Document

Report
The Origin and
Diversification
of Eukaryotes
By: Julia Lawrence, Robert
June, and Zach Beecher
Ramifications of a Flexible Cell
Surface
 As
a cell grows, The cell needs to add
surface area without adding volume. The
is achieved by Infolding. Infolding creates
more surface area without increasing the
volume of the cell.
 Having a flexible surface also helps the
exchange materials with the envirnment
rapidly enough to grow and live.
Endosymbiosis and Organelles
 Endosymbiosis
– The theory of
endosymbiosis is that some organelles
have been taken from prokaryotes by
ancient eukaryotes.
 Initially, the organelle had a function to
detoxify oxygen by reducing it to water.
Now, this organelle is the mitochondria,
which makes ATP for our bodies.
Niches of the Protista
 Most
protists are aquatic. They live in
mostly marine environments. Some are
microscopic like plankton. Some can
grow larger than a football field. (kelp)
 The two largest groups are Algae and
protozoans. Algae are photosynthetic
protists. Protozoans are heterotrophic.
Protista Locomotion and diversity



Eukaryotes have different forms of
transportation. The most common are cilia,
flagella, and the pseudopods.
The surfaces of the cells can also be different.
Some have just a membrane, but most have
a stiffer structure to maintain it’s integrity.
Another difference is the vacuoles. Some
protists use contractile vacuoles, and some
use digestive vacuoles.
Relationships Among Eukaryotes
 Eukaryotes
groups





can be divided into five
Chromalveolates
Plantae
Excavates
Rhizaria
Unikonts
Chromalveolates


Clade of photosynthetic organisms with cellulose
in all cell walls
Divided into three groups

Alveolates


Stramenopiles


Consists of Apicomplexans, Dinoflagellates and
Ciliates
Consists of Brown Algae, Diatoms and Oomycetes
Haptophytes
Plantae
A
mostly photosynthetic Clade that can be further
divided into





Glaucophytes
Red Algae
Chlorophytes
Land Plants
Charophytes
Excavates
 Contains
many varied clades, some of
which lack mitochondria.
 Major clades include:



Diplomonads and Parabasalids
Heteroloboseans
Euglenids and Kinetoplastids
Rhizaria
 Unicellular
aquatic eukaryotes
Split into:
Cercozoans
 Foraminiferans
 Radiolarians

Unikonts
A
large clade that is close to the root
of the Eukaryote tree and consists of
two groups

Opisthokonts
 Fungi,
Animals, and
Choanoflagellates

Amobozoans
 Loboseans,
Plasmodial
slime molds and Cellular
slime molds
Sources











http://myweb.dal.ca/asimpso2/euktree.jpg
http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/img/news/2012/figure_2_10_Macrocystis_py
rifera_23.jpg
http://australianmuseum.net.au/Uploads/Images/7634/s006_big.jpg
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_FeaU01D3wI/Sf6zDjkJu6I/AAAAAAAAAaU/pORIDQehxBc/s400/acetabularia_sp_U
BCBG.jpg
http://farm9.staticflickr.com/8431/7727993664_94edf2bdb9_z.jpg
http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/content/91/1/F1.medium.gif
http://www.rivertank.com/AluminumPlant.jpg
http://www.kinetoplastids.com/content/figures/1475-9292-6-4-5.jpg
http://www.thaigoodview.com/files/u19951/ia_lamblia_genome_seque
nced-50226711-giardia.jpg
http://www.examiner.com/images/blog/wysiwyg/image/naegleria2(3).j
pg
http://comenius.susqu.edu/biol/202/rhizaria/cercozoae/radiolaria/Radio
laria/pleuraspis-protozoa-guide.jpg

similar documents