SPEECH AND LANGUAGE Disorders

Report
Speech and
Language
Disorders
By: Caini Csak &
Nina Mounivong
Speech & Language Disorders


1.
2.
3.
Video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D3g9lQo
WNxM
Questions:
What did you notice about the process of
speech therapy in the video between Bo
and the speech pathologist?
Why do you think the speech pathologist
was asking questions?
What did you notice about the way Bo was
communicating?
Identifying Speech and
Language Disorders
1. Does the student follow simple directions?
Identifying Speech and Language Disorders
2. Does the student understand the
meanings of words that others understand?
Identifying Speech and Language Disorders
3. Does the student have a limited
vocabulary compared with age peers?
Identifying Speech and Language Disorders
4. Does the student understand longer,
more complex sentences?
Identifying Speech and Language Disorders
5. Does the student follow the general rules
for grammar?
Identifying Speech and Language Disorders
6. Does the student have more than normal
difficulty finding the correct word?
Speech Disorder



It is characterized by the impairment of voice
or difficulties in the fluency and articulation of
sounds
Children who have difficulty in the oral
production of language are considered to
have a speech disorder
It is divided into 3 distinct yet related
categories:
1. articulation
2. voice
3. fluency
Speech Disorders
Articulation
Disorder
• Omissions of
speech
• Substitutions of
speech
sounds
• Additions of
speech
sounds
Voice Disorder
• Hoarseness
• Pitch
(high/low,
squeaky)
• Loudness
• Resonance
(nasal)
Fluency Disorder
• Flow of
speech is
unusually
irregular
• Marked by
stoppages
• Repetitions
• Unusual
pauses
Language Disorder
 Characterized
by the difficulty in
understanding (receptive) and
using (expressive) language
 Children have problem receiving
information and/or formulating
an acceptable adequate
response
Communication Disorder
 Child
has difficulty using his/her speech and
language skills effectively to communicate
thoughts, ideas, wants, and needs
Ministry of Education
Criteria for Identification


Speech Disorder:
 A disorder in language formulation that may be
associated with neurological, psychological, physical,
or sensory factors, that involves perceptual motor
aspects of transmitting oral messages, and that may
be characterized by impairment in articulation, rhythm,
and stress
Consider assessment information from a variety of
sources, including specific speech assessments relating to
one or more of the following which interferes with
expressive communication:
 mild to severe deficits or delays in articulation (e.g.
pronunciation, oral motor functioning)
 mild to severe difficulties with speech fluency (e.g.
stuttering)
 mild to severe voice difficulties (e.g. pitch, rate, quality)
Ministry of Education
Criteria for Identification
 Language
a)
b)
Disorder:
 A learning disorder characterized by an
impairment in comprehension and/or use of verbal
communication or the written or other symbol
system of communication, which may be
associated with neurological, psychological,
physical, or sensory factors, and which may:
Involve one or more of the form, content, and
function of language in communication and
Include one or more of the following:
 Language delay
 Dysfluency
 Voice and articulation development which may or
may not be organically or functionally based
Ministry of Education
Criteria for Identification
 Language
Disorder:
 Consider assessment information from a variety of
sources, including assessments relating to one or
more of the following which interferes with
communication:



mild to severe deficits or delays in the comprehension
and/or use of oral language
mild to severe deficits or delays in the comprehension
and/or use of written language (reading and writing)
significant deficits or delays in phonemic awareness
skills which directly contribute to difficulties in reading
and writing development
FACTORS:
Augmentative and
Alternative
Communication (AAC)
What is the most
important vocabulary
relevant to the
individual?
What are the
individual’s
cognitive abilities?
Communication
What are the
individual’s
physical abilities?
Is the individual
motivated and
interested in using
AAC?
Tests
Misconceptions About Speech and
Language Disorders
1. Speech and language disorders are synonymous
2. Stuttering affects all ages and both genders
equally
3. Speech and language disorders are not related
to intelligence
4. Articulation disorders in very young children,
especially, are not serious, and correction is rarely
worth the effort of the risk of trauma
5. If an individual has a speech or language
disorder, that individual also has a learning disability
Equity Issues
 Teacher
bias/lack of knowledge
 IEP (the development of SMART goals for student
achievement)
 Classroom environment (integration)
 Differentiated instruction (accommodation and
modification that is not geared towards their
strengths)
 Funding (technology and support)
 Availability Speech and Language Pathologist
Page. 236
The Case of Brent
 BRENT,
in senior kindergarten, is the eldest of five
children. For the first two months of school, his
only form of communication was a slight
nodding of the head. Brent seemed unwilling to
follow class routines, did not socialize with other
children, and refused to comply with direct
requests by the teacher. While Brent eventually
did begin to speak, his utterances were
mumbled and scant. At times, it seemed as
though his answers were designed to cause
difficulty or mock the teacher.
Page. 236
The Case of Brent
 Following
kindergarten, Brent was placed in a
self-contained class that emphasized
behaviour modification. In the new setting, his
disruptive and non-compliant behaviour
persisted. Brent’s special class teacher
suggested to the in-school Team that he be
assessed by the board’s speech and
language pathologist, a request supported
by the principal and Brent’s parents. Test
results showed that, in both expressive and
receptive language, Brent was functioning at
the age level of two and half years: results
with profound implications.
Page. 236
The Case of Brent
 The
IPRC review is to be held next week to discuss
Brent’s situation. Neither the teacher nor the
educational assistant in the behaviour class has any
special training in areas of speech and language,
but both are willing to undertake any program to
help Brent, as long as they are given professional
advice and supervision. The school board has one
full-time speech and language specialist with a very
busy schedule. She visits the school twice weekly
where she works with two children in a regular
grade 1 class. If Brent were placed here, she would
include him in her twice-weekly sessions.
Page. 236
The Case of Brent
 The
grade 1 class, though, is a very busy
and somewhat noisy setting in a pod-style
room with three other primary classes. The
specialist feels that, given the intensity of
Brent’s language needs, this may not be
as helpful a setting as the behaviour class
where things are much quieter and more
controlled. The principal is now seeking
opinions from the In-school team.
Page. 236
The Case of Brent
 At
your table groups create an Individual
Education Plan for Brent



From a kindergarten perspective or grade 1
perspective
Pick a subject to focus the IEP on (example:
social studies, literacy, etc.), review the
curriculum expectations
Improvise with the case study if you do not
have enough information
Modifications
 Depending
on the type of speech or language
disorder, modifications will vary to meet the
needs of the student:



Develop an IEP for the student that will gear
towards their strength in speech, language, and
communication
Take home assignments
Time extensions
Strategies For The Classroom
Structure the
physical
environment
Restate a student’s
phrases using
appropriate grammar
Introduce new
words in a variety
of context
Restate a student’s
phrases in a more
accurate way.
Encourage
students to express
his/her thoughts.
Make sure not to
draw on the
student’s mistakes.
Create situations
that promote the
use of oral language
Make sure not to
draw on student’s
inaccuracies.
Be sensitive to the
student’s current
speech/language
development.
Provide opportunities
for interactive games
and activities.
P.239
Speech and Language
Accommodations
• Extended
opportunities for
student to
communicate
Technology
 Low
technology: signing and gestural
systems (e.g. PIC, rebus, Blissymbolics)or
pictorial and traditional orthography
(spelling).
 High technology: communication aids have
printed and/or speech output (e.g., a word
processor or a voice output communication
aid such as an Alpha Talker)
 The specific configuration of the
communication system(s) and the
complexity of the vocabulary needs to be
custom designed for the individual child
Assessment Strategies
Community Agencies & Supports
Resources
Practicing Initial Sounds:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t80PKhWjlb
0&index=4&list=UUYcrKmI733iovBilWAhNz-Q
 Learning and Teaching Strategies:
http://www.sess.ie/categories/specific-speechand-language-disorders/receptive-languagedisorder/tips-learning-and-teac
 Ontario Association For Families and Children
with Communication Disorders
http://www.oafccd.com/
 Canadian Assocciation of Speech-Language
Pathologists and Audiologists
http://caslpa.ca/

References
Course Book: Special Education in Ontario Schools
 Learning and Teaching Strategies:
http://www.sess.ie/categories/specific-speech-andlanguage-disorders/receptive-languagedisorder/tips-learning-and-teac
 Communication Disorders Handbook
http://www.ed.gov.nl.ca/edu/k12/studentsupportser
vices/publications/communicationdisordershandboo
k.pdf
 Toronto Speech and Language
www.tpsls.on.ca/
 Silver Creek Preschool (Handout)
http://www.silvercreekpreschool.ca/


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