Authentic leadership is linked to empowerment

Report
The Influence of Authentic
Leadership and Empowerment on
New-Graduate Nurses’ Perceptions
of Interprofessional Collaboration
Heather K. Spence Laschinger, RN, PhD, FAAN, FCAHS
The University of Western Ontario
Leslie Marie Smith, MScN, RN
The University of Western Ontario
Collaborating Across Borders (CAB IV)
Vancouver, British Columbia
June 12-14, 2013
PRESENTATION OVERVIEW
 Background
 Related literature
 Authentic Leadership
 Empowerment
 Interprofessional Collaboration





Hypothesized model
Aims of the current study
Methods
Results
Conclusions
BACKGROUND
 Lack of proper communication and collaboration between healthcare workers is responsible for
a high percentage of adverse events (~70%)
 New graduate nurses require support from their leaders as they transition to their nurse role
 Empowering leadership practices play an important role in establishing work environments that
encourage greater teamwork and that empower workers to optimize their practice
 The influence of leadership and empowerment on interprofessional collaboration in healthcare
has not yet been examined
AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP
(AVOLIO ET AL., 2004))
 “…a pattern of transparent and ethical leader behaviour that
encourages openness in sharing information needed to make
decisions while accepting input from those who follow.”
(Avolio et al., 2009)
 Authentic leadership is linked to empowerment (Laschinger et al.,
2012; Zhu et al., 2004)
 Authentic leadership consists of:




Self-Awareness
Relational Transparency
Moral/Ethical Behaviour
Balanced Information Processing
AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURS
(AVOLIO ET AL., 2004)
COMPONENT
EXAMPLE BEHAVIOURS
(1) Relational Transparency
Says exactly what she/he means
Encourages others to speak-up about their
concerns
Acts in accordance with her/his stated
beliefs
Uses core values to make decisions
Seeks out opinions that challenge personal
views
Takes multiple points of view into consideration
Asks for feedback to improve interpersonal
interactions
Understands how her/his actions affect others
(2) Moral/Ethical Conduct
(3) Balanced Processing
(4) Self-Awareness
STRUCTURAL EMPOWERMENT THEORY
(KANTER 1977; 1993)
“…access to organizational structures that enable employees to accomplish their work in
meaningful ways…” (Kanter, 1979).
Kanter describes four organizational empowerment structures:



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Access to information
Access to support
Access to resources needed to do the job
Opportunities to learn and grow
Structural empowerment is linked to:


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Supportive professional practice environments (Upeneiks, 2003)
Co-worker respect (Laschinger, 2004)
Nurse-physician collaboration (Faulkner & Laschinger, 2008)
Work effectiveness (Laschinger, Wong, McMahon & Kaufmann, 1999)
INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION (IPC)
 IPC is a “collaborative practice whereby healthcare workers from different
professional backgrounds work together with patients, families, carers, and
communities, to deliver the highest quality of care” (WHO, 2010)
 IPC is viewed as critical to patient safety (Zwarrenstein & Bryant, 2000)
IPC has been linked to:
 Increased job satisfaction, decreased job turnover intent and burnout (Rafferty et al.,
2001)
 Greater trust in team members, reduced co-worker conflict and increased
knowledge sharing (Gaboury et al., 2011)
INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION (IPC)
Challenges associated with IPC (Delva et al., 2008; Kenaszchuck et al., 2010; Reeves et al.,
2009):

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Lack of understanding/valuing of members roles
Differing views on collaboration
Hierarchical imbalances
Poor communication
HYPOTHESIZED MODEL
AUTHENTIC
LEADERSHIP
+
INTERPROFESSIONAL
COLLABORATION
STRUCTURAL
EMPOWERMENT
+
AIM OF THE CURRENT STUDY
To test the relationships between leaders’ authentic leadership
practices, the degree of structural empowerment in their work
settings and new-graduate nurses’ perceptions of the quality
of IPC on their units.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS
Sample:
Data from second wave of longitudinal study: Time 2 = 194
Random sample of acute care new graduates (< 2 years)
Original sample obtained from provincial registration database
Data Collection:



Mail survey
Modified Dillman Total Design Method (2000)
Data were collected in 2010
Data Analysis:

Descriptive and Hierarchical Multiple Regression analyses using SPSS 20.0
MEASURES
• AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP
• The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) (Avolio, Gardner, & Walumbwa, 2007)
• STRUCTURAL EMPOWERMENT
• Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire (CWEQ-11) (Laschinger, 2000)
• INTERPROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION
• 6 item newly created scale based on previous research (Kenaszchuck et al., 2010; Orchard et al.,
2005)
DESCRIPTIVE RESULTS
 Moderate levels of authentic leadership and structural empowerment
 High perceptions of overall IPC on work units
TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
AUTHENTIC
LEADERSHIP
.29
INTERPROFESSIONAL
COLLABORATION
STRUCTURAL
EMPOWERMENT
•
.29
Both authentic leadership and empowerment were sig. independent predictors of IPC
Authentic leadership and empowerment explained 9-29% of the variance in 4 out of 5
components of IPC (personal belief that IPC improved patient care = ns)
CONCLUSIONS
 Both authentic leadership and empowerment are important and may be fundamental
organizational resources that positively influence new-graduate nurses’ experiences of IPC
on their units
 Authentic leaders are well positioned to ensure that new graduates are integrated into
interprofessional teams and are seen as valued contributors in the delivery of care
 Positive experiences on interprofessional teams are vitally important for new graduates’
future inclinations to collaborate
 Experiences of IPC may help ensure that patients benefit from higher quality, less
fragmented care
QUESTIONS?
([email protected])

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