EFFECT OF ADVANCE ORGANIZER MODEL ON

Report
EFFECT OF ADVANCE ORGANIZER MODEL ON
ACHIEVEMENT OF IX STANDARD STUDENTS IN
MATHEMATICS
By
M.RAJENDRA NATH BABU
Senior Research Fellow(UGC)
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
S.V. UNIVERSITY
Tirupati.09440858111
INTRODUCTION
Education has been considered in all times to be an
instrument of social change. This objective cannot be
achieved without having improved the class room
practices.

Teaching is an activity, designed and performed for
the attainment of a larger number of objectives in terms
of changes in pupil’s behavior.
The Indian Education Commission (1964-66)
stated that there is an urgent need to raise the quality of
science teaching to promote the deepening of
understanding of basic principles, to develop problemsolving and analytical skills and to promote the spirit of
equality, experimentation and accurate observation.
Models of teaching enhance the ability of students
to achieve various learning objectives. Thus, in a very
real sense, increasing aptitude to learn is one of the
fundamental purposes of these models.
The current education reform, people
tend to accept the machine learning is
equivalent to learning, discovery learning and
meaningful learning to a uniform, negative
reception learning, that teachers must use the
language system knowledge to enable
students to teach in a passive position, the
flow in the “spoon-fed “education and advocate
the use of discovery learning place to learn to
accept.
 Advance Organizer, according to Woolfolk
(2001), is “a statement of inclusive concepts to
introduce and sum up material that follows".
Ausubel (1960) defined advance organizer
as “a cognitive instructional strategy used to
promote the learning and retention of new
information”;

Anderson (2004) defined it as “a method
of bridging and linking old information with
something new”.
An advance organizer is information that is
presented prior to learning that can be used by
the learner to organize and interpret new
incoming information (Mayer, 2003).
Advance organizer as a concept was
developed and systematically studied by David
Ausubel who was greatly influenced by the
teachings of Jean Piaget (Geier, 1999).
Advance organizers are helpful in the way that
they help the process of learning when difficult
and complex materials are introduce. This is
satisfied through two conditions.
The student must process and understand
what the information present on the organizer;
this increases the effectiveness of organizer
itself.
The organizer must indicate the relation
among the basic concepts and terms that will
be used.
Classification
of Models of
Teaching,
Joyce and
Weil(1985)
1. the social family
2. the information processing family
structure.
3. the personal family
4. the behavioral systems family
1.Inductive thinking model, 2. inquiry thinking
model
Information
processing
family
3. Biological science inquiry model
structure.
4. Concept attainment model
5.Advance Organizer Model
6.Cognitive development model, 7. Memory training
model
 Phase-I:Presentation of A.O.
Steps in AOM
Phase-II: presentation of learning task or material
Phase-III: strengthening cognitive
organization
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE:
Clawson and Barnes (1973) attempted to determine the effects of different types of advance
organizers. Their work showed that advance organizers with pictorial, graphic, and manipulated
materials were more effective than verbal and expository advance organizers.
Khale and Nordland (1975) investigated the differential effect of an advance organizer on the
meaningful learning of information presented to the learner in a structured programme of
individualized instruction. The results of their study indicated that advance organizers did not
function to increase meaningful learning.
Lucas and Fowler (1975) examined the effects of three types of advance organizers on
learning. The experimental groups were exposed to audio, video and written advance organizers
while the control group was exposed to a history passage. The results showed that there were no
significant differences between the experimental and control groups on any of the factors.
Watkins (1983) examined the effects of using different modes of advance organizer on the
performance in music by some non-music majors. The results showed that both the advance
organizer and the modes of it did not show any significant effect on the performance of the
students. But the advance organizer models when compared with the advance organizer alone
revealed improved performance for each of the treatment interventions.
Khan and Siddique (1991) investigated the effects of adjunct post-questions and
expository advance organizers on problem-solving from prose text. The sample
consisted of 88 introductory psychology students. A post-test only control group
was utilized. The findings showed that there were no significant performance
differences between having and not having advance organizers, and there were
no significant interaction effects.
Adebola S.Ifamuyiwa(2011) examined that the students exposed to the
experimental intervention significantly achieved better than those in the control
class at their comprehension level of cognition. This finding has again revealed
the efficacy of the use of advance organizer in enhancing students’ achievement
in mathematics.
Narendra Girdhar Pachpande(2012) studied that there is significant difference
in the mean scores of students which are taught by traditional teaching method
and advanced organizer model and that the mean score of students taught by
advanced organizer model is greater than the mean score of student which are
taught by traditional teaching method.
Silas A. Ihedioha (2012) studied that the transmitter of knowledge model is found to
be as effective as the conventional teaching method for teaching circle geometry and
trigonometry.
Jeffery Montgomery (2013) studied that there is no significant difference between
the effects of availability of mathematics textbooks, mathematics laboratory; and
availability teaching/learning resources on students’ academic performance in
mathematics.
TITLE OF THE PROBLEM
“The title of the present study is, “EFFECT OF
ADVANCE
ORGANIZER
MODEL
ON
ACHIEVEMENT OF IX STANDARD STUDENTS
IN MATHEMATICS”.
NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
According to David P.Ausubel there is a parallel between the subject
matter organized and the way in which the learners organize the knowledge in
their mind especially cognitive structure. Every discipline has a structure of
concepts that is organized hierarchically such as
→ Simple to difficult
→ Concrete to abstract
→ Known to unknown
Organizing concepts provide a conceptual structure on
which the course is built.
There is a
need to study
AOM because
It strengthens student’s cognitive structure
structure.
Facilitates their acquisition and retention of
information
Through AOM student may learn on his own.
It avoids fall back to learning by rote.
promotes active processing of information meaningfully.
 Models of teaching are very important in enhancing the
achievement of students in different subjects. There are
many models of teaching to improve instructional
effectiveness. Now a days the teachers are following
conventional method in teaching Mathematics. The
researcher possessing Master degree in Mathematics was
interested in studying the effectiveness of models of
teaching Mathematics.
 Keeping these views there is need to implement Advance
Organizer model in improving academic achievement in
Mathematics. So the researcher selected Advance
Organizer model to improve academic achievement in
Mathematics of secondary school students.
 Since many studies have been made on AOM, no one
has conducted a study on effectiveness of Advance
Organizer Model on the academic achievement in
Mathematics separately. Therefore the researcher was
interested to know to what an extent the AOM
influence on the achievement of students in
Mathematics studying in Proddatur Town. Hence
present study was taken up.
Objectives of the study
1.
To develop an Advance organizer models on the units
“Real Numbers, Polynomials and Factorisation, Lines
and Angles, Surface areas and volumes” in Mathematics
for IX Standard Students.
2. To evaluate the effectiveness of Advance Organizer
Model over Conventional method of teaching in
Mathematics for IX standard English medium students.
HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY
 There is no significant difference between the means
of scores on pre-test and post-test of experimental
group.
 There is no significant difference between the means
of scores on pre-test and post-test of control group.
 There is no significant difference between Advance
organizer group and Conventional group students in
their Post test scores.
Variables of the Study
Independent Variable:
 Instruction through Advance Organizer
Model.
 Teaching through Conventional method.
Dependent Variables:
 Dependent Variable: Achievement in Mathematics.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED IN THE STUDY:
 1. Effect:
Producing the result that is wanted or intended.
Producing a successful result. It mainly refers to find out how
much effective is one technique/method over the other
technique/method. The criterion used for finding out the effectiveness
is the performance on the achievement test prepared by the
investigator on which the Advance organizer model is prepared.
 2. Achievement:
“Accomplishment or proficiency of performance
in a given skill or a body of knowledge”. Knowledge obtained from
mathematics teaching is an achievement.
 3. Achievement test: An achievement test is a test of developed skill
or knowledge. Tests designed to measure the effects of specific
teaching or learning in any area of the curriculum defined by Anastasi
as “measuring the effects of relative standardized sets of experiences as
opposed to aptitude tests which measure learning under relatively
uncontrolled experience”.
 4. Advance Organizer: An educational technological term for short introductory texts
presented to a student at the beginning of course to enable him/her to structure the course
material and put in perspective.
 5. Advance organizer model: The model in which advanced organizer is presented with
explanation, integrative reconciliation and critical study and in which also idea is cleared is
an advanced organizer model. An advance organizer is information that is presented prior to
learning that can be used by the learner to organize and interpret new incoming information
(Mayer, 2003).
 6. Conventional Method:
Conventional method of teaching means communicating information through
lectures to students, consisting of explanation interspersed with teacher’s questions and
student’s answer. The method by which teacher teaches in class room is traditional teaching
method. A teacher centered traditional method of teaching with a due weightage to talk and
chalk. It is generally known as Herbartian method.
 7. Conventional group: A group of subjects to whom the
treatment of general method of teaching learning
classroom environment is employed.
 8. Experimental group: A representative sample of
particular population to whom the researcher applies
various tools and techniques to derive the desired goals and
objects.
 9. Mathematics: “mathematics is the indispensable
instrument of all physical researches” according to Kant.
NPE (1986) stated “mathematics should be visualized by
the vehicle to train a child to think, reason, analyze and to
articulate logically”.
Methodology
Pre-test post-test equivalent group experimental
design was employed in the present study
Random
Matching
assignment
of
of groups
groups
Pre-test
Treatment
the
Experimental Intelligence Achievement AOM
Group
Test
test in
based Achievement
teaching
Mathematics method
Control
Group
Post-test
Intelligence Achievement Traditional
Test
test in
(Conventional)
Mathematics teaching
method
test in
Mathematics
Achievement
test in
Mathematics
Sample
 In the present study, the researcher adopted the
Purposive Stratified random sampling technique. The
sample constitutes the 120 students studying in IX
standard from four schools of Proddatur Town.
Selection of the sample was as below.
58 High Schools Proddatur(18+40)
Four Schools from
Proddatur Town
Two government and Two
private(240)
Control group
N=60
Experimental
Group
N=60
PARALLEL GROUPS
Sampling
Purposive Stratified Random sampling technique
Experimental Group
Control Group
IX Standard Students
N=60
IX Standard Students
N=60
CONSTRUCTION AND ADOPTION OF TOOLS
 1.
Raven’s standard Progressive Matrices (RPM)
 To measure the intelligence of the students, the
Standard Progressive Matrices prepared and
standardized by Raven, J.C. (1950) was adopted.
 2. Preparation of conventional method lesson
plans
 To meet the requirements the investigator prepared
30 lesson plans from the IX standard mathematics
textbook, duly following the conventional method of
writing lesson plans.
CONSTRUCTION AND ADOPTION OF TOOLS
 3.
Preparation of Advance Organizer Model
lesson plans
 As the nature of Advance Organizer Model differs a lot
from conventional teaching the formats of the lesson
plan also differ significantly. These Advance Organizer
Model based 30 lesson plans prepared by the
investigator.
 4. Achievement test in mathematics
 The achievement test was developed and standardized
by the investigator using standard scientific procedure
Collection of Data:
PRE-TESTING
EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT
CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT
IMMEDIATE POST-TESTING
The process of data
collection
ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED
 Hypothesis- 1: There is no significant difference between the means of
scores on pre-test and post-test of experimental group.
To test this hypothesis, the technique t- test was
employed and the results are shown in table-1.
 Table-1: Means and Standard deviations of Pre-test and Post-test
scores of Achievement in mathematics of IX standard Students
and their t- value.
Group
Experimental
Pre-test
N
Post-test
Mean
S.D
N
t-value
Mean
S.D
25.504
60
23.350
6.186
60
73.600
13.700
ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED
 The above table reveals that the obtained‘t’ value of 25.504 is greater than the
theoretical‘t’ value of 1.98 at 0.01 level of significance. The obtained‘t’ value is
found to be significant. Therefore the null hypothesis is rejected, the rejection
of null hypothesis made the researcher to formulate alternative hypothesis, i.e.,
There is a significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and
post-test of experimental group in mathematics achievement.

The mean difference of 73.600 was found to be in favor of the
experimental group on post-test. Therefore, the experimental group has shown
improvement after subjecting them to the treatment. From this it could be
inferred that, the model constructed on the unit ““Real Numbers, Polynomials
and Factorisation, Lines and Angles, Surface areas and volumes” in
Mathematics seems to be effective in bringing improvement. Therefore it could
be concluded that instruction through advance organizer model is significant
over conventional method of teaching.
ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED
 Hypothesis- 2: There is no significant difference between the means
of scores on pre-test and post-test of control group.
 To test this hypothesis, the technique t- test was employed and the
results are shown in table-2.
 Table-2: Means and Standard deviations of Pre-test and Post-test
scores of Achievement in mathematics of IX standard Students
and their t- value.
Group
Control
Pre-test
N
Post-test
Mean
S.D
N
t-value
Mean
S.D
20.837
60
25.470
6.326
60
75.300
16.802
ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED
 From the table, observed that the t- value is 20.837, which is greater
than table t- value 1.98 for degree of freedom 118 at 0.01 significant
level. Therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. This shows that there
is a significant difference between the means of scores on pre-test and
post-test of control group in achievement in mathematics.
ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED
 Hypothesis- 3: There is no significant difference between Advance
organizer group and Conventional group students in their Post test
scores.
 To test this hypothesis, the technique t test was employed and the
results are shown in table-3.
 Table-3: Means and Standard deviations of Advance organizer
and conventional groups’ scores of Achievement in mathematics
of IX standard Students and their t- value.
Group
N
Mean
Std. Deviation
Std. Error Mean
Advance Organizer
60
88.13
6.539
.844
t-Value
22.262
Conventional
60
60.77
6.922
.894
ANALYSIS AND STATICTICAL TECHNIQUES USED
 From the table, observed that the t- value is 22.262, which is greater
than table t- value 1.98 for degree of freedom 118 at 0.01 significant
level. The mean difference of 88.13 was found to be in favor of the
experimental group on post-test. This shows that Advance organizer
group shown more score in achievement than conventional group in
mathematics.
 Therefore the null hypothesis was rejected. This shows that there is a
significant difference in the mean scores of students which are taught
by Conventional Method of Teaching and advanced organizer model.
From this we conclude that the mean score of students taught by
advanced organizer model is greater than the mean score of student
which are taught by Conventional Method of Teaching. Hence we
conclude that “There is no significant difference between mean scores
of students of Conventional method of teaching and advanced
organizer model” was rejected.
FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
 There is a significant difference between the means of
scores on pre-test and post-test of experimental group.
 There is a significant difference between the means of
scores on pre-test and post-test of control group.
 Advance organizer group shown more score in
achievement than conventional group in mathematics.
 There is a significant difference between Advance
organizer group and Conventional group students in
their Post test scores.
 This shows that advanced organizer model is more
effective than traditional teaching method.

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