VMware Storage Best Practices

Report
VSP3868
VMware vStorage
Best Practices
Name, Title, Company
Disclaimer
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 Technical feasibility and market demand will affect final delivery.
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Agenda
VMware Storage Best Practices
Storage Environment
Performance Improvements and Tuning
Performance Monitoring
Common Storage Issues
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VMware Storage Best Practices
Overview
Storage Environment
Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
Vendor Knowledge and Partnership
Hard Disk Performance
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Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
 Backups
• Number and depth based on application
RPO/RTO
• Test your backups
 Support considerations
• Virtual Machine Snapshots are not backups!
• Available backups allow for a wider variety of
options in data loss scenarios
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Vendor Knowledge and Partnership
 Know your SAN environment
• Open communication channel to your internal storage team
• Follow storage vendor best practice guidelines for ESX(i)
 Know your storage vendor
• Support relationship – proactive versus reactive
• Software/Firmware updates for storage hardware
 Know your storage network or fabric
• HBA and switch software/firmware updates
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Hard Disk Performance
 Areas of Concern
• Disk subsystem bottlenecks
• Spikes and sustained latency
 Performance versus Capacity
• Disk performance does not scale with drive size
• Larger drives generally equate lower performance
 For example: 1 TB of space is required
for an app
• 2 x 500GB 15K RPM SAS drives = ~300 IOPS
• Capacity needs satisfied, Performance low
• 8 x 146GB 15K RPM SAS drives = ~1,240 IOPS
• Capacity needs satisfied, Performance high
 More spindles generally equals greater performance - check with
your SAN array vendor for technology details
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VMware Storage Best Practices
Overview
Storage Environment
Performance Improvements and Tuning
vStorage APIs for Array Integration (VAAI)
Multipathing
Storage I/O Control (SIOC)
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vStorage APIs for Array Integration (VAAI)
 VAAI
• Enables your host to offload specific virtual machine and storage management
operations to compliant storage hardware.
 Performance Benefits
• ESX(i) hosts consume less CPU and memory resources, and less storage
fabric and network bandwidth.
• Improved Migration of virtual machines with Storage vMotion
• Faster deployment and cloning of virtual machines
• Reduces SCSI Reservation conflicts
• Faster zeroing operations (creation of Fault Tolerant VMs)
 Benefits derived through new SCSI primitives
 Full Copy
 Block Zeroing
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 Atomic Test and Set (ATS) Locking
vStorage APIs for Array Integration (VAAI) – Requirements





ESX(i) version 4.1 or later.
VAAI compatible storage solution
VAAI hardware acceleration is enabled by default on ESX(i)
ESX(i) 4.1 – block devices only (NAS not yet supported)
ESXi 5.0 – NFS and block device support available for vendor
implementation
 Consult storage vendor for array configuration requirements
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vStorage APIs for Array Integration (VAAI) - Summary
 VAAI
• Is configured by default, can be disabled through host Advanced Settings,
if required by storage vendor
• Storage array must support VAAI SCSI primitives
• Tested VAAI functionality can be reviewed via the vSphere GUI
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Multipathing - Overview
 Pluggable Storage Architecture - PSA
 Native Multipathing Plugin – NMP
• Storage Array Type Plugin – SATP
• Path Selection Policy – PSP
 Fixed Path
 Most Recently Used
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 Round Robin
Multipathing – Path Selection Plugins
 Most Recently Used – MRU
• Active/Passive arrays
 Fixed
• Active/Active arrays
• Asymmetrical LUN Unit Access – ALUA
 Round Robin
• Load balance I/O for improved performance
• Uses Active or Optimized paths, not Standby paths
 Vendor/Partner Multipathing Plugin solutions
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Multipathing – Best Practices
 Consistency
• One PSP per LUN across all ESX(i) hosts
 Configuration
• Match to storage array type (AP, AA, AA-ALUA)
• All LUNs on AP arrays to all ESX(i) hosts through same storage processor
 Multipathing – iSCSI
• One vmkernel port group per physical NIC
• Follow VMware and/or vendor best practice specifics
• VMware iSCSI Configuration Guide (pages 29-51)
• https://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r41/vsp_41_iscsi_san_cfg.pdf
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Storage I/O Control - Overview
 Storage I/O Control
• Monitors I/O latency to datastores at each ESX host sharing a physical device.
• When the average normalized latency exceeds a set threshold (30ms by
default), the datastore is considered to be congested.
 If congested, SIOC distributes
available storage resources to virtual
machines in proportion to their
configured shares.
 Used to determine migration needs
with Storage DRS in ESXi 5.0
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Storage I/O Control – Usage Scenario
 Without SIOC, Disk shares do not provide a fair distributed load on
a shared VMFS.
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VMware Storage Best Practices
Overview
Storage Environment
Performance Improvements and Tuning
Performance Monitoring
vCenter/vSphere Client
esxtop/resxtop
Latency Values
Partner Vendor Tools
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Performance Monitoring – vCenter/vSphere Client
 Performance Charts
• Performance Advanced Chart Options  Datastore/Disk
• Latency and IOPS statistic counters for disks
• Historical availability depends on vCenter Statistics level (vCenter Advanced
Settings)
• Statistics available for ESX(i) host objects
• Datastore
• Read/Write Latency = device average in milliseconds
• Disk
• Physical Device Command/Write/Read Latency = device average in milliseconds
 Additional detail on vCenter Performance Metrics
• vSphere Datacenter Administration Guide, Appendix B, page 265:
• http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r41/vsp_41_dc_admin_guide.pdf
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Performance Monitoring – vCenter/vSphere Client
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Performance Monitoring – esxtop/resxtop
 esxtop/resxtop
• local/remote
• More depth than vSphere Client
 Storage statistics
• CMDS/s – I/Ops
• DAVG, KAVG, GAVG – device/kernel/guest latency in milliseconds
• NFS latency, vSphere 4.1 or later
• Statistics for disk device, disk adapter, virtual machine
 Using esxtop to identify storage performance issues
• http://kb.vmware.com/kb/1008205
 Additional detail on esxtop/resxtop
• vSphere Resource Management Guide, Appendix A, page 89
• http://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r41/vsp_41_resource_mgmt.pdf
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Performance Monitoring – esxtop/resxtop
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Performance Monitoring – Latency Values
 Good latency values are subjective based on application
performance needs and storage environment capabilities
 Lower is better!
 General rules of thumb:
• 10 milliseconds or less is adequate
• 20 milliseconds or higher, sustained, should be investigated
• Sustained spikes in latency may need to be investigated
 Commands not acknowledged by the SAN within 5000 ms will be
aborted
• This may lead to performance issues as the commands are retried
• Multiple aborts should be investigated
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Performance Monitoring – Partner Vendor Tools
 Partner Tools
• vSphere APIs
 vCenter Plugins
• Consult with storage vendor
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VMware Storage Best Practices
Storage
Storage Environment
Performance Improvements and Tuning
Performance Monitoring
Common Storage Issues
Snapshots
Misconfiguration
Improper Device Removal
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Common Storage Issues – VM Snapshots
 Best Practices
• Snapshots are not backups
• Regular monitoring
• Configure vCenter Snapshot alarms – KB 1018029
• Limit to 2-3 snapshots in a chain to prevent performance degradation
• Delete all snapshots before Virtual Machine disk changes
• Confirm via command line if uncertainty of snapshot state exists
• As a general rule, use Snapshots for no more than 24-72 hours
 Improvements
• ESX(i) 4.0 U2 – Snapshot deletion takes up less space on disk
• ESXi 5.0 – New functionality to monitor snapshots and provide warning if
snapshots need consolidation.
 Snapshot Best Practices – KB 1025279
 Understanding Virtual Machine Snapshots in ESX – KB 1015180
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Common Storage Issues - Misconfiguration
 Firmware and Driver issues
• SAN array firmware does not match to ESX(i) version
• HBA, FC switch, physical NIC firmware and/or drivers out of date
• VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide
http://www.vmware.com/resources/guides.html
 Inconsistent Path Selection Policy
• (example 1) Host A, LUN A – MRU; Host B, LUN A – Fixed
• (example 2) Host A, LUN A – vendor MMP; Host B, LUN A - Fixed
 LUN detected as a snapshot
• Missing datastores resolved via force-mount
• Resignature for long-term solution
• Consistent LUN presentation to all hosts from SAN
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Common Storage Issues – Improper Device Removal
 Improper removal of a physical device containing a VMFS
datastore or RDM
• APD (All Paths Dead) state in ESX(i) 4.x
• Upgrade to 4.0 U2 / 4.1 U1 or more recent
• Follow steps outlined in KB 1015084 when removing a datastore
 Rescan after making changes to the storage environment!
VMFS
VMFS
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RDM
VMware Storage Best Practices
Summary
Storage Environment
Performance Improvements and Tuning
Performance Monitoring
Common Storage Issues
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Appendix - VMware Storage Best Practices
 ESX FC SAN configuration guide
• https://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r41/vsp_41_san_cfg.pdf
 ESX iSCSI Configuration Guide
• https://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r41/vsp_41_iscsi_san_cfg.pdf
 MSCS Configuration Guide
• https://www.vmware.com/pdf/vsphere4/r41/vsp_41_mscs.pdf
 VMware Performance Best Practices 4.1
• http://www.vmware.com/pdf/Perf_Best_Practices_vSphere4.1.pdf
29
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