The Role of Global Nuclear Detection Architecture

Report
Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO)
The Role of Global
Nuclear Detection
Architecture in the
Defense of the Homeland
May 11, 2012
Baltimore-Washington Health Physics
Society Annual Meeting
Kevin G. Hart
Lieutenant Colonel, US Army
Deputy Assistant Director, Analysis Division
The Department of Homeland Security
 In response to the attacks of September 11, the
Department of Homeland security was created by
the Homeland Security Act of 2002.
 DHS was established to coordinate the
implementation of a national strategy to protect the
U.S homeland from terrorist attacks, and to
consolidate all the executive branch elements
related to homeland security under one agency.
 DHS is responsible for:
– Guarding Against Terrorism
– Security of US Borders
– Enforcing US Immigration Laws
– Improving America’s Readiness for, Response to
and Recovery from Disasters
2
DNDO as Part of DHS
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY
SECRETARY
CHIEF OF STAFF
DEPUTY SECRETARY
UNDER SECRETARY,
MANAGEMENT
UNDER SECRETARY,
SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY
UNDER SECRETARY,
NATIONAL
PROTECTION &
PROGRAMS
UNDER SECRETARY,
POLICY
GENERAL COUNSEL
MILITARY ADVISOR
ASSISTANT SECRETARY,
LEGISLATIVE AFFAIRS
ASSISTANT
SECRETARY,
PUBLIC AFFAIRS
OFFICER,
CIVIL RIGHTS & CIVIL
LIBERTIES
CHIEF PRIVACY
OFFICER
INSPECTOR
GENERAL
CHIEF FINANCIAL
OFFICER
ASSISTANT
SECRETARY,
HEALTH AFFAIRS
UNDER SECRETARY,
INTELLIGENCE &
ANALYSIS
ASSISTANT SCRETARY,
INTERGOVERNMENTAL
AFFAIRS
ADMINISTRATOR,
TRANSPORTATION
SECURITY
ADMINISTRATION
COMMISSIONER,
U.S. CUSTOMS &
BORDER PROTECTION
DIRECTOR,
OPERATIONS
COORDINATION &
PLANNING
DIRECTOR,
DOMESTIC NUCLEAR
DETECTION OFFICE
DIRECTOR,
U.S.
CITIZENSHIP &
IMMIGRATION
SERVICES
CITIZENSHIP AND
IMMIGRATION
SERVICES
OMBUDSMAN
DIRECTOR,
COUNTERNARCOTICS
ENFORCEMENT
DIRECTOR,
FEDERAL LAW
ENFORCEMENT
TRAINING CENTER
DIRECTOR,
U.S. IMMIGRATION
AND CUSTOMS
ENFORCEMENT
DIRECTOR,
U.S. SECRET SERVICE
DIRECTOR,
FEDERAL EMERGENCY
MANAGEMENT AGENCY
COMMANDANT,
U.S. COAST GUARD
3
The Nuclear and Radiological Threat
“…it is increasingly clear that the danger of nuclear terrorism is one of the
greatest threats to global security, to our collective security.”
– President Obama (Nuclear Security Summit, April 13, 2010)
 Types of threats:
– Nuclear Weapon
– Improvised Nuclear Device (IND)
– Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) – (also referred to as “Dirty Bomb”)
– Radiation Exposure Device (RED)
Crude
sketch of
nuclear
device
found in
Afghanistan
HEU intercepted by
Republic of Georgia
in smuggling sting
Jose Padilla – convicted
of plotting dirty bomb
attack
RDD response exercise in New York
4
DNDO’s Mission and Objectives
DNDO was established on April 15, 2005 with the signing of NSPD 43 / HSPD
14 for the purpose of improving the Nation’s capability to detect and report
unauthorized attempts to import, possess, store, develop, or transport
nuclear or radiological material for use against the Nation, and to further
enhance this capability over time.
 Develop the global nuclear detection architecture (GNDA)
 Develop, acquire, and support the domestic nuclear detection and reporting system
 Detect – Employ instruments and improve training in order to increase detection probability
and establish operational protocols to ensure detection leads to effective response
 Coordinate – Ensure that stakeholders with GNDA functions minimize gaps and overlaps in
roles and responsibilities and facilitate situational awareness through information sharing and
analysis
 Conduct a transformational research and development program
 Provide centralized planning, integration, and advancement of USG nuclear forensics
programs
5
DNDO: An Interagency Office
 DNDO is an interagency office composed of
detailees and liaisons from the departments
of Energy, Defense, Justice, State, the FBI
and NRC
 Other DHS components such as the U.S.
Coast Guard, Customs and Border
Protection, and Transportation Security
Administration provide detailees to DNDO.
 DNDO relies upon the national laboratories,
academia, and private industry to conduct
research that directly supports its mission.
 DNDO maintains strong relationships with
Federal, State, Tribal and local entities to
facilitate capabilities development.
6
DNDO Directorate Structure
Red Team &
Net Assessments
Systems
Engineering
& Evaluation
Architecture & Plans
Directorate
Office of the Director
Chief of Staff
Product Acquisition
& Deployment
Operations Support
Transformational &
Applied Research
National Technical
Nuclear Forensics Center
7
Global Nuclear Detection Architecture
 In order to strengthen the Nation’s layered defense, DNDO analyzes the
Global Nuclear Detection Architecture, and then formulates recommendations
and plans to strengthen the architecture with stakeholder collaboration and
cooperation.
 The GNDA is a worldwide network of sensors, telecommunications, and
personnel, with the supporting information exchanges, programs, and
protocols that serve to detect, analyze, and report on nuclear and radiological
materials that are out of regulatory control.
– The term “out of regulatory control” refers to materials that are being
imported, possessed, stored, transported, developed, or used without
authorization by the appropriate regulatory authority, either inadvertently or
deliberately.
Substantial risk reduction is the aim
8
Key Architecture and Plans Directorate Functions
 Stakeholder Coordination of the GNDA
 Comprehensive Capability Based Assessment of GNDA
 Radiological and Nuclear Terrorism Risk Analysis
 GNDA Strategic Plan and Annual Review
 Increase Detection Capabilities in Key Mission Areas
- Maritime
- Aviation
- Land Border
- Interior
 Develop Integrated Capability Developmental Plans and Solutions
- Solution Development Process (SDP)
•
APD focuses on Stage 0 through Stage 2a and ensures stakeholder requirements are met
9
GNDA Operational View-1
10
Development of an Adaptable Architecture
Problems associated with a static architecture
Cost
–
It is cost prohibitive to deploy enough
detection capability across all nodes of
the GNDA to a sufficient level to ensure
a high probability of success
Technology
–
Limited in detection range due to
physics, therefore with a static
architecture threats must pass very
close to assets
–
100% static architecture would have a
negative impact on commerce
Fixed Assets
–
Much of the emphasis has been on the
creation of a static architecture, and
fixed assets cannot be redeployed in
support of intelligence driven events
The Solution is the development of a flexible
and adaptable architecture
Balanced Approach
– Leveraging the existing static
architecture to develop new
capabilities with the capacity to surge
based on intelligence
Technology
– Uses advanced technologies on
mobile platforms in order to increase
the probability of encounter
– Capabilities that conduct primary and
secondary screening concurrently are
critical
Focus on high risk nodes
– Much of the emphasis on the creation
of a static architecture has been on
commercial/high traffic nodes. Relocatable assets can be deployed in
non-commercial high risk nodes based
on intelligence, or used randomly to
deter potential adversaries.
11
DNDO Commercial First Initiative
 The rapid development of technology and innovation, along with constrained budgets and market forces
has shifted DNDO focus from government development of material solutions to a “Commercial First”
approach.
– Intent of the approach will focus on determining best value solutions by utilizing modeling tools and
verification and validation (V&V) of data and performance.
– Approach does not eliminate need for government oversight and partnership.
– Facilitates continuous feedback during the entire acquisition process between industry and
user’s/stakeholders to refine requirements.
– There is a potential that DHS may procure systems from vendors who successfully demonstrate
that their systems/products meet the requirements.
– DHS may establish Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA).
12
Maritime Mission Area
 Program Elements
- Develop and deploy radiation detection equipment
to the Nation’s seaports to scan arriving cargo
- Develop and deploy radiation detection equipment
to the U.S. Coast Guard to support boarding team
inspections
- Work with State and local partners to enhance
radiation detection capabilities of current maritime
law enforcement operations
 Partners:
- USCG, CBP, TSA, state and local, DOE, DoD
 Example Activities:
- West Coast Maritime Pilot
- USCG Joint Acquisition Strategy
- Small Vessel Stand-off Detection
13
Aviation Mission Area
 Program Elements
- Deploy radiation detection equipment to scan
all arriving private international general
aviation flights
- Pilot radiation detection solutions to scan
passengers and baggage
- Characterize airport-of-entry operations and
enhance air cargo scanning
 Partners
- TSA, CBP, state and local
 Example Activities
- International General Aviation
- Computed Tomography/Advanced
Technology Scanning Evaluation
- Air Port-of-Entry Deployments
14
Land Border Mission Area
 Program Elements
- Deploy radiation detection equipment to the
Nation’s ports of entry to scan arriving cargo
containers and vehicles
- Develop and deploy radiation detection
solutions between ports of entry along our
borders
 Partners
- CBP, state and local
 Example Activities
- Study to Identify Potential Improvements in
Maintaining Portal Monitors
- International Rail
- Study to Improve Probability of Encounter
15
Domestic Interior Mission Area
 Program Elements
- Work with federal, state, and local law
enforcement and emergency responders to
expand domestic preventive radiation/nuclear
detection capabilities
- Provide operational support such as training,
exercises, and technical reach-back
 Partners
- States and locals, TSA, FEMA, DOE, DoD,
FBI, NRC
 Example Activities
- NIMS Resource Typing
- Long Range Radiation Detection
- Training and Exercise Support to
Stakeholders
16
Next and Future Generation Technology
Generation
Current
Product
Area
Non-Intrusive
Inspection
(Radiography and
Active
Interrogation)
Portal Monitors
Hand-Held
Detectors
Pocket Systems
VACIS, single-energy xray, backscatter x-ray
PVT
GR-135, Identifinder,
Detective, others
Radiation pagers
Next Generation
Improved radiography
Advanced Technology
Demonstration
Active systems for
detection of shielded
threats (SNAR)
Automated detection of
high-Z
Advanced Portal
Technology (NaI and
HPGe)
HPRDS
Exploratory Research
Passive, automated
detection of shielded
SNM
Large standoff
interrogation for SNM
detection
Imaging techniques –
better signal (SORDS
ATD)
Improved materialshigher resolution, larger,
lower cost
Increased PD and range,
decreased FAR
Detection “at speed,”
virtual tagging of
vehicles
Hand-helds and
backpacks, lighter HPGe
Directional highresolution spectroscopic
handheld (IPRL)
Future commercial-off-theshelf systems
Intelligent networked
sensor systems (IRSS)
Improved materials –
room temperature
sensors approaching
HPGe, improved
electronics, solid state
neutron sensors
17
DNDO Transformational R&D Program
Aggressive and expedited R&D programs that seek to develop break-through
technologies that will have a dramatic positive impact on capabilities to
detect nuclear threats.
 Exploratory Research Program
– Investigate promising concepts to show feasibility
through laboratory Proof-of-Concept demonstrations
 Advanced Technology Demonstration
– Characterize Performance Test Units in a simulated
operational environment to assess technology
transition potential
TlBr
Semiconductor
Cs2LiYCl6 (CLYC)
Scintillator
 Academic Research Initiative
– Create next generation of scientists and engineers
 Small Business Innovative Research
– Strengthen the role of innovative small business
concerns with federally-funded research and
development
SORDS Detector
and Truck
SNAR Test Unit
18
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
DNDO R&D Program Progression
Progression
Exploratory
Research Project
Advanced
Technology
Demonstration
Technology Readiness
Level (TRL)
Nuclear Detection Architecture Challenges
N/A
Feasibility Evaluation
TRL 1-3
Proof of Concept (POC)
TRL 3-4
Performance Test Unit (PTU)
TRL 5-6
Prototype
TRL 7
Engineering Development Model (EDM)
TRL 7
Limited Rate Initial Production (LRIP)
TRL 8
Full Rate Production (FRP)
TRL 9
19
FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY
Product Acquisition & Deployment
Engineering development, production, developmental logistics, procurement, and
deployment of current and next generation nuclear detection systems.
Radiation Portal Monitor Program
Joint Analysis Center
Collaborative Information
System
Ortec Microdevice: Human-Portable
Radiation Detection Systems*
On Dock Rail
Radseeker: HumanPortable Radiation
Detection Systems*
Programs not pictured:
• International Rail (IRail)
• Human Portable Tripwire (HPT)
• Neutron Detection Replacement Program
* PADD also procures a variety of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) systems deployed by users
20
Systems Engineering & Evaluation
 Operational Analysis and Systems Engineering Support
– Work with federal, state, and local stakeholders to evaluate the feasibility
and performance of new or emerging capabilities in an operational
environment
– Provide systems engineering support for DNDO Solution Development
Process throughout the systems engineering life cycle
– Lead development, in coordination National Institute of Standards and
Technology, of Technical Capability Standards for radiological/nuclear
detection equipment.
21
Recent and On-Going Test Campaigns and Pilots
On-Dock Rail Program
(Straddle Portal
Prototype)
On-Dock Rail Program
(Radiation Detection
Straddle Carrier)
Dolphin Test Campaign
(Boat Mounted Systems)
Eland Test Campaign
(Mobile Systems)
Gryphon Test Campaign
(Aerial Mounted Systems)
Alternative Neutron
Detection Systems
ITRAP+10
22
Systems Engineering & Evaluation
 Test and Evaluation Support
– Conduct test & evaluation campaigns.
– Establish and maintain T&E infrastructure of facilities,
equipment, processes and personnel.
• Radiological/Nuclear Countermeasures Test and
Evaluation Complex, located at the Nevada National
Security Site.
• Rail Test Center located at the Port of Tacoma,
Washington
• GRaDER® Program
23
Operations Support
Coordinate the implementation of the domestic portion of the GNDA
 Securing the Cities
 Training, Exercise and Assistance
- Federal Capabilities Integration
- State and Local Capabilities Integration
- Training and Exercise Assistance
 Joint Analysis Center
- GNDA Situational Awareness
- Information Sharing and Analysis
24
Operations Support
 Securing the Cities
- New York City Region is first to participate
- Future Urban Area Security Initiative Tier 1
regions to be selected
 Training, Exercise & Assistance
- Federal programs
•
TSA Visible Intermodal Prevention and Response Teams
•
Mobile Detection Deployment Program
- State and Local Programs
•
Program Assistance
•
State and Local Stakeholders Working Group and
Executive Steering Council
•
Radiological/Nuclear Challenge
- Training and Exercise
•
Training course development and quality assurance
•
Exercise design, development, and standards
 JAC
- GNDA situational awareness
- Information analysis and information sharing
25
Red Team and Net Assessments (RTNA)
Independently assess the operational performance of
planned and deployed capabilities.
 Conduct adversarial-based assessments from an outside
perspective without "inside" information of current or
planned capabilities
 Use overt and covert tests to intentionally introduce
radioactive sources against known defenses to assess the
performance of fielded technology, training, and protocols.
 Assess the effectiveness of concepts of operation,
protocols, training, technologies, communications, and
technical support for nuclear detection programs and
capabilities
 Build models that integrate lessons learned from operations
intelligence estimates, expert elicitation, and workshops to
determine the effect of implemented capabilities on
adversary decision making.
26
National Technical Nuclear Forensics Center
NTNFC has three primary mission areas
Operational Readiness:
– Provide centralized
planning and integration of
USG nuclear forensics
programs and activities
through interagency
working groups, joint
exercises, assessments,
and foundational
document development.
Technology Advancement:
Interagency
Stewardship
and
Coordination
Pre-Det
Materials
Capability
Development
– Advance the Nation’s
capability to rapidly,
accurately, and credibly
identify the origin and
history of interdicted
radioactive/nuclear
materials.
Restoration and
maintenance of
scientific
expertise
Expertise Development:
– Provide scholarships, fellowships, internships, postgraduate, and university awards for studies and research
in specialties relevant to nuclear forensics.
27
Summary
DNDO is supporting the development and deployment a global nuclear detection
and nuclear forensics capabilities to reduce the risk of nuclear terrorism

DNDO has coordinated USG identification of critical vulnerabilities in the existing architecture

Maintains an aggressive research development and system acquisition process to address
these vulnerabilities

Has conducted several test series as well as red teaming operations to evaluate the
effectiveness of nuclear detection technologies and deployed systems.

Provides on-going operational support to Federal, State, Tribal, and local mission partners

Provides centralized planning, stewardship, and integration of USG R/N forensics activities

Developing advanced pre-detonation R/N forensics capability and recreating an enduring
technical nuclear forensics workforce
28

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