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THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY
SUPERVISION IN DRUG AND
DWI COURTS
HELEN HARBERTS
[email protected]
Who does community
supervision?
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Based on the jurisdictional reality,
and the program design, there are a
variety of agencies which can
perform the function, either alone, or
in conjunction with others.
Common Supervision
Agencies
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Probation
Parole
Police, sheriff
Pre-trial
Court marshals
Community supervision officers
And expanded to reach everyone
with a badge and time to help.
Best Practices?
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Use every resource you have
available to you to enhance
community supervision. Join forces
under a central case manager and
extend your reach!
How Is Community Supervision
Different in Drug Court?
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For some, it may not be. For most, it
provides the essence of “good old
fashioned probation”.
The model uses the strengths of each
discipline on the team.
It uses graduated incentives and
sanctions, closely connected to the
difficulty or good conduct, to achieve
change.It is like COPS or POPS policing
Why do community
supervision?
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Public safety: otherwise these folks might
be in custody.
Identify and address barriers to success in
the home and work environment.
Extend the eyes and ears of the treatment
team into the community.
Note that addiction and criminality do not
work government hours. We need to push
toward 24/7 supervision.
The target population demands
community supervision!
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As research evolves, we are focusing on
higher end participants and getting into the
field, with close monitoring of desired, and
undesired behavior + proximal and distal
behaviors is CRUCIAL
The responses to DWI offenders MUST
be different than run of the mill drug court
folks.
Who is High Risk?*
Assessment driven decision!
Quickie list of likely candidates:
• Age during treatment < 25 years
• Drug use onset < 14 years
• Criminal onset < 16 years
• Prior treatment failures
• History of violence
• Anti-Social Personality Disorder (APD)
• Psychopathy (APD + NPD) ****
• Familial history of crime
• Criminal associations
• Drug dependent
Marlowe’s Risk Need Matrix
HIGH
High
RISK
High Risk/High
Needs
See prior slide: these are
the problem solving court
folks!
High accountability
NEEDS
Low Risk/High Needs
Treatment
Minimal
supervision
High treatment needs
High Risk/Low Needs Low Risk/Low Needs
Abstinence is proximal
Use tools to promote rapid
compliance.
High accountability
LOW
LOW
These are probation folks
See these folks rarely on a
status calendar if there is a
problem.
This is mostly prevention,
early intervention work
(bank caseload)
Addicts versus Abusers…Proximal and Distal
Goals are not the same!
Drug Dependence or Addiction
1. Binge pattern
2. Cravings or compulsions
3. Withdrawal symptoms
}
Drug Abuse or Misuse
Collateral needs
Abstinence is a distal goal
}
Abstinence is a
proximal goal
Regimen
compliance
is proximal
Dual diagnosis
Homelessness, chronic unemployment
Chronic medical condition (e.g., HIV+, HCV, diabetes)
Field Supervision is critical
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Office work is important, but it is not
a substitute for field visits, home
visits, search and testing in the field.
NPC Research has demonstrated via
research that field service matter,
and directly impact cost savings and
outcomes.
“ I can tell more about a client’s needs
in 5 minutes at their house than in a 90
minute session at my office” (Deputy
Probation Officer)
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 Catch them doing something right!
Report it to the team immediately for
incentives.
Drug Courts are about
Drug Treatment and Recovery
Assess the Recovery
Environment
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obtain baseline information which will
allow you to measure progress and
identify patterns of relapse.
*ASAM recovery environment
Can they work your program?
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Are their lives in chaos?
Are there things you need to know?
Are they following the Court’s
orders?
Is there anything that treatment
providers and the Court need to
know about the recovery
environment?
Is the home safe?
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How do you know?
• Self report?
• How often are probing questions asked?
• Do you use motivational interviewing to
get details?
• Do they feel “safe” telling you?
• Do they even know there is a problem?
• Do you believe they understand the
concept of a “recovery environment”?
Basic needs MUST be addressed
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You cannot work treatment and
recovery if you are not getting basic
needs met.
If you do not have them met, they
become the proximal goal in Court.
Drug Courts are about
public safety
Are there public safety issues that
exceed the client alone?
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Dependent adults?
Dependent children?
Family violence?
Methamphetamine labs?
Drug Courts are about finding
and rewarding good news and
success
Is this only about “gotcha”?
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NO! The most important
goal is to catch them doing
something right!
Improved dimensions of recovery
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Increased organization
Better problem solving
House lighter, cleaner
Fewer “fuzzy” dishes
Evidence of structure
Reduced chaos
Treatment and medication
compliance
Remember!
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Field services protect the public
AND they protect the participant
They enhance refusal skills
They help keep “creepy people” at
bay
And they proved crucial information
to treatment, and support the
treatment professional’s work.
Field Services
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The team needs to reach pre-determined
responses to discovered violations.
• A “bright line” policy for some matters.
• A discretionary policy for others.
- Swift communication of actions taken to
facilitate both court responses and
treatment responses to observed conduct
in the field.
Field Services
Frequent.
 Random.
 Announced and unannounced.
 Invited.
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Timing of Field Visits and Field Testing
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There is nothing better to promote
accountability for the entire team
and the client than a probation
officer showing up with a test cup
unexpected at any reasonable
hour. Field services SUPPORT
recovery effort under way.
Timing
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Non governmental hours…they
know when you work…and when
you don’t!
“Celebration syndrome” & “last test
before report” syndrome.
Timing
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Specialized curfews.
Area limitations after certain times.
Tied to specific “triggers” for each
client (e.g.: pay day, family events,
tragedy in a family, holidays, loss of
job, happy events).
Where should you go?
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Home
Family members
homes
Associates
hangouts and
homes
School
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Work
Bar checks
Community and
general positive and
pro-social activities
Catch them doing
right!
Safety Issues
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Unsavory associates, former associates, or
family members may be inside the residence.
You cannot assume officer safety EVER. For
all you know, a recent parolee with
outstanding warrants has dropped by, or
there is a crime in progress inside (sales,
manufacturing, domestic violence).
Home visits
Reach out and show your
clients that you’re
thinking of them!
Safety Issues
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Try to know who may be in the
house during office interviews and
announced visits. Observe house
layout, or if there are nasty dogs.
Teaming up
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Sworn and unsworn officers.
Teaming with other law
enforcement.
Treatment providers visiting with
you. (Announced and invited visits
only).
Client Interaction
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Enlist the family, friends, and significant other
parties as part of the recovery process.
Always behave in a professional manner,
conducting respectful home visits and
searches. No “tossing”. Discuss the ground
rules for behavior before going in if you have
additional officers with you who are not familiar
with the process. It is your client, and your
search. You call it.
Considerations
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Uniforms and marked cars?
Low profile gear?
Body armor?
Balance of safety with consideration for
offender’s home and children.
Information Gathering/ Continued
Assessment
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This is an opportunity to assess
baseline conditions, and measure
change.
You can identify existing or
emerging barriers to success. You
can work a solution to the barrier
into your case plan.
Information Gathering/
Continued Assessment
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Field service allows you to assess
safety of the home for the
occupants.
You can note issues which need to
be addressed by the treatment
team.
Information Gathering/
Continued Assessment
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It is critical to praise, identify positive
work and report good news even faster
than negative news.
Part of your goal is to catch participants
doing right! You may provide them the
incentive to just make it “one more day”.
Home Visit vs. Search
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Know what you can, and cannot legally do in
your jurisdiction.
Be aware of high risk situations.
Your command presence should control the
situation. Prepare ahead.
Establish the lead officer before you
approach the search site. Your judgment
must control how you respond within the
search site.
What to look for…
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The recovery environment…and
if it is changing from bad to
good…or good to bad.
Sudden changes…
Evidence of life skill problems
“SAFE” environment is a
subjective concept.
How about those cell phones?
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AM
Nov 18 6:23pm Theyre randomly yesting me tnite
AM
Nov 18 6:25pm IM in grop
AM
Nov 18 6:27pm Plese bring to basement bathroom
AM
Nov 18 6:27pm Plzzzzzzzzzzzzz
S
Nov 18 6:29pm Ok
AM
Nov 18 6:29pmHit me up when ur down there ill walk out
AM
Nov 18 6:30pm How long bro
AM
Nov 18 6:30pm Ok
S
Nov 18 6:30pm Like 20
AM
Nov 18 6:34pm Im in the bathroom in the basement plz hurry im
trippin out
S
Nov 18 6:35pm Leavin hollies rite now
AM
Nov 18 6:36pm Shit whats ur eta from there
S
Nov 18 6:37pm 15
S
Nov 18 6:38pm Shuld I wait in basement bathroom
AM
Nov 18 6:38pm Plz tell me u gotta vial to pissi in
S
Nov 18 6:38pm Ya
AM
Nov 18 6:42pm Put the vial of piss in bathrroom trashcan
AM
Nov 18 6:42pm I gotta go bak to geoup9 hit me up when its dun
S
Nov 18 6:54pm
Its in the trash
AM
Nov 18 6:54pm
thanks
S
Nov 18 6:56pm Careful the top doesn't seal good
How about those cell phones and
computers?
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Internet cache
Sales receipts for internet purchases
of inappropriate products.
Facebook, Google+, photos in cache
often tell a different story than we
hear in court.
Facebook monitoring
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Facebook helps catch another dumb criminal
Police in Burlington, Vt., arrested Ryan Jarvis, 25, on a
charge of retail theft. And the only evidence they really
had was that Jarvis' fiancee was showing off a $3,199
engagement ring in her Facebook photos. Several of
Amber Lafountain's friends — well, three, but it's
Vermont — recognized it as the ring that had been
stolen from the local Zales, reports the Burlington Free
Press. Police say Jarvis saw the ring while shopping,
considered financing options . . . then just ran out of the
store with it. "He advised he knew it was a stupid thing
to do," Officer Jesse Stewart said. Almost as stupid as
posting photos of stolen merchandise on Facebook.
By April, convicted robber James Tindell clearly was fed up with
attending drug treatment, making his monthly court appearances and
checking in regularly with his probation officer – conditions he'd
accepted to avoid a lengthy prison sentence.
So, on his Facebook page and on the pages of his friends – many of
whom he met through court – he began posting nasty messages to
the Multnomah County judge who sentenced him and writing taunts
to his probation officer.
"Fresh out of another state," he wrote April 20, "Catch me if you can."
Seven days later, he signed an expletive-filled rant about the criminal
justice system: "the 1 who got away."
Tindell's probation officer, Todd Roberts, was intent on proving
Tindell wrong.
Got him via Facebook.
How about those cell phones?
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SF B Chic Nov 18 3:29pm
in la?
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R u getting anything
Can we go in on the
deal. If I got 4 would u get 2 so we
could do the 540
SF B Chich Nov 18 3:45pm Toats
SF B Chic Nov 18 3:35pm
(drug deal on cell phone while in group)
Are there other problems?
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Signs of use
Signs of tampering
Signs of problems with relationships
Signs of new occupants
Signs of bad associates they need
help with.
Case management threats that
require different approaches.
Things they forgot to mention…
Signs of LLPOF
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Search for signs of
other criminality or
deception.
And people you didn’t know
about……
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Unsafe or
unsavory
associates have
to go.
Officer safety is
paramount.
People, places
and things that
undermine
recovery have
to go.
Sometimes you need a
sharp eye and some
training to look at a home.
What’s this?
Actually, it is methamphetamine
oil.
Trained eyes see what???
What do you see?
Drug Hiding Places
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Your imagination is the limit !!
Plain sight viewing of relapse threats.
(scales, pipes, alcohol).
“Hide in plain sight”.
Drug Hiding Places
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Constructed hiding places, in cars, freezers,
walls, furniture, under carpets, behind fixtures,
inside electronics.
How do you learn? Ask other clients where they
hid their drugs!
Have another officer search a room after you
have searched. Sometimes fresh eyes see
things you missed.
Be careful of needle sticks, and sanitation
issues. Always use universal precautions.
Linkages for monitoring client
behavior
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Police/Probation contacts.
• Family member’s progress.
• Contacts with client’s address.
• Coordination of case plans and drug
testing.
• Extend the hours of supervision, and
enforce curfews and area restrictions.
Children’s Services
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Perinatal services.
Family member progress if in system.
Coordinate case plans and drug testing
for all involved family members.
Treatment
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Coordinate treatment plans with
supervision plans.
Report on drug testing.
Report observations, new associations,
romances, life challenges, potential
relapse issues.
Coordinate releases of information.
Schools
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Track progress of kids in school.
Track attendance.
Schools
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Bring special family services to the child.
(Imagine waking up from a drug induced fog
and finding out you have kids or teenagers
out of control and you have no parenting
skills left).
Identify positive and negative behaviors and
associates.
Stresses with family members create relapse
cravings.
Volunteers, Community Based
Organizations, Faith Community
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Phone calls, mentoring, specialized
needs can all be created within your
community.
Volunteers can do curfew verification
calls.
Referrals and Sequenced Case
Management.
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Basic needs: safe shelter, food, clothes,
transportation.
Parenting.
Educational.
Medical.
Pro-social Activities.
Engage the family or a reliable
support system
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Learn about adolescent brain
development and behavior-emotional
growth tolls from the time of addiction
forward.
Adjust your directives and case plan to
meet the capabilities of your participant.
Clear, short directions work best.
Engage the family or a reliable
support system
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For youthful offenders, the family is a
crucial piece which much be included,
except in the “toxic parent” situation.
Engage the family or a reliable
support system
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For all clients, Identify and address an
inappropriate home environmentdomestic violence in home, associates
or roommates who keep drugs around,
sexual assault, unsafe conditions.
Engage the family or a reliable
support system
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Plan ahead for what you are going to do
about gang membership, sometimes three
generations deep. For some, that IS family.
The team will need to assist with the
development of a support system for the
client which may include family, or assist with
the creation of a new clean and sober
community for the participant in recovery.
Keep your focus on the goal
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Clean, sober, stable, performing up to their
potential with the skills to avoid, or survive
relapse, and pursue a life within the
community.
Your activities as a community supervision
officer should be all framed around the
concept of a balanced approach which
protects public safety through this “smart on
crime” approach.
Do you matter?
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You bet!
Being in the field, getting out there,
makes a huge difference!
It helps save money
It helps improve outcomes
It protects public safety
It helps people who need help
Law enforcement matters for cost savings, program
outcomes, accountability and public safety
NPC Research
NPC Research: 2012
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Drug Courts that had a law enforcement
representative on the Drug Court team had 88%
greater reductions in recidivism than programs that
did not.
Programs that include a law enforcement representative on
the team describe that role as crucial for two main reasons:
Law enforcement often has more frequent contact
with Drug Court participants on the street and in
home settings than Drug Court personnel and
therefore provide good insight into what is
happening to participants in their lives outside of
court and treatment.
Including law enforcement creates a two-way process
where law enforcement representatives not only contribute
an important perspective to the Drug Court, but also return
information to law enforcement organizations, which
promotes a better understanding of the value of Drug
Court.
Does your work matter?
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Absolutely.

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