otitis media

Report
OTITIS MEDIA (OM)
Dr. Lamia AlMaghrabi
Consultant ENT
King Saud Medical City
Otitis media
• Otitis media: is inflammation of the middle
ear, or a middle ear infection.
Otitis Media
• It is the most common disease of childhood, next to viral URTI.
• It is acute bacterial infection in 80% (1-6 years)
• The most frequent disease treated with antibiotics.
•
Infectious &non inf. OM result in significant morbidity.
Otitis Media
1-Acute Otitis Media
• Acute bacterial infection with purulent exudate in ME.
• Characterized by : rapid sign and symptoms.
Otitis Media
• Incdence:
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1-7 years of age with peak incidence in 1 year-old.
Finland study ( 75 % of children under 10 y.at least 1 /OM)
6- 11 month-old 75.5% one attack OM.
30% of children below 5 y. had multiple OM.
4 time higher in winter than in summer.
Normal Ear Drum
Pathogenesis
Adenoid hypertrophy
immature ET Tube
Nasopharyngeal Ca
< Ciliary dysfunction
Cleft palate
a-tensor tympani muscle
b- levator palati muscle
c- tensor palati muscle
d- Salpingopharyngeus muscle
Pathogenesis
Middle ear contamination
OTITIS MEDIA
Presentation:
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( T ).
Acute onset of otalgia
Fever
Sleeplessness
Irritability
Pulling of the ear by the child
Some degree of hearing loss
Ear discharge.
Tinnitus.
Ear fullness.
Dizziness.
OTITIS MEDIA
Streptococcus pneumonia
Hemophilus influenzae
Morexilla catarrhalis
Streptococcus pyogenes
(Grp. A)
Staphylococcus aureus
Others
Mixed infections
No growth
25%
25%
20%
2%
1%
20%
5%
Remainder
OTITIS MEDIA
Treatment
OTITIS MEDIA
Proper ; antibiotic / dose / compliance / duration
•
a.
1st line:
i. Amoxicillin 500 mg p.o. tid x 7-10 days ( beta lactam resistant bacteria )
b. 2nd line:
i. Augmentin 875 mg p.o. bid x 7-10 days
ii. Ceftin 500 mg p.o. bic x 7-10 days
c.
Penicillin allergic patients
i.
Septra DS i p.o bid x 7-10 days
ii. Erythromycin
2- OTITIS MEDIA WITH EFFUSION
Most common disease treated by pediatricians
Myringotmy &tube insertion is the most common surgery in
children.
OTITIS MEDIA WITH EFFUSION
• Chronic , asymptomatic.
• 20 to 35% no history of AOM.
• Fluid in the ME could be:
serous
mucoid (glue ear)
mucopurulent
Serous Otitis Media
OTITIS MEDIA WITH EFFUSION
Etiology
OTITIS MEDIA
OTITIS MEDIA WITH EFFUSION
OTITIS MEDIA WITH EFFUSION
• Diagnosis
AUDIOMETRY
PLAY AUDIOMETRY
TYMPANOMETRY
OTITIS MEDIA WITH EFFUSION
Treatment
• Adeno – Tonsellectomy&Myringotomy tube insertion
(T&A &TUBES)
Complication
Brain abscess
Extradural
abscess
Meningitis
Sub dural
abscess
labrynthitis
Petrositis
Lateral sinus
thrombosis
Acute
mastoiditis
Facial N paralysis
Complication
Extracranial
Acute
mastoiditis
Labrynthitis
Intracranial
Facial
paralysis
Meningitis
Brain abscess
Acute mastoiditis
Labrynthitis
Facial nerve paralysis
Meningitis
Brain abscess
OTITIS MEDIA
• COMPLICATION
2ndry cholesteatoma
Post op mastiod cavity
Tympanosclerosis
Retraction of The Eardrum
Retraction Pocket Formation
Tympanic membrane perforation
Tympanoplasty (video)
TYMPANOPLASTY
Chronic Otitis Media
►Persistant disease, Severe
destruction
►It is characterized by:
Deafness
Ear discharge
T.m. perforation
TYPES OF C.S.O.M.
• Tubo tympanic s.o.m.
• Attico antral
Safe
Unsafe
Chronic Otitis Media
• Causes:
1 Late treatment of acute otitis media.
2 Inadequate or inappropriate antibiotic therapy.
3 Upper airway sepsis.
4 Lowered resistance, e.g. malnutrition,
anaemia,immunological
impairment.
5 Particularly virulent infection, e.g. measles.
ATTICO ANTRAL C.S.O.M.
• Cholesteatoma
Keratinizing Squamous Epithelium.
A small sac
May involve whole middle ear cleft
TUBO TYMPANIC C.S.O.M
• Deafness
• Discharge
• Central perforation
TUBO TYMPANIC C.S.O.M
• Patency of Eustachian
tube
• Nidus of infection in
U.R.T.I.
• Immune status of patient
• Aerobic and Anaerobic
TYPES OF TUBO TYMPANIC C.S.O.M.
• Active Tubo Tympanic C.S.O.M.
• Inactive Tubo Tympanic C.S.O.M.
Audiological assessment
• Voice test
• Tuning fork test Rinne, Webers , A.B.C.
• Pure tone audiogram
RADIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT
• CT-scan temporal bone
treatment
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Aural toilet
a. Cotton buds
b. Suction and cleaning
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Antibiotics
a. Topical antibiotics
b. Systemic antibiotics
Surgical treatment
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a.
b.
c.
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Precipitating disease
Adenoid
DNS
Nasal polyps
Aural polypectomy
Functional reconstruction tympanoplasty

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