Early American Leaders PPT - Lancaster Central School District

Report
MONDAY
As you enter class please pick up an index card
On your index card please include the following contact information
- Name
- Home phone number
- Name of parents or those you live with
- Interests, strengths, hobbies
- One interesting fact about yourself
- Favorite/Least favorite food
THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST POLITICAL
PARTIES
ADMIT SLIP
• What purpose do you think political parties serve?
• Can you name any political parties that exist today?
PRECEDENT PRESIDENT
• On February 4, 1789, George Washington was elected as the
first President of the United States by the electoral college.
• George Washington is known for his many precedents that he
set during his presidential administration.
• Among these are the two-term presidential term, and the
formation of the President’s Cabinet.
• The President’s Cabinet is another name for the President’s
close advisors that he meets with to discuss important issues.
• The Constitution did not set up the formation of the Cabinet,
Washington did this himself (Unwritten Constitution).
WASHINGTON’S CABINET
Washington began dividing the work of the Executive Branch into departments, this was
soon called the President’s Cabinet;
• Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson
• Secretary of the Treasury- Alexander Hamilton
• Secretary of War- Henry Knox
• Attorney General- Edmund Randolph
•
Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton disagreed on many issues facing the nation.
•
This biggest issue they disagreed on was how powerful the federal government should
be.
•
It was this issue that caused the formation of the first political parties.
POLITICAL PARTIES EMERGE
• No one was more hostile towards political factions than George
Washington
• Washington watched as his two closest advisors, Thomas
Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton, grew far apart
• Despite Washington’s efforts, two political parties emerged.
• The Federalists were led by Alexander Hamilton, and the
Democratic Republicans were led by Thomas Jefferson and
James Madison.
• Main Idea: The Democratic Republicans and the Federalists
disagreed on many issues, but the most important issue they
disagreed on was how powerful the federal government should
be.
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICANS VS. FEDERALISTS
Republicans
Federalists
• Led by Thomas Jefferson
• Led by Alexander Hamilton
• Believed that common people
should have political power
• Believed wealthy and educated
should lead
• Favored strong state
governments
• Favored strong central (federal)
government
• Emphasized agriculture
• Emphasized manufacturing,
shipping, and trading
• Favored strict interpretation of
the Constitution
• Pro-French
• Opposed National Bank
• Opposed Protective Tariff
• Favored loose interpretation of
Constitution
• Pro- British
• Favored National Bank
• Favored Protective Tariff
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvv51TJvDe0&noredirect=1
http://www.biography.com/#!/people/alexander-hamilton-9326481
http://www.history.com/topics/louisiana-purchase
http://www.history.com/topics/louisiana-purchase/videos
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mvt2TIZo-Bk
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_KnPB37YB7I
EXIT SLIP
• What were the names of the first two political parties in
the United States?
• Who were the leaders of these political parties?
• What was the major issue that these two political
parties fought over?
IF I WAS AN AMERICAN CITIZEN DURING THE
1790’S I WOULD SUPPORT…….
• If you were a citizen of the United States, what
political party would you support? Write a
paragraph from the perspective of an American
citizen living in 1793. Be sure to support your
decision with facts based on the beliefs of the
political party chosen!
TROUBLES AT HOME FACED BY WASHINGTON
•
As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the United States won the land north and west of the
Ohio River to the Mississippi River
•
Although the British lost the Revolutionary War, they still were living in this region.
•
They were also supplying Native Americans with guns and ammunition to limit the
settlement of Americans in the region
•
Native Americans often attacked American settlers who were attempting to move onto
their lands
•
President Washington sent many small forces to the Northwest Territories but was
unsuccessful in stopping the Native Americans
•
Anthony Wayne was then sent to lead American forces to end the conflict with the Native
Americans
•
At the Battle of Fallen Timbers, American forces were successful in stopping the Native
Americans stronghold of the Northwest Territory
PROBLEMS ABROAD FACED BY WASHINGTON
•
President Washington not only faced problems at home, but also in foreign nations.
•
The French Revolution began in 1789, and many Americans supported the French.
•
From an American perspective, the French were seen as following the lead of the US
by fighting a monarchy
•
By 1793, France and Great Britain were at war
•
George Washington however, wanted the United States to remain neutral
•
The United States wanted to trade with both nations, however both France and Great
Britain feared that such trade would benefit the other
•
Both countries began to stop American cargo ships containing goods to be traded.
•
The British made matters worse by the impressment of American sailors and forcing
them to serve in the British navy.
SO WHAT DID WASHINGTON TRY TO DO?
• Washington wanted to remain friendly with Great Britain because they were a
major trading partner of the US.
• Washington sent John Jay to London to repair relations with Great Britain
• A treaty was signed in 1975, known as Jay Treaty
• As a result of Jay Treaty, the United States agreed to pay debts long owed to
British merchants.
• In return, Britain agreed to pay for the ships that it had seized, and remove
its troops from the Northwest Territory and stop aiding the Native Americans
• The British however, refused to stop the impressment of American
sailors, and refused the United States to trade with France
WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRESS
• Before leaving office, President Washington published
a famous letter known as his “Farewell Address”
• In his letter, he warned about the dangers of political
divisions (political parties), which he feared could tear
the nation apart
• Most importantly, Washington emphasized the belief
that the United States must not get entangled in the
affairs in Europe- No alliances
WASHINGTON’S FAREWELL ADDRESS
“Europe has a set of primary interests which to us
have none or a very remote
relation…..Why…..entangle our peace and
prosperity in the toils [traps] of European
ambition?... It is our true policy to steer clear of
permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign
world.”
- George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796
ADMIT SLIP THURSDAY
• What does the word impressment mean?
• What two issues did George Washington warn against
in his Farewell Address?
TROUBLES WITH FRANCE
•
France was very upset with the United States because they chose to stay neutral
during their conflict with Great Britain
•
Because of the Jay Treaty, France also believed that the United States was
favoring Great Britain
•
The XYZ Affair- President Adams sent three diplomats to France in an attempt
to fix the relations between the two countries.
• France demanded a bribe of $250,000 from the American diplomats just to
set up a meeting
• The XYZ Affair caused an outbreak of war fever in the United States
• President Adams avoided a full-scale war with France, however an
undeclared naval war was fought between the United States and France
from 1798-1780
THE ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS
•
Federalists were in power and controlled Congress (Adams was new president)
•
Immigrants at this time were supporters of the Democratic Republicans
•
Federalists, being Pro-British, passed a law which severely limited the rights of
immigrants
•
The Alien Act increased the length of time from 5 to 14 years that a person had
to live in the United States before they could become a citizen
•
The President gained the right to deport any immigrant that the believed was
dangerous
•
Another law was passed by Federalists called the Sedition Act, which targeted
the Democratic Republicans.
•
This law made it a crime for anyone to write or say anything insulting or false
about the President, Congress, or the government.
What constitutional amendment is this violating ?
STATES’ RIGHTS
•
The Republicans denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts, saying that they were in
direct violation of the First Amendment.
•
Republicans James Madison and Thomas Jefferson wrote a resolution attacking
these unjust laws.
•
Madison wrote his in the state of Virginia, and Jefferson wrote his in the state of
Kentucky
•
Together, the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions stated that the Alien and Sedition
Acts were unconstitutional.
•
The Alien and Sedition Act did not last very long after this.
•
The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions stated that the states could nullify, or ignore a
law passed by Congress.
•
This is also known as states’ rights, which said if individual states felt a law passed
by the federal government was unjust, the states could choose not to follow i t
ADMIT SLIP- FRIDAY
•
Take your notes out from yesterday, we still have to finish states’ rights
•
What were the Alien and Sedition Acts?
• Who did they target?
• Why were they targeted?
THOMAS JEFFERSON
• Jefferson was a rich landowner from Virginia.
• Previously, Jefferson was known for being an author of the Declaration of
Independence and serving as Secretary of State in George Washington’s
cabinet.
• Jefferson was the leader of the Democratic-Republican political party.
• Jefferson believed in strong state government, strict interpretation of the
Constitution, and was opposed to the National Bank.
• Thomas Jefferson defeated Aaron Burr in the election of 1800 to become the
nation’s third President
• The House of Representatives had to ultimately decide the election because
the original election ended in a tie.
• Alexander Hamilton was able to swing Congress’ vote in favor of Jefferson,
due to Hamilton’s hatred of Aaron Burr.
END OF FEDERALIST POWER
•
Although the Federalist Party was defeated in the election of 1800, they were
responsible for putting the Constitution into effect and helping the country recover
from debt.
•
The Federalists also improved trade with foreign nations, and kept the United States
out of war with France and Great Britain.
•
Jefferson was officially sworn in as President in 1801, and strongly urged during his
inaugural address that all political parties to join together for the good of the country.
Major Events During Presidency of Jefferson
• The Alien and Sedition Acts were ended. People who were imprisoned under
these acts were released, and charges against them were removed from the
records.
• The time a person needed to live in America before becoming a citizen was
lowered to 5 years.
• The remaining federal debt was lowered
• America bought the Louisiana Territory
WHAT WAS THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
• The Louisiana Territory was previously owned by Spain, but later was
returned back to the French.
• This troubled Thomas Jefferson because Spain allowed the US to use the
Port of New Orleans for trading purposes, however the French would not
allow this same agreement.
• Since Napoleon would not allow the US to use the Port of New Orleans,
eastern trade would be negatively affected.
• The US foreign diplomat to France, Robert Livingston, was attempting to
negotiate a deal to buy Florida and the Port of New Orleans.
• Napoleon countered, and offered the sell the entire Louisiana Territory for
$15 million.
• America would acquire 828,000 square miles for roughly four cents an acre.
• However, there was one problem…….
STRICT INTERPRETER OF THE CONSTITUTION
• Thomas Jefferson was a strict interpreter of the Constitution, meaning that
he followed the constitution word for word.
• Nowhere in the Constitution does it state that the President has the power to
buy land.
• So, Jefferson justified the land acquisition of the Louisiana Territory as a
treaty, therefore he could go ahead with the purchase (delegated power).
• Jefferson now changed his interpretation of the constitution from strict to
loose.
Why Was the Louisiana Purchase So important?
• Doubled the size of the United States
• Complete control of the Mississippi River
• Access to the Port of New Orleans

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