EASA Perspective - Flight Safety Foundation

Report
Functional Check Flight Symposium
Vancouver, 8 February 2011
FCF : EASA perspective
Didier Nicolle, EASA flight test pilot
AGENDA
Recent FCF accidents/incidents
: Safety recommendations to EASA
FCF/ flight testing draft regulations
EASA actions
TASK MDM.097
Safety Information Bulletin
Best practices
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AGENDA
Recent FCF accidents/incidents
: Safety recommendations to
EASA
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FCF Safety recommendations
Following recommendations are extracted from
already published investigation reports:
1 BEA-Accident Report Ref ISBN 978-2-11-099128-7
available at: Airbus A320 registered D-AXLA
2 AAIB-Serious Incident Report Ref AAIB Bulletin
EW/C2009/01/02 available at: Boeing 737 registered GEZJK
3 AAIB-Incident Report Ref AAIB Bulletin EW/C2009/11/03
available at Falcon 2000 registered CS-DFE
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FCF Safety recommendations
1 BEA-Accident Report Ref ISBN 978-2-11-099128-7
Short summary of the accident:
In the context of a transfer of an large aircraft , a non revenue
flight ended in a fatal accident, as result of a stalling. The
flight programme contained a check of the functioning of the
angle of attack protections. It was determined that the angle
of attack sensors were blocked and made impossible for the
protections to trigger. The crew did not take into account the
speeds mentioned in the flight card and did not abort the
check before the stall
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FCF Safety recommendations
1 BEA-Accident Report Ref ISBN 978-2-11-099128-7
BEA ( French AIB) recommends that:
EASA details in the EU-OPS the various types of non revenue flights
that an operator from a EU state is authorised to perform
EASA requires that non-revenue flights be described precisely in the
approved parts of the operational manual, this description specially
determining their preparation, programme and operational framework as
well as the qualifications and training of the crew
As a temporary measure, EASA requires that such flights be subject to an
authorisation, or a declaration by the operator, on a case-by-case basis
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FCF Safety recommendations
2 AAIB-Serious Incident Report
Ref AAIB Bulletin EW/C2009/01/02
Synopsis:
•
•
A flight control manual reversion check ( elevator power-off flight test) was
being conducted as part of a post-maintenance check flight. During the
check, the aircraft pitched rapidly nose-down, descending approximately
9,000Ft before control was recovered. A number of maintenance and
airworthiness check issues were identified and six safety recommendations
have been made.
The same captain, during another post-maintenance air test to check
asymmetrical flight control forces to another aircraft experienced a large
pitch-down and moderate roll to the right and was unsure how to proceed
with the AMM or CFDS ( operator own check schedule).
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FCF Safety recommendations
2 AAIB serious incident report
UK AIB recommends that:
Safety recommendation 2010-72: EASA review the regulations and
guidance in OPS1, Part M and Part 145 to ensure they adequately
addressed complex, multi-tier, sub- contract maintenance and
operational arrangements. The need for assessment of the overall
organisational structure, interfaces, procedures, roles, responsibilities
and qualifications/competency of key personnel across all sub-contract
levels within such arrangements should be highlighted.
EASA require AOC operators to have, and comply with, a detailed
procedure and a controlled test schedule and record of findings for
briefing, conducting and debriefing check flights that assess or
demonstrate the serviceability or airworthiness of an aircraft.
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FCF Safety recommendations
3 AAIB-Serious Incident Report
Report Ref AAIB Bulletin EW/C2009/11/03
Synopsis:
The aircraft had been undergoing a technical investigation to identify the
cause of a braking defect.
The crew conducted a series of seven
accelerate/stop runs along the main runway, at gradually increasing reject
speeds. At the commencement of the eighth run, the crew felt that a tyre
had deflated and brought the aircraft to a stop. They were informed by ATC
that there was a fire under the left wing; the crew and passengers then
abandoned the aircraft safely.
The fire was caused by damage to the brakes from excessive temperature,
this released hydraulic fluid under pressure, which then ignited.
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FCF Safety recommendations
3 AAIB serious incident report
UK AIB recommends that:
The operator introduce maintenance procedures which
document the tasks, roles and responsibilities of all
maintenance personnel when requesting and participating in
operational/functional check flights or flight crew operated
ground tests.
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FCF Safety recommendations
Summary of AIB recommendations
To determine what is a maintenance flight and
when it must be performed.
To adapt regulations accordingly
Part M
Part OPS
Part FCL?
To establish operational procedures and crew
competence
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AGENDA
FCF/ flight testing regulations
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Publications provide different
definitions for FCF
Operational Check Flight: flight where aircraft need to be
checked for proper operational functioning.
Maintenance check flight: continuing airworthiness task
Acceptance flight : defined in the Acceptance Flight test
schedule (AFTS). Its purpose is to perform a general
check of the aircraft systems
Test flight: flight performed after special maintenance
and/or repair work on an aeroplane and on special request
of the authority
Test flight in Part FCL: Skill test for a licence or rating issue.
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Multiple definitions of FCF
Cover a very large scope of flights
flights going from checks of radios to a check of general
behaviour of the aircraft
Boundary between FCF and flight
testing has to be well defined
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Flight test definition (PART 21):
Flights for the development phase of a new design
(aircraft, propulsion systems, parts and appliances)
Flights to demonstrate compliance to airworthiness codes
Flights intended to experiment new design concepts,
requiring unconventional manoeuvres or profiles for which
it could be possible to exit the already approved envelope
of the aircraft
Flight test training flights.
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
As Flight testing is a very specific activity and is a key issue
for aircraft development and certification, EASA decided to
initiate a regulatory task MDM.003.
To do so, EASA proposed flight testing requirements in the
relevant NPAs
EASA received via the CRD process, comments specially
related to flight test:
A flight testing review group including industry and Flight test
schools has been created to review the comments and to propose
modifications to regulations
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Part 21 (NPA 2008-20):
Definition of Categories of Flight Test : CAT1/2/3/4
Definition and Qualifications for Lead flight test engineer for all categories of flight tests:
Only for aircraft above 2000kg
Qualifications for pilots for flight tests cat 3 and cat 4 only for aircraft above 2000kg
Flight test operational manual
Part FCL (opinion04-2010)
Ratings for pilots for CAT 1 and CAT2 flight tests only for aircraft above 2000kg
Part OR ( CRD 2008-22)
Flight test training organisations
Operations requirements ( NPA 2009-02) : flight test operation not yet taken into account
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Part 21 definitions : categories of flight test
Category one (1)
Correspond broadly to opening and expending the flight envelope
Category two (2):
Correspond broadly to “engineering flight test” on new aircraft or on
aircraft modifications that do not significantly modify the aircraft
behaviour
Category Three (3)
Flights performed for the issuance of statement of conformity for a new-built
aircraft which do not require flying outside of the limitations of the type
certificate (TC) / aircraft flight manual (AFM)
Category Four (4)
Flights not classified as Category 1 or 2 on an aircraft of an already certified
type, in case of an embodiment of a not yet approved design change.
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Status of the flight test review group work:
Part FCL/ Part OR : Modifications accepted and
introduced in PARTs
Adoption by the Commission is pending.
Part 21: CRD and revised text in short final.
Results will be published very soon for reactions.
EASA opinion scheduled before Summer then adoption
by the Commission
Operations requirements: Work in process to
develop a concept
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
First Conclusion
Even if flight testing regulations are going well
above what could be requested for FCF, some ideas
could be kept in mind:
Crew member policy as defined in a manual such as FTOM
According to the category of test, the FTOM should describe the
organisation’s policy for the composition of the crew, and the
competency and currency of its flight crew members, including
procedures for appointing crew members for each specific flight
Cat 4 flight test and FCF could be seen as of comparable
technical complexity
Creation of a study group to elaborate proposals
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AGENDA
EASA actions
TASK MDM.097
Safety Information Bulletin
Guidance material
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FCF/EASA actions
Regulatory Task MDM.097
Following safety recommendations addressed to the Agency,
EASA reviewed the timing of the OPS and the Part M tasks and
decided that the new regulatory maintenance task should be
advanced
To do so, a regulatory group should be created.
Term of Reference of the group should be published very soon on
EASA website
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FCF/EASA actions
Task MDM.097 Maintenance group
Objective :
Determine when/ how a maintenance flight should be performed
Establish the corresponding operational requirements and crew
competence
Task issue
Results to be included in Part M or Part OPS and/or their
AMC/GM
Time scale
Start 2011/Q1
Proposed NPA 2011/Q4
CRD 2012/Q4
Decision/Opinion 2013/Q2
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FCF/EASA actions
EASA Safety Information Bulletin
Pending MDM. 087 results, EASA felt necessary to
elaborate a SIB in order to raise awareness of the
potential hazards of functional checks flights
That SIB will be published very soon.
Simultaneously, EASA has compiled best practices
concerning conduct of functional flights. They will be
initially provided to National authorities, operators,
maintenance organizations and aircraft manufacturers for
their consideration.
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FCF/ Conclusion
EASA is extremely concerned about
Functional check flight issue
EASA decided to react quickly in:
Publishing a Safety Information Bulletin and a
guidance material giving best practices to
conduct FCF
Creating a new rulemaking group:
in order to study maintenance and operational aspects
of the FCF and
to propose the appropriate regulatory changes.
Creation of that group and its TOR will be
published soon in the EASA web site
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FCF/ Conclusion
Questions ?
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Appendix
More details on draft part-21 text
FCF/ flight testing regulations
Part 21
Flight Test Operating Manual
DOA and POA holders
Definition of Categories of Flight Test
Category One: Determination or expansion of the envelope
Category Two: Development flying within existing envelope
Category Three: Production flights of new aircraft
Category Four: Development flights not Categories One or Two
Definition of lead flight test engineer
Competence and experience of flight test pilot and LFTE (>2000kg)
LFTEs training syllabi for Category One and Two flights
Experience requirements for Category Three and Four flights
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Part 21 definitions : flight test Category one
Initial flight(s) of a new type of aircraft or of an aircraft of which
flight and/or handling characteristics may have been significantly
modified;
Flights during which it can be envisaged to potentially encounter
flight characteristics significantly different from those already
known;
Flights to investigate novel or unusual aircraft design features or
techniques;
Flights to determine or expand the flight envelope;
Flights to determine the regulatory performances, flight
characteristics and handling qualities when flight envelope limits are
approached;
Flight test training for Category 1 flight tests
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Part 21 definitions : Category TWO
Flights not classified as Category 1 on an aircraft whose type is
not yet certified
Flights which are not classified Category 1 on an aircraft of an
already certified type, after embodiment of a not yet approved
modification and which:
require an assessment of the general behaviour of the
aircraft; or
require an assessment of basic crew procedures, when a new
or modified system is operating or is needed; or
are required to intentionally fly outside of the limitations of
the currently approved operational envelope, but within the
investigated flight envelope.
Flight test training for Category 2 flight tests.
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FCF/ flightDefinition of Categories
of Flight Test
testing regulations
Part FCL : Test pilots
To fly Category 1 and 2 flight tests, flight test rating 1/ 2 are
necessary.
Ratings are applied to CPL (min)/ IR
Cat 1 – ‘Experimental’ – AFTTO (TPS) ‘Long’ course
Cat 2 – ‘non envelope expansion/development’
- AFTTO (TPS) ‘Short’ course
Dedicated instructor flight test rating
Mandated training syllabi
Perf/HQ/Systems for separate FW/RW courses
Cat 1 Rating: 350hr ground/100hr flying
Cat 2 Rating: 150hr ground/50hr flying
Previous experience to count
Bridging courses for Cat 2 to Cat 1
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FCF/ flight testing regulations
Part 21 definition : Lead flight test engineer (LFTE)
a lead flight test engine flight crew member other than a pilot
assigned for duties in an aircraft for the purpose of conducting
flight tests or assisting the pilot in the operation of the aircraft
and its systems during flight test activities.
Remarks
It is up to the DOA/POA organisations to decide if a lead flight test
engineer is necessary for the flight or not
If DOA/POA considers that LFTE is necessary, then LFTE must follow a
training course as defined in the PART 21
Other flight test engineers may be on board and shall have an amount of
experience and training commensurate to the tasks assigned to them as
crew members, in accordance with the flight test operations manual.
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