positive-Behaviour-Management-NABMSE-Conference

Report
School Wide Positive Behaviour Support(SWPBS) and the
Multi-Element Behaviour Support(MEBS) Model
Caroline Dench, Clinical Psychologist,
Callan Institute,
Saint John of God Hospitaller Ministries, Dublin, Ireland.
NAMBSE
17th October 2014
www.callaninstitute.org
https://www.facebook.com/pages/CallanInstitute/5781015
52201521
Hospitality
Compassion Dignity Excellence Justice Respect Trust
Our time together…
 Background Studies
 Positive Behaviour Support (PBS)
 School Wide Positive Behaviour
Support(SWPBS)
 SWPBS in Practice
Callan Institute
• Callan Institute as part of Saint of John God
Hospitaller Ministries provides consultation and
training services in Positive Behaviour Support and in
Raising Understanding and Awareness (RUA) about
Oneself, Friendships, Relationships and Sexuality.
• Services include Positive Behaviour Support plans
using the Multi-Element Model; Relationship and
Sexuality Education; Positive Futures Planning, Skills
Teaching, Periodic Service Review.
• Individual consultation, staff training and regular
support to staff on positive approaches for
behaviours of concern and sexuality.
• A ‘challenging behaviour’ is any act by the child which disrupts
their activities or the activities of others or their daily schedules,
which causes injury or poses risk to themselves or others and
which puts them or others in danger and which requires
intervention from staff.
• Examples of ‘challenging behaviours’ in this context can include
pushing, pulling, spitting, grabbing, pinching, biting, hitting, striking,
punching, slapping, scratching, kicking, refusal to comply/to move,
throwing objects, attempting to choke another, head-butting,
running away, persistent loud vocalisations, self-injury as well as
inappropriate touch, smearing and stripping.
• An ‘extremely challenging behaviour’ then can be said to exist
where, despite many planned interventions, a challenging
behaviour is unrelenting, persistent, continuous or is of increased
or particular intensity, severity or inappropriateness requiring an
intensive, complex response from staff.
• Behaviour of such intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety
of the person or others is likely to be placed in jeopardy, or behaviour
which is likely to deny access to the use of ordinary community facilities.
Emerson, (1998)
• “Children who present with severe challenging behaviour are amongst the
most vulnerable in our society. They demand constant care, supervision
and support and have extensive needs (exhaustive and exhausting) and are
particularly susceptible to potential abuse” Lyons (1994)
• “Behaviour, within the context of your school, which prevents participation
in appropriate educational activities; often isolates children from their
peers; affects the learning and functioning of other students; drastically
reduces their opportunities for involvement in ordinary community
activities; makes excessive demands on teachers, staff and resources;
places the child or others in physical danger; and makes the possibilities for
future placement difficult”.4 Harris John, Cook M, Upton G, (1996)
The National Education Psychological
Service (NEPS, 2010) define
behavioural, emotional and/or social
difficulties (BESD) as
‘difficulties which a young person is experiencing which
act as a barrier to their personal, social, cognitive and
emotional development. These difficulties may be
communicated through internalising and/or externalising
behaviours. Relationships with self, others and
community may be affected and the difficulties may
interfere with the pupil’s own personal and educational
development or that of others. The contexts within which
difficulties occur must always be considered, and may
include the classroom, school, family, community and
cultural settings.’
Influencing Factors
• Legal Validity: Legislation, Rights of the Child,
EPSEN, Children’s First, Health and Safety at Work
• Social & Clinical Validity: Policy and Procedures:
Department of Education and Skills, NEWB, Child
Protection Procedures, PBS, NBSS, Adverse
Incidents, Incident Reports & Risk Assessments;
Other assessments; & IEP’s,
• Clinical Validity: PBS using the Multi-Element
Model.
Some Studies
• Kiernan and Kiernan (1994) challenging
behaviour in pupils in special schools in the
UK; 22% of pupils showed challenging
behaviours.
• They also found a weak but positive
relationship between the proportion of pupils
with poor communication skills in schools and
the prevalence of challenging behaviour.
Some Studies
The Irish National Teachers’ Organisation Education
Committee compiled a report (INTO, 2002)
• 15% of schools had serious or major discipline problems,
that over 70% of respondents surveyed considered that
emotionally disturbed children were likely to present with
behaviour problems, and over 30% believed pupils with
general or specific learning disabilities were likely to
misbehave.
• Also, 92% of schools surveyed had codes of discipline, but it
was found that codes were particularly ineffective in
dealing with pupils who are particularly seen as disruptive.
The study recommended that schools develop a code of
conduct with these pupils in mind.
• Challenging behaviour in special schools in
Ireland presents a significant problem. 31% of
pupils in special schools presented with
challenging behaviour in the current school
year; (Kelly et al 2004)
A little more…
Further, Principals rated on a four-point scale the degree of stress
experienced from potential stressors in managing incidents of
challenging behaviour
• Time pressure involved with dealing with the incident (n=58; 81%);
• Trying to resolve the situation (n=58; 80%);
• Additional workload that incidents cause (n=57; 79%);
• Worrying over the welfare of staff in receipt of challenging behaviour
(n=53; 73%);
• Meetings with parents to discuss the incident (n=37; 50%);
• Lack of physical and environmental facilities (n=35; 49%);
• Threat of legal action from parents (n=28; 39%).
And a little more…
Further, between 31% and 42% of all Principals
described the following as effects on teachers:
• Feeling of low personal accomplishment (46%);
• Feeling disrespected (46%);
• Negative attitude towards pupils with challenging
behaviour (36%);
• Loss of confidence (35%);
• Receipt of constant verbal abuse (32%);
• Physical injury (31%).
And a little more…
Out of a total of 74 Principals, over three quarters indicated the
following as effects for students:
• Loss of classroom learning hours (n=65; 88%);
• General upset (n=63; 85%);
• Disruption of play and leisure (n=58; 78%);
• Anxiety (n=58; 78%);
• Engaging in similar behaviour (n=56; 76%).
• Safety concerns (n=53; 72%);
• Being at risk of injury (n=51; 69%);
• Feeling insecure (n=42; 57%);
• Physical Injury (n=30; 41%).
Principals of Schools for Pupils with Intellectual Disability (78%) and
Emotional Disturbance (100%) viewed anxiety as an effect on other
pupils.
A survey of all special schools in Ireland
conducted by Kelly et al. (2004) revealed that
the most common behaviour problems that
occurred over a 4-6 week period were:
• (i) non compliance;
• (ii) aggressive behaviour that physically harms
others; and
• (iii) disruptive, nuisance or threatening
behaviour to others.
Positive Behaviour Support & the Multi-Element
Behaviour Support Model
Positive Behaviour Support(PBS) is a multi-component
framework, which is based on the principle that all
behaviour(s) of concern have a function or message
within it, once the function is identified a Positive
Behaviour Support plan(proactive and reactive
strategies) can be developed and implemented which
is Socially Valid, Clinically Valid conforms to the
principles of a HRBA and is focused on achieving
socially valued outcomes for the person and others.
• Fact Sheet of Positive Behaviour Support:
•
1.
It deliberately avoids the use of punishment and aversive interventions to change behaviour. So
no naughty step, chair; no taking away a favourite personal item; no ‘giving out’ to the person for
example.
•
2.
It focuses on looking at a person’s day, life and lifestyle, because if life is ‘bad or miserable’, it can
be hard to change a person’s behaviour.
•
3.
At each step, it includes conversations and time with the individual and the people that are
important to the individual in order to clearly identify and agree a plan for support.
•
4.
It is based on the theory that all challenging behaviour has a ‘message’ hidden in it.
•
5.
It uses a detailed assessment format to identify the ‘message’ of the challenging behaviour.
•
6.
It uses behavioural techniques to change behaviour; in the environment, skills teaching, direct
interventions and reactive strategies; for example, if you know what is causing the behaviour
problem and you can change the cause, the behaviour will reduce; if you can teach skills, the
behaviour will reduce.
•
All about Positive Behaviour Support:
•
7.
It recognises that sometimes challenging behaviour is occurring because someone is feeling
bored, confused, sad; has experienced loss, abuse, neglect; is unwell; (etc.) and that there
are other evidence based approaches to support these underlying factors and that these may
need to be used also.
•
8.
It uses information from meetings, observations, conversations, file reviews to develop a plan of
support, called a Positive Behaviour Support Plan.
•
9.
The plan has lots of ideas and interventions many are implemented when the behaviour of
concern is not occurring, these are called proactive strategies, and also reactive strategies to
guide everyone when the behaviour of concern does occur.
•
10.
Positive Behaviour Support approach always checks (using data and evidence) to see if the plan is
working, for example, is the individual more content, is the behaviour of concern occurring less,
and is the individual together with their friends, family and teacher living a more fulfilled and
happier life.
•
These are the 10 Steps of a Positive Behaviour Support Approach.
• Education (Welfare) Act 2000 all schools to
have in place a Code of Behaviour. The Act
also requires that a school’s Code of Behaviour
must be drawn up in accordance with the
guidelines of the National Educational Welfare
Board (NEWB). The NEWB guidelines make it
clear that each school must have policies to
prevent or address bullying and harassment
and that schools must make clear in their code
of behaviour that bullying is unacceptable.
• NEWB Developing a Code of Behaviour Guidelines for Schools
(2008) This guideline, does not name Positive Behaviour Support as
an integrated framework of good practice.
• NEPS promotes a tiered approach, which includes classroom, school
and school plus support, based on PBS.
• The National Behaviour Support Service (NBSS) was established by
the Department of Education & Skills in 2006 in response to the
recommendation in School Matters: The Report of the Task Force on
Student Behaviour in Second Level Schools (2006) NBSS uses PBS
practices and principles.
• Health Act 2007, Positive Behaviour Support is identified as
required, and HIQA has PBS standards.
• Special Education Support Service (SESS) was established under the
remit of Teacher Education Section (TES) of the Department of
Education and Skills (DES) in 2003. The SESS co-ordinates, develops
and delivers a range of professional development initiatives and
support structures for school personnel working with pupils with
special educational needs.
• A review of support scheme applications reveals that 162 of the 874
applications (i.e. 18.5%) received by the SESS from schools between
Sept 2009 and Dec 2009 sought support in the area of behavioural,
emotional and/or social difficulties (BESD). Of these, 16% were
marked urgent and indicated physical danger to pupils or staff.
Examples of behaviours outlined in urgent applications included
self-injurious behaviour, angry outbursts, aggression and violence.
Pupils with Behavioural Care Needs
The BCN1 form allows the school demonstrate what strategies and
positive behaviour supports have been put in place to manage the
behaviour prior to requesting access to SNA supports.
NEPS has published ‘Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties - A
Continuum of Support for Primary Schools - Guidelines for Teachers”
to help schools develop systems, skills and structures for responding to
the needs of pupils with behavioural, emotional and social, as well as
learning, needs.
NCSE Guidelines for Principals and Boards of Management of Special
Schools March 2014
Positive Behaviour Support & Multi-Element Behaviour
Support Model
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
COMPREHENSIVE BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT
PROCESS
CONTENT
MATERIALS
MULTI-ELEMENT BEHAVIOUR SUPPORT PLAN
PROACTIVE STRATEGIES
ENVIRONMENTAL
ACCOMODATIONS
SKILLS
TEACHING
DIRECT
INTERVENTIONS
REACTIVE
SITUATIONAL
MANAGEMENT
SERVICE DESIGN
MEDIATION
TRAINING
COMPLIANCE
NATURAL
SOCIAL
CHANGE
AGENTS
QUALIT
Y OF
LIFE
SOCIAL
VALIDITY
DURABILITY
OF EFFECTS
GENERALIZATIO
N OF EFFECTS
SIDE
EFFECTS
SPEED
AND DEGREE
OF EFFECTS
OVER
TIME
Multi-Element Behaviour Support Model IABA
EPISODIC
SEVERITY
Traditional
Versus
Positive Behaviour Support Approach
Traditional Approach
•
•
•
•
Focus on Reaction Only
Behaviour Only
One Step Plan
Raise issues regarding
rights
• Can rely on punishment or
consequence based
learning
Positive Approach
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Multi Element Plans
Interventions in MEBS plan address
rights deficits identified in assessment
Supports Systems in PBS
Believes all behaviours occur within an
environmental context
Is proactive – intentionally structures
for success
Validates the function of the behaviour
Systematically teaches skills and
acknowledges appropriate behaviours
Builds capacity for all staff
Intentionally seeks to build positive,
flexible environments based on review
of data
Positive Behaviour Support & Multi-Element Behaviour
Support Model
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
COMPREHENSIVE BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT
PROCESS
CONTENT
MATERIALS
MULTI-ELEMENT BEHAVIOUR SUPPORT PLAN
PROACTIVE STRATEGIES
ENVIRONMENTAL
ACCOMODATIONS
SKILLS
TEACHING
DIRECT
INTERVENTIONS
REACTIVE
SITUATIONAL
MANAGEMENT
SERVICE DESIGN
MEDIATION
TRAINING
COMPLIANCE
NATURAL
SOCIAL
CHANGE
AGENTS
QUALIT
Y OF
LIFE
SOCIAL
VALIDITY
DURABILITY
OF EFFECTS
GENERALIZATIO
N OF EFFECTS
SIDE
EFFECTS
SPEED
AND DEGREE
OF EFFECTS
OVER
TIME
Multi-Element Behaviour Support Model IABA
EPISODIC
SEVERITY
Multi-tiered Support for
Positive Behaviour Support
the NEPS continuum of support can be conceptualised as follows:
Tier 1: whole school or classroom approaches for all children, which include a
consistently applied behaviour policy along with formal teaching and reinforcement of
desired behavioural expectations;
Tier 2: small group or individual approaches for children whose behaviours are not
sufficiently responsive to the whole school or classroom approach and who require
more structured interventions, more detailed monitoring and more frequent feedback;
Tier 3: intensive individualised approaches for children whose behaviours are not
sufficiently responsive to either of the previous two support tiers and who require
additional specialised support.
The three tiers of the continuum of support should not be seen as separate phases.
While many children receive adequate support at the whole school or classroom tier,
some children will require support at the first two tiers while a few children will
require support at all three tiers of the continuum.
Responding to Inappropriate Behaviours: A
Problem-Solving Approach
Scott et al., (2010) propose four steps common to all tiers of behaviour
support that are equally applicable across the whole-school, among pupils
who do not respond appropriately to whole school approaches and for pupils
who require intensive support:
•
•
•
•
•
(1) Prediction informed by an analysis of specifically identified challenging
behaviours, which includes the context in which they typically occur;
(2) High-probability interventions that include a focus on relationships,
differentiated instruction and behaviour management;
(3) Consistency to ensure and build staff consensus to implement
behaviour management practices in the same manner;
• (4) Assessment to monitor key outcomes that may be used to inform data
based decision making.
PBS in Practice
• Evidence-based interventions and
• assessment
(Kazak et al., 2010).
Our Commitment to PBS
School Wide Approach
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
We all understand and use PBS.
We offer an exciting and enjoyable curriculum.
We teach communication skills.
We teach social skills.
We catch students when they do well.
We use data to problem solve, understand behaviour or
find ‘the message’ and make decisions.
We have active supervision, reflective practice, training and
support of our children (and families) and ourselves.
We have access to experts as required.
We teach, support and encourage our school rules.
We offer an open, safe, fun, forever learning and
welcoming environment.
Behaviour Is Functional
We use behaviour to try and communicate an
unmet need(s)
• – Get/Gain
• – Avoid/Protest
Functions or unmet needs of
behaviour(s) of Concern
I’m confused
Its very noisy
in here
I need help
Ask me nicely
Don’t say wait
This is boring
Let’s play
I’m tired
No!
I’m hungry
I don’t want to
work when they
are here
I have a middle
ear infection
I want to
leave
I’m unwell
I don’t want to
share your
time with her
I need a five
minute
break please
Behaviour is Human
Despite having called the meeting to order, a number
of people ignore the principal’s request to quiet down.
Instead they continue to talk loudly with friends while
complaining about having to be at school.
What kind of meeting is this?
• a) Student assembly
• b) Staff meeting
• c) Parent Teacher Association Meeting
• d) All of the above
Behaviour is Functional
Behaviour
Because a student
refuses to change for
PE, he is told to “sit on
the wall” during the
class
As a result of
misbehaving
in the morning, students
are sent to the hall
during afternoon breaktime.
Get/Gain
Avoid/Protest
Behaviour is Functional
Behaviour
Get/Gain
Avoid/Protest
Because a student
refuses to change for
PE, he is told to “sit on
the wall” during the
class
Free time
Exercising
As a result of
misbehaving
in the morning, students
are sent to the hall
during afternoon breaktime.
A large
Free-time in the play
room to sit and
ground
work/play in, with active
supervision.
Being bullied
during free time
Put simply….. Behaviour is Meaning-full (Pitonyak, D. 2005)
Why is the person using this behaviour now? What’s the message?
Can they say it in another way?
What would the person be doing instead, as in, if they were not engaging in the
behaviour of concern?
What can I and others do to help?
How does the person ‘feel good’ about themselves?
How are they contributing to their own life and other people’s lives?
What is the person looking forward to?
Who are the person’s friends and who cares about them, who does the person care
about also?
What does the person not enjoy/like?
When they go to bed at night, what are they proud of?
Lots of choices….(no restrictions please)
Stay healthy physically and emotionally….
What lights up the person’s eyes?
What is the person’s favourite X?
Have fun….
Case Study
Robert’s Behaviour
•
•
•
•
May grab at staff / pinch
May yell
May pull own hair
May dig nails into his scalp
Before we do Anything…..
• Why does the behaviour of concern
warrant intervention and support?
• Whose concern is it?
• Do we have consent to do so?
• Are there any health concerns?
Vignette
Comprehensive Behavioural
Assessment
Background Assessment
Functional Assessment
Message/Function
Expressive Communication
needs
Transitions/change
No thank you.
Offered a non-preferred
activity
I find change hard.
Concept of time needs
Health needs; constipation
Likes textures/touch
Enjoys Music and the
outdoors
In the Proactive Strategies there are 3 types of
interventions
• 1. Environmental Interventions; which can include the physical
environment, as in what the environment looks like, the interpersonal
environment, as in the relationships; and the programmatic environment as
in what there is to do there;
• 2. Skills Teaching: There are four sets of skills included in a MEBS plan. A
general skill, a skill just for fun and independence; a functionally equivalent
skill, an appropriate communication skill to support the message of the
referred behaviour, a functionally related skill, a skill to support other forms
of communication and lastly a coping and tolerance skill.
• 3. Direct Interventions: These interventions are short-term and include
reward contracts, trigger control(antecedent) strategies for example.
• All MEBS plans have at a minimum 1 environment
intervention, 4 skills teaching (at least one from each
category) and 1 direct intervention as part of the proactive
strategies.
Function: ‘No thank you’
Environmental
Skills
Direct
Picture Schedule
General
Use Skype
Grow herbs
Trigger control
Plan for transitions
FE: ‘No thanks’
Preferred tasks
Drinks
FR: This is what I
would like please
C&T Hand cream
Music
Social Stories
Reactive Strategies
• Reactive Strategies: These are implemented
with the consent of the individual(or family
member) when they are upset with the whole
purpose to reduce the episodic severity of the
behaviour problem. The reactive strategies do
not teach and are not concerned with
reinforcement.
• Reactive Strategies as part of a Multi-Element
Behaviour Support Plan are written based on
the function of the behaviour. They can be
functionally and non functionally based and
are always non aversive and non rights
restrictive.
• All MEBS plans have at least one reactive strategy.
Function: No thank you
Reactive Strategies
Active listening
Confirm ‘no thanks’.
Offer Choice/Picture schedule/Transition
protocol
Function: No thank you
Environmental
Skills
Direct
Reactive Strategies
Picture Schedule
Trigger control
Active listening
Chat time
General
Use Skype
Grow herbs
Plan for transitions
Confirm ‘no
thanks’.
Drinks
FE: ‘No thanks’
My Hands
Hobby
FR: This is what I
would like please
C&T Hand cream
Music
Social Stories
Preferred tasks
Offer
Choice/Picture
Schedule/
Transition protocol
Periodic Service Review
Multi-Element Behaviour Support Plan for R
To be completed each week
This week beginning ____
+/-
1.Picture timetable
2.Drinks
3.Chat-time
4.Skype
5.No thanks
6.Choice
7.Hand cream
8.Transition plan
Comments
MT WT F S S
40
PSR
35
30
25
Number of
incidents of 20
aggression
15
10
5
Baseline
Weeks
23
21
19
17
15
13
11
9
7
5
3
1
0
Tier 1 Generic PBS Plans (Individualised) + PSR;
Environmental
Skills
Focused Supports
Reactive
Physical;
General skills;
(based on likes or
Trigger control
Active Listening,
My chair, my room, my
space, lighting, noise, my
things, my home, my
work
Interpersonal;
Chat-time
Friend time
Family time
Information sharing; picture
schedules; social stories
motivational profile)
Communication skills;
No, I want, Yes, Break,
Finished, Help,
Emotions- happy, sad,
angry
Coping skills;
relaxation activity;
My routine, (food,
drinks, rest & activity) my body awareness
Programmatic;
work/tasks, my choices,
fun, hobbies, activity
sampling- work, fun,
hobbies; exercise
Noise, transitions,
change, criticism,
demands, pain checklist,
Reward contracts
Rules/Guidelines
Capitulation
Redirection to
preferred x
Offer reassurance
Facilitate
communication/
relaxation/ problem
solving
Tag with another staff
member
Tolerance skills:
sharing, waiting,
Change the
activity/item/plan.
Other:
Emergency
Management
Where to start: PBS School Wide
1. Know the child/children (observations, file review, interview, assessment)
2. Academic restructuring- fun and engaging
3. Communication skills training
4. Social & Coping skills training
5. Environmental modifications, physical, interpersonal, and
curriculum(programmatic)- PBS environmental checklist
6. Behaviour instruction; based on the function of the behaviour.
7. Incident Reports and Reflective Practice
8. A group committed to PBS; leading the way in consultation with others
9. A PBS Policy with practice guidelines
Positive Behaviour Support & Multi-Element Behaviour
Support Model
INDEPENDENT VARIABLES
COMPREHENSIVE BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT
PROCESS
CONTENT
MATERIALS
MULTI-ELEMENT BEHAVIOUR SUPPORT PLAN
PROACTIVE STRATEGIES
ENVIRONMENTAL
ACCOMODATIONS
SKILLS
TEACHING
DIRECT
INTERVENTIONS
REACTIVE
SITUATIONAL
MANAGEMENT
SERVICE DESIGN
MEDIATION
TRAINING
COMPLIANCE
NATURAL
SOCIAL
CHANGE
AGENTS
QUALIT
Y OF
LIFE
SOCIAL
VALIDITY
DURABILITY
OF EFFECTS
GENERALIZATIO
N OF EFFECTS
SIDE
EFFECTS
SPEED
AND DEGREE
OF EFFECTS
OVER
TIME
Multi-Element Behaviour Support Model IABA
EPISODIC
SEVERITY
Physical accommodations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Setting
Light
Noise
Crowding
Space
Food and drink
Sensory differences
Pain
Interpersonal accommodations
•
•
•
•
•
•
Respect
Communication
Social interaction
Expectations
Friends
Positive Relationships with adults
Programme accommodations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Choice
Predictability
Rules
Motivation
Opportunity to learn
Variety
Task difficulty
Instructional methods
Working independently
Make Information Clear
Mon
Kate
Jim
Ann
Tues
Kate
Jim
Carl
Wed
Kate
Sue
Ann
Thurs
Sue
Jim
Carl
Fri
Sue
?
Carl
Types of Skills
• General
• Communication Skills: Functionally
Equivalent and the 5 critical
communication skills (AAC)
• Coping skills
• Tolerance skills
“It’s Too Noisy!”
Escape – “What would you like to do
instead?”
Coping & Tolerance skills
• Relaxation; breathing, my body, mood dots.
• Mindfulness
• Yoga
• Footspa
• Hand massage
• Scents
• Skills for waiting, transitions,
self-management, self-monitoring and selfinstruction
Turtle Technique
Step 1
Social Stories
(Carol Gray)
I Can Use My Words
Purpose of a Direct Intervention
• See - Do
• See – THINK - Do
Types of Direct Interventions
• Reward Contracts
• Antecedent (trigger) Control- key times in the
school day which can cause behaviour of
concern; transitions, play ground, snack time,
bathroom, work for example.
Look with your eyes.
Use nice hands and feet.
Listen with your ears
Talk nicely.
Lentini, R., Vaughn, B. J., & Fox, L. (2005). Teaching Tools for Young Children
with Challenging Behavior. Tampa, Florida: University of South Florida,
Early Intervention Positive Behavior Support.
Rules for me…
• Like…your dad/ or a famous person
– Funny
– Nice
– Kind
– Example: The Cladagh Ring, Duck-Dog-Dragon,
Antecedent (Trigger) control
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Remove triggers
Reduce conditions in which behaviour is more likely
Increase conditions in which behaviour is less likely
Remove seductive or dangerous objects
Remove unnecessary demands
Eliminate provocative statements (“no”, “wait”)
Interrupt the behaviour in response to precursors
Reactive Strategy
• Designed around the message of the
behaviour
• Role of reactive strategy – to reduce episodic
severity, no teaching required.
• Non-aversive
List of Consequences:
(73=total no. of Principals who indicated whether the interventions
below are typical consequences)
N=
number
%
Put out of the classroom
36
49
Isolation from peers within school
49
67
Sent to another classroom
32
44
Sent home early
14
19
Suspension from school
21
29
Loss of privileges
53
73
Involvement of parents/guardians
57
78
Consultation with professionals (clinical/social)
57
78
Discussion among staff regarding future strategy
62
85
One to one time with special needs assistant
54
74
(Kelly et al 2004)
ASSESSMENT
BEHAVIOUR
OF CONCERN
UNDERLYING FACTORS
Once consent is in place…
medical ruled out…
Let’s start with strengths and interests:
Motivational Profile
– Inventory of favourite things (what lights up
their eyes?)
– What opportunity do they have to access /
engage in their favourite things?
– How varied is their repertoire of favourite
things?
BEHAVIOURAL ASSESSMENT
• The foundation of Positive Behaviour Support
• Result of improper assessment
– Lengthy interventions with little success
– Interventions with the wrong behaviour
Looking for clues
Health
Antecedents
Consequences
Environment
Communication
Experiences
Skills
Components of assessment at
Tier 2 and Tier 3
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Referral information and issues
Background Assessment
Functional assessment
Hypothesis and Formulation
Mediator analysis
Behaviour Recording
• Event recording
• Interval recording
• Time sampling (interval or momentary)
Human Rights Implications
• Assessment can highlight rights restrictions
• Interventions can address and reinstate rights
restrictions
Tier 2: PBS
Mediator Analysis
• What resources are available?
• What training have we received or is now
needed?
• What is the wider support structure for this
classroom or this person?
• What can we realistically achieve?
• What other needs may be in the family, class,
school?
PBS in Practice- Case work (Tier 2 & Tier 3)
• Rights Audit (Restrictive, Safeguarding and RIsk)
• Person Centred Planning (Health check)
• Who is included- person( with consent evidenced), family, friends, paid
professionals
• Functional Assessment- Function Identified
• Other assessments – and Interventions which are evidenced based for ID
• A data driven approach
• Functional assessment to inform functionally based interventions;
• Multi-component interventions(proactive/reactive)
• Implementation, monitoring and evaluation long-term.
• Professional with suitable qualifications (Tier 2 and Tier 3)
Is this Positive Behaviour Support?
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•
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•
•
•
•
I think the function is…..
Let’s put a reward contract in place…
What skills does he need instead of…
The consequence for hitting is he can’t go
bowling….
He’s manipulating us….
Let’s do a functional assessment
He has to hand over his sweets…
He needs a consequence for…
Data Collection
• Incident reports
• Reflective practice
There were 44 schools (66%) that recorded
incidents of challenging behaviour using
incident report forms or an incident book. (Kelly
et al. 2004)
Data is good…but only as good as the
systems in place to:
•
•
•
•
•
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Collect
Summarize
Analyse & Reflect & Assess
Make decisions
Make action plans
Implement interventions
Sustain implementation
Next Steps….
• A clear understanding of PBS.
• Form a representative PBS Team.
• Review the Policy on Code of Behaviour and Challenging
Behaviour ( and Anti-Bullying Policy)
• Adopt a referral database and referral forms using incident
forms/risk assessments to inform referrals, with
administrative commitment.
• Develop a school-wide communication and social skills
instruction schedule
• Develop a PBS checklist for each classroom.
• Ensure that the curriculum is child centred and fun (and
shared)
• Identify experts required; and source, e.g. Teacher with PBS
expertise, SLT, PT, OT, Psychology, PBS practitioners.
Next Steps….
• Create a school-wide and individual child reinforcement
system
• Establish an environment which is responsive to data and
progress monitor Everything
• Provide support, supervision and training to staff and families
in PBS. (88% (n=64) of schools indicated that they required
staff training in dealing with challenging behaviour and a
further 82% (n=60) indicated the need for challenging
behaviour intervention programmes 49% (n=36) of Principals
indicated the need for parental involvement.
• Is the Environment a PBS environment? (Physical,
Interpersonal and Programmatic checklists).
• Include the children; student council, chat-time, ‘how are we
doing- what do you like, and what do you not like’.
School Wide Positive Behaviour Support(SWPBS) and the
Multi-Element Behaviour Support(MEBS) Model
Caroline Dench, Clinical Psychologist,
Callan Institute,
Saint John of God Hospitaller Ministries, Dublin, Ireland.
NAMBSE
17th October 2014
www.callaninstitute.org
https://www.facebook.com/pages/CallanInstitute/5781015
52201521
Hospitality
Compassion Dignity Excellence Justice Respect Trust

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