn how to make the declension chart.
In Latin, the endings indicate the
case of the noun.
Case
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Example:
(Endings)
Singular
Plural
a
ae
ae
am
a
insularum = plural genitive
ae
arum
is
as
is
Step 1 – Find the noun stem
The noun stem is found by dropping the genitive singular ending from the
noun.
Dictionary entry of a noun:
Puella
Nominative
singular
puellae, f.
Genitive
singular
girl
Meaning
Gender
Puellae – ae = puell
Noun Stem
Finding noun stems
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
aqua, aquae (f.)
aquinsula, insulae (f.)
insulsilva, silvae (f.)
silvvia, viae (f.)
vi-
Step 2: Add the case endings to the noun stem.
Singular
Plural
Nominative
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
Pick any 2 other nouns from your vocabulary
words and decline them on a chart like this.
aqua, aquae
(feminine)
water
īnsula, īnsulae
(feminine)
island
silva, silvae
(feminine)
forest, woods
via, viae
(feminine)
road, way, street
est
is
sunt
are
nōn
not
et
and
sed
but
Sentences: Subject and Predicate
“Sentence” comes from the Latin word
“sententia” which means “thought.”
Sentences are words grouped together to form
thoughts!
Every sentence has 2 parts: the SUBJECT and the
PREDICATE.
Italy is a peninsula. Italia paeninsula est.
The girls carry water. Puellae aquam portant.
Subjects and Predicates
• In Latin, the subject is always in the
NOMINATIVE case. (-a or –ae on the 1st
declension chart)
• Puellae aquam portant. The girls carry water.
• Italia est paeninsula. Italy is a peninsula.
Subjects and Predicates
• The nominative case is also used for
something called a PREDICATE NOMINATIVE.
• PREDICATE NOMINATIVE is a fancy term for a
noun that follows a linking verb.
• A linking verb works like an “=“ sign:
• is, are, seem…
Predicate Nominatives
•
•
•
•
•
•
John is a student.
John=student.
The teacher is Mrs. Sellers.
Teacher=Mrs. Sellers.
Brittania est insula.
A=B Britain is an island. Britain=island.
Time to practice!
• Workbook page 3 even numbers 2, 4, 6, 8, 10
aqua, aquae
(feminine)
water
īnsula, īnsulae
(feminine)
island
silva, silvae
(feminine)
forest, woods
via, viae
(feminine)
road, way, street
est
is
sunt
are
nōn
not
et
and
sed
but
Declining a noun in Latin and English!
Singular
Nominative puella (girl)
Genitive
Dative
Plural
puellae (girls)
puellae (of the girl, girl’s) puellarum (girls’,
of the girls)
puellae (to/for the girl)
puellis (to/for the
girls)
Accusative puellam (girl)
puellas (girls)
Ablative
puellis (girls)
puella (girl)
Pick any 2 other nouns from your vocabulary
words and decline them in Latin and English.
In Latin, the use of the noun is
determined by its case ending, not its
place in the sentence.
There are five cases:
• Nominative - subject and predicate
nominative
•
•
•
•
Genitive – possession
Dative - indirect object
Accusative - direct object
Ablative - the preposition

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